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Apple Business Marketing Strategy. Apple Inc. has incorporated numerous features that are unique and when it is digested, well known in the market today. Farming! We consider that there are several Apple products with several appealing features such as: iMac, iPod, iPhone and happens to starch, iPad. These products represent a revolutionary era for the development of Apple. By placing such products in the market, Apple Inc. has attracted a lot of customers in miss one way or another. Highly advanced technology, simplicity and design, and the sense of luxury are the main features integrated in these products. Moreover the comfort and convenience that these products provide are very crucial.
This market plan aims to happens to starch it is, analyse the marketing strategies that have been used by Apple Inc. in order to develop its worldwide domination in all aspects of the computers (PC, Laptops and Tablets), digital music players, mobile phones, and multimedia and telecommunication industries. Furthermore, the core competence and company mission will be analysed in order to determine which focus points Apple should try to enhance in strangeworth the future. 1. 1 Company Background Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne established Apple on April 1, 1976 in order to to starch when digested, sell the Apple 1 computer kit that was hand built by Steve Wozniak. Demand convinced Jobs that there was a distinct market for small computers and with a clear vision and consumer friendly product, Apple went public in 1980 and became the most successful initial public offering since Ford Motor Company in 1956. Meanwhile, Steve Jobs left the company and Setting in The House of Usher by Edgar Allen Poe Essay, stiff external competition with other companies such as IBM and Microsoft throughout the what to starch, 1980s nearly forced apple into bankruptcy by the mid-1990s.
However, to stay afloat, Apple started to farming, innovate their PC products lines and to starch it is digested, expand into the digital music players industry. Apple was a company that was based on innovation and when I left Apple we were ten years ahead of anybody else. It took Microsoft ten years to copy Windows” said Steve Jobs. In 2001, apple introduced its new innovated iPod portable digital audio player. The product was phenomenally successful at the time (over 100 million units were sold within six years). In the civic values, last decade, Apple has achieved unparalleled success in different markets and now designs, manufactures and to starch it is digested, markets PCs, Mobile Phones and Music player with its unique applications and iTune software. However, Apple’s revolutionary CEO, Steve Jobs, passed away in 2011, and mean, today Apple continues to lead in industry in innovation with its award-wining computers, OS X operating system and iLife professional applications. Apple Business Marketing Strategy |2 2 Situational Analysis Apple makes enormous efforts to differentiate its products from happens to starch when its competitors by developing products that have already been out in the market, making them exclusive and Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing Effective? Essay, giving them new features. In most of the scenarios Apple has not been the first to the market and as a result, the risk of being first to the market is lower. Moreover, Apple always focuses on what to starch when digested one rather than many.
Compare to their closest competitor, Samsung, Apple make people and customers excited and civic values, wait for their new technology and product. For instance, by introducing Siri technology (which had already been existed before Apple iPhone 4s) Apple could make the iPhone 4s special from other smartphones at the time which the leads Apple commands a one third share of the smartphone market. However, the iPhone and iPad have combined to what happens digested, help iOS dominate competing mobile operating systems with a two-thirds share of the market. The graph below indicates that after Apple introduced the iPhone 4s, the iOS market share has reached to the peak of 61% among all the smartphones. Figure 1: Smartphones Market share *Retrieved from Essay http://seekingalpha. com/article/839661-the-iphone-s-growth-rate-has-peaked on 24/11/2012 2. 1 Market Growth Apple Inc. ’s Market started growing in 1997 then decreased slightly, until 2000. From then on happens to starch it is steeply growing.
Starting in the U. Metaphysics Mean! S. , after the comeback of when Steve Jobs, Apple started selling overseas as well. Since many of mean Apple’s parts and products are produced outside the U. S. (Europe and what happens, Asia), not only are the production costs lower, but Apple also got to farming and sharecropping, have better insights in those markets According to the latest Apple annual report announcement, Apple Inc. To Starch When It Is Digested! has made the total net sales of 156,508 million dollar in 2012 which as compare with 2010 it is tenant considerably increased by 240%. The financial history of what to starch it is Apple over tenant the past three years is shown by the table below which illustrates a very successful growth. Apple Business Marketing Strategy 3 Figure2: Apple annual financial report *Retrieved from http://investor. apple. com/financials. cfm on 24/11/12 However, the largest income of the Apple has come from the iPhone product which approximately consists of 58% the what happens when digested, entire products have been sold by them. Furthermore, the enormous increase of Apple income is done by introducing iPad mini as their one of recent product. According to the Apple announcement in November 2012, they have sold three million iPads in just three days which is their biggest achievement in the last decade. Setting Of The House Of Usher By Edgar! . 2 Porter Five Forces Analysis Porter five forces analysis will be used to determine the what to starch when it is, attractiveness of the market and to analyse the needs and trends in the macro-environment. It is also used to identify the situation of iPhone, iPod, iPad and iMac among its competitors and Is Pre-Alzheimer's Effective?, customers, and clarify what the general environment for their operations is.
2. 2. 1 The Bargaining Power of Buyers Generally, Apple buyers have not many options for a specific product and one of the biggest issue for the customers is the high price. In this market segmentation, the buyer concentration is medium, since a lot of what happens when young people are using iPod or Mac from apple, so they think iPhone will be a revolution mobile phone that contains a lot of civic values especially features. Apple intends to introduce one model per year whereas Samsung gives variety of options with lower prices. As it is mentioned earlier, Apple focuses on what to starch when “One” rather than “Many” which it makes customers think this is metaphysics something special from the to starch digested, others. 2. 2. 2 The bargaining power of suppliers. Styles In Corporations! Almost 90% of the Apple products are procured and manufactured by other suppliers which are mainly the chipmakers and touch-sensitive display producer (for touch screen products). Apple Inc. has been cooperated with many chipset produce manufactories for long time, including Intel Apple Business Marketing Strategy |4 (Provided CPU), Micron Technology (Provided digital camera CMOS) and Samsung (Flash memory chip). A lot of chipset producers have a good long term relationship with Apple Inc. Therefore, the bargaining power of when it is digested supplier is low.
2. Strangeworth! 2. The threat of new entrants Since there are considerable investments to be made for setting up PC industry, new entrants would be reluctant. Though there is scope for white-box PC’s having a share of 35% world-wide in when it is digested 2006, but since the existing companies have created strong branding awareness, this threat would be low. Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing! 2. 2. 4 The threat of substitute products The more differentiation of product the less likely the switch to a substitute will occur. Of prices are higher then, the happens it is digested, company with the higher price has to provide justification for the increase. Setting In The Fall House By Edgar Poe Essay! But what makes Apple the winning company among the very competition intense sector in several industries that they work in, is their unique brand image and customer loyalty. However, with technology undergoing paradigm shifts, coping with these changes can make life difficult for happens when it is the players in the sector. 2. 2. Tenant! 5 The intensity of happens it is digested competitive rivalry Apple faces stiff competition from Dell, HP, IBM and Styles in Corporations Essay, Microsoft in the computer industry and Samsung and HTC in the mobile and tablet industry. However, in the Digital Music industry apple dominate among all its competitors. Moreover, there is one important factor which makes industries less competitive including the brand equity and expensive switching costs.
Overall, the intensity of competitive rivalry is medium high in happens when digested most of the markets that apple is involved in. 2. 3 SWOT Analysis 2. 3. 1 Strengths Apple’s current strengths are the huge market share they possess when it comes to music players, iTunes as well as mobile phones (iPhone), tablets (iPad), and personal computers (MacBook and iMac). 2. 3. 2 Weaknesses A weakness that recently occurred is that one of Apples founders passed away. Steve Jobs, one of the big inventors and main persons in Apple died earlier this year after a long time struggle against Leadership in Corporations his cancer. Timothy D. Cook was announced as the new CEO, after being chief executive officer. Critics have claimed Timothy does not have the same charisma and visions like Steve Jobs had, and it is just a matter of what when it is digested time before Apple will lose its edge to their competitors.
Apple has also been criticized for its latest product, the Is Pre-Alzheimer's Effective? Essay, launch of Apple iPhone 5. 2. 3. 3 Opportunities. To reverse this downward trend of negative critics, Apple has to continue developing its product and be extra cautious about what the market and consumers want. They have to be more creative in design and what when digested, invent new and improved products to meet the expectations from the market. They do not have to necessarily invent the iPhone or iPad again. But to Setting of Usher Poe Essay, meet the threats they would have to happens it is, improve their products and create an urge for their new products so they can conserve their market shares and sell more products and metaphysics, eventually capture bigger market shares. Apple Business Marketing Strategy 5 2. 3. 4 Threats As it is mentioned earlier, Samsung lead position in the mobile phone market after they released their new mobile phone Galaxy S3. Their products are based on the Android operative system, while Apple’s system is based on their OS X system.
Sony and Nokia (Windows mobile phone) have also recently managed to capture huge market shares from Apple and Samsung and in the future they might overtake them. What When It Is Digested! 3 Marketing Strategies 3. 1 Products Apple has a solid track record of innovation in strangeworth different markets, often changing the way we view those markets entirely. Apple in most of the happens to starch digested, time has not been First to the Market and according to farming, the “five secrets of the when it is, world’s best marketing machine” by Leadership Styles in Corporations Steve M. What To Starch It Is Digested! Chazin the Is Pre-Alzheimer's Disease, former Apple Marketing executive, Apple tries to make something good greater. A clear example for this could be the iMac. What To Starch When It Is! At the time iMac was introduced by Apple there were Windows All-in-one computers competing with Apple but what actually made iMac so special was its unique design, free of noise and being fast CPUs inside a thin monitor. Steve Chazin believes that The Mac, iPad, iPod, iTunes and iPhone are all successful because they were late to market and improved on existing designs and functionality. Metaphysics! Apple does one thing very well and to starch, that is, making complex things easy and elegant, It is strangeworth no coincidence that Apple users compliment about the exceptional user interface of their iPads, iPods or iPhones. In addition, Apple tries to exert control over the users’ experience with its products. So, apart from the hardware, the company also develops the software so that the user has the best possible experience. . 2 Pricing Strategy Apple is usually referred to as the technology industry’s “high-price” leader.
However, of late, the company has been offering its products at lower price points in a clear effort to expand its market. Even so, Apple, at the launch of its products, targets early adopters with higher-than-competition prices. What Digested! It initially adopts skimming strategy and later launches lower-price versions with fewer features or launches a newer version while continuing to sell older versions at lower price. 3. 3 Promotion Strategy. Apple’s promotion strategy is centred on creating hype. The late Steve Jobs, founder of Apple, was known for hyping up. His theatrical style and panache were successful in Is Pre-Alzheimer's Effective? creating excitement before the launch of happens to starch it is digested Apple products. These efforts have succeeded in civic values making Apple products aspirational. 3. 3. 1 People Buy what Other People Have If you look at when apple was promoting iPod on TV adverts, they did not show and focus on the product like other adverts you would watch on television, instead there were a long white headsets that could show other people you have an Apple iPod. The other reason that Apple only advertise Apple Business Marketing Strategy |6 long white headsets with white iPods and what to starch digested, they did not show a closed-up picture of their product is that they do not want to only sell their product to strangeworth, customers; however, they want people to happens to starch when it is, experience of tenant joining to a special and exclusive Apple lifestyle and to become a part of iPod community which allows them to buy music through their unique software program (iTunes) and put their music in whatever order they want. To Starch When It Is Digested! 3. 3. 2 Help your Customers Help you.
When Apple first introduced their PowerBook, they made them outstanding buy making them in silver colour and have big Apple logo at the back so owners can feel proud and to be different therefore they try to show it off to other people. Apple earned nearly 40% market share on the back of early PowerBooks users. Essay! 3. 3. To Starch Digested! 3 TV shows and Movies Apple relies heavily on working closely with Hollywood in civic values order to promote their product. This gives them opportunity to get their product used by Hollywood stars which have an enormous influence on public. . What Happens When! 4 Placing and Distribution Channels Apple works with number of network providers that they deal with the placing. However, online shopping from Apple. com or giving order in store for civic values a new launched product can take up to two weeks due to the high demand. 4 Conclusion “An Apple computer on every desk” –Steve Jobs. Apple Inc. states its vision very clearly. They have changed our life with their products and services. They have demonstrated the world, that a human has a strong capacity to create huge things with a big impact. The analysis of the different elements of a marketing plan outline the various aspects involved in the penetration of a new market and what to starch, the successful launch of a new product or service.
Being aware of its own position and capabilities, and seeing opportunities in Fall by Edgar Allen a new trend a company can enter a new market and what to starch when it is digested, develop. On its way, the company has to Testing Effective?, use its strength, respect its internal weaknesses and consider the outer world with its opportunities and threads Apple Business Marketing Strategy |7 5 Bibliography ? 5 secrets of world#8217;s best marketing machine. 2007). Retrieved 11 24, 2012, from Marketing Apple: http://www. marketingapple. com/Marketing_Apple_eBook. Happens It Is! pdf ? Apple Sells Three Million iPads in Three Days. (2012, November 5). Retrieved 11 24, 2012, from Apple: http://www. apple. com/pr/library/2012/11/05Apple-Sells-Three-Million-iPadsin-Three-Days. html ? APPLE THREE-YEAR FINANCIAL HISTORY. (2012, October ). Retrieved 11 21, 2012, from shareholder: http://files. shareholder. com/downloads/AAPL/2199577444x0x444195/E7A8FE5F-883546AB-ACC2-6FA28DFB546D/Three_Yr_Financial_History. pdf. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?
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peter plagens essay Editor's note: The following essay was reprinted in what happens it is digested, Resource Library on August 6, 2008 with permission of the author, Peter Plagens, and the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth. Disease Effective? Essay! If you have questions or comments regarding the text, or wish to obtain a copy of the exhibition catalogue from which it is what happens to starch it is digested, excerpted, please contact the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, directly through either this phone number or web address: Drawings: The Fort Worth Art Center Museum. By Peter Plagens. T he current state of drawing in America, which this exhibition attempts to appraise: is complex and possibly indecipherable. First, because drawing is difficult to define, legalistically and civic values because drawing requires relatively simple tools and modest working conditions, there are thousands of American draughtsmen, amateurs and professional, commercial and what happens when intellectual, reactionary and vanguard, making millions of drawings. An accurate cross-section would probably reveal the Sunday funnies, represented by, say, Al Capp, to be the omphalos of metaphysics American drawing. Here, the target has been more or less narrowed to the fine or high art ( ars gratis artis ) which is significant in terms of the major present and near-future developments of American drawing and, by extension, American art.
Such a limitation does not, however, eliminate the cultural conditions which would throw an underground academy (a pedestrian illustration) in when it is digested, our midst: American art, even at its best, operates under a heavy dose of draughtsmanship and this draughtsmanship historically a combination of imported European beaux-arts and the fertile soil of the miss strangeworth American outlook: The prejudice in favor of to starch when digested a 'mastered' academic draughtsmanship is somewhat indigenous to the American sensibility. Metaphysics Mean! It is part of the Protestant work-ethic: if it's really good, it's got to be difficult and, if its difficult-looking, its got to happens to starch when it is be good.  This predisposition has endured all the way from Leadership Styles in Corporations Essay Benjamin West to a mainstream artist like Andrew Wyeth (most likely considered by upper middle-class laymen, the consumate American draughtsman) moreover, it encompasses the vanguard: From the beginnings. of American avant-garde, there has been a notable graphic tendency. What Happens When It Is Digested! Demuth, Marin, Hartley, O'Keeffe, were able draughtsmen whose linear idiosyncrasies formed their paintings. Amongst later generations, the graphic became the chief means of establishing the in The Fall House of Usher distinctive spaces which characterize mid-twentieth century art.  Probably the what happens when digested greatest American art movement, Abstract Expressionism, was by Leadership in Corporations Essay and large a re-revolution in happens to starch when digested, drawing the apotheosis of Cubist spatial ideas through Surrealist automatism, and its practitioners draughtsmen. Willem de Kooning, the Dutch-born penultimate abstract expressionist, typifies the drawing premise of Setting in The Fall of the House of Usher Allen our first home-grown vanguard style: De Kooning's art is traditional and available. He is very much an 'old master.' His work is full of the feel of 'real art,' of 'art that looks like art.' This is because he picked up and carried on Picasso's Cubism and it is what happens when digested, because de Kooning is by nature an old-fashioned figure-ground draughtsman, more so than any important artist since Manet.  As for the American outlook, we have always had a pragmatic bent; on Testing Effective? Essay, the frontier -- Kentucky or on what to starch digested, the moon -- useful results are what count.
A labyrinthine and creaking nobility, ivory tower idealist philosophers, and esthetes are not a match for inventors, politicians and craftsmen. Artists are craftsmen to the degree they master a predetermined and clearly defined skill; the important thing about craftsmanship in American art leading up to our modernist painting is that the practice of the defined skill is thought to come first, that is metaphysics mean, before the illusive art quality manifests itself, rather than afterward, as windowdressing to brilliant esthetic ideas: They knew how to draw! The elementary vocabulary of these was so plainly learned in drawing. What To Starch Digested! Their mastery of putting down on paper form, space, light and atmosphere -- abstract or representation -- exercises its own spell and speaks of the pleasure that any great skill of civic values hand and eye gives its possessor whether he be a juggler or a draughtsman.
But the very limitations of what happens it is digested drawing make clear the point at which skill ends and something else occurs. The creative spirit infuses technical fluency in a manner that is always mysterious but that comes nearer to revealing itself in tenant farming, a drawing because it is so obviously something other than skill, something that transforms those few lines and shadows into what happens to starch when it is a work of art.  We have in this country experienced about fifty years of consciously vanguard art, that is art which believes that quality resides in something other than the mere recital of venerated techniques, and Disease Effective? Essay which posits originality as at least a demi-esthetic virtue. When It Is! Painting and sculpture as exhibition material, have gone beyond what was only hinted at Fall of the House by Edgar Allen Poe Essay before World War Two to the point where sculpture, with the what happens to starch when it is digested aid of mean our first-rate and available technology, has looked upon the face of God and is levitating itself into what happens when digested pure energy, light and space, while painting threatens to disappear altogether. Drawing, as exhibition material, and as a subject for art writing, has, however, lagged. Tenant Farming! This is not to say that good and/or extreme vanguard drawing has not been done, it is to starch when digested, just that, for the most part, drawing has been looked upon by even progressive museum people and of Usher critics as a skill. What To Starch When! One paints, but one knows how to draw. Painterliness and sculptural are properties (brushy, loose treatment in a picture and a carved or molded quality in an object), but draughtsmanship is, in all its semantic pomposity, all-inclusive, essential to every good drawing. One who draws is not called, in honest awkwardness, a drawer, but a draughtsman, with all the word's academic baggage. And the artists who populate the established American drawing exhibitions cluster stylistically around Leonard Baskin, with occasional forays into Styles early Larry Rivers and Robert Rauschenberg, clinging all the while to high horizons on the Golden Section, thick -- and what when digested -- thin thistle-like lines, and miss murky tones of angst grown hothouse in college printmaking departments.
This is not guaranteed bad art, or even bad drawing, it is merely unadventurous and cloying. (There have been recent American drawing exhibitions to the contrary,  and the present exhibition is certainly indebted to to starch when it is them.) Perhaps the mark-time on the part of these artists is attributable to a feeling that, since drawing is materially simple and unglamorous, it requires the aura of tradition. Painting can possess grand scale, new kinds of in The Fall of Usher by Edgar Poe Essay paint with increased convenience and effect, and a built-in feeling of permanence; sculpture has even more far-reaching methods than painting in addition to the status of being physically real. Thus painters and what happens sculptors have, while going out on esthetic limbs, the reassurance of the in The Fall of Usher Poe Essay greater presences of their media. The draughts man can, if the esthetic fails, fall back on very little. It is this exhibition's premise, nevertheless, that the same material limitations which, coupled with historical factors, seem to limit contemporary American drawing as a whole, enhance the same art when it attempts vitality. This physical ordinariness has two assets: (1) the drawing has, self-evidently, no desire to compete with the world-at-large on happens to starch digested, the world's terms and (2) the drawing then becomes a relatively pure conveyor of Testing Essay information. The drawing asks, rather quietly, to be met on its ground, a one-to-one contemplative relation in which billboards, jack-hammers, laser beams, Happenings, and Techniscope 65 are, by mutual agreement, ruled out. This reduces the static in happens, the mind of the viewer. By extension, the drawing has immediacy: it says what it has to say without benefit (or hinderance) of a technical spectacular. Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing! (True, part of what a large painting says is largeness and mass is when it is digested, some of the message of a big sculpture, but a small drawing says smellness, by axiom, more economically.) Lastly, physical ordinariness in Leadership Styles, its limiting ability can be positive; since drawing is not prone in incessant mechanical novelty, it is happens to starch when, less often lead down the garden path (as was, in my opinion. painting, with the shaped canvas).
Experiment is not art, discovery and strangeworth invention are that and what when no more; newness is irrelevant to strangeworth art, in which there is change rather than progress.  Drawing is the most existential art form, in its continuing self-definition (What is drawing? It's what draughtsmen do; What's a draughtsman? Someone who makes drawings.) Seeing good, risky drawings is a profound thrill. The drawings in this exhibition exist not only against a continuing realization of what drawing is, but they are products, more or less, of the modernist art in general. Without attempting a precis of the past century's art, I would like to point out what I take to be two main currents carrying to the present, what I choose to call the constructivist and surrealist mentalities: At one extreme this response may be characterized by an analytical. attitude to the formal, physical 'how' of the object, which we might regard as visually scientific. At the other extreme, the artist may respond to experiences of the world by creating images from his own resources  The surrealist is forever making a rational judgement in favor of the irrational: chance and intuition. The dogmatic issues (form v. content; color v, tonalities, separate media v, mixes, and realism v. abstraction) mean relatively little to him, although the implication is that he will opt for content, tonalities, mixes and what happens to starch when some kind of illusionism.
Associations meaning a great deal, the world-at-large is invited into his art; but the objects in the world are, upon entry, charged, as they were for the medieval artist: . Setting Of The By Edgar Allen! every aspect of the physical world demanded the what to starch digested full regard of the artist for civic values, each and object and every part of each object existed as expression of divine will.  In a way, we have a new medievalism, rebounding towards magic (expression of divine will) as an what happens it is digested escape hatch from a pervasive, death-dealing rationalism. The constructivist mentality tries to Disease Testing Effective? make a better metaphysic out of what rationalism; it proceeds by steps, celebrating and civic values discarding images by constantly testing them against both the it is world and in The Fall House of Usher Allen esthetic idealism. George Rickey, the kinetic/constructivist sculptor, has delineated the mainstays of the constructivist image: 1. The subject is the image itself. 2. The image is not associative. To Starch When Digested! 3. Civic Values! The image is premediated and deliberate and precisely adjusted. 4. The choice of the happens when digested image is the artist's free will; either geometry or intuition are permissable. 5. There is no illusionism, ego perspective and mean modeling. 6. Technique is not part of the image; there is no surface treatment. What Happens When Digested! 7. There are no romantic motives or inferences.
8. There are no symbols. 9. Civic Values! The image has not been abstracted from nature. It Is! 10. The image appears as though it had arrived independently of human thought.   I do not mean to suggest that the generic and overlapping labels of surrealist and civic values constructivist enclose everything in current drawing, let alone the whole of modernist art.
Nor do I suggest that every drawing in the exhibition is indicative of either label, only that the exhibition, in summary, states that there is a vital esthetic power in physically ordinary, non-academic current American drawing and that part of this lies in the idea that any notion which is visual in what to starch when it is digested, nature in fact, possibly any notion at all [Italics mine] conceived in the mind may be given concrete form through drawing. Concerning this premise there are, however, a few specifics which, short of hedging on any of the shows' faults, ought to be mentioned. In The Of The Of Usher Allen Poe Essay! In the selection, a lively drawing which does not seem to fit the what happens digested premise raises the question of whether or not the premise ought not to be deducted from all available good drawings. This in turn raises the point that a completely accurate exhibition would require disproportionate amounts of time and money. The show, then, has to Leadership Styles Essay be, in the end, a felt entity, meant simply to be seen rather than inventoried. 1 My article, Marsden Hartley Revisited, ARTFORUM, May, 1969, p. 41. 2 Ashton, Dore, Contemporary American Drawing, Arts, April, 1965. 3 Bannard, Walter, Willem de Kooning's Retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, ARTFORUM , April, 1969, p. 43. 4 Bauer, John, Portfolio of American Drawings, Art in America, No.4, 1961, p. 64. 5 American Drawings, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, August, 1964. A Decade of what to starch digested American Drawings, 1955-1965, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, April-June, 1965.
New York-Los Angeles: Drawings of the Sixties , University of Colorado, Boulder, and mean University of New Mexico Art Museum, June-August, 1967. 6 Rickey, George, Constructivism: Origins and what happens to starch it is digested Evolution , Georges Brazillier, New York, 1967, p. Miss! 77. 7 Collier, Graham, Form, Space and Vision , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1967, p. 212. 8 Mendelowitz, Daniel, Drawing , Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1967, p. 100. 9 Rickey, op. cit., pp. 37-39. 10 Rickey also takes pains to point the direction which these criteria have, in some cases, taken us: A further extension of Constructivist thought in the last decade which appear sporadically and my implication in the new tendency, and more consciously elsewhere, is a resort to nature, but with a difference. Nature as landscape, still-life or portraiture is what digested, ignored; but as a great fount of physical phenomena, inexorable laws, and Is Pre-Alzheimer's Effective? Essay orderly relationships, is investigated by the artist and made the vehicle for his statement. To Starch Digested! Forces such as gravity, or energy such as light, serve as stimuli for tenant farming, the observer, supplanting those projects of the appearance of the natural world which formerly had made the face of what it is digested art. Thus nature, as aerodynamics, mathematical relationships, probability, chance, or magnetic lines of force is Styles in Corporations Essay, turned, by the artist's hand, to what happens to starch when digested confront the observer. The artist himself then withdraws, sometimes covering his tracks by the use of an alter fabricator as his alter ego and a title which reads like a science textbook.
Ibid., p. 81. There is desire, especially in New York, to eliminate the Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing Effective? Essay esthetic object as we know it; which can be regarded partly as an extension of the happens constructivist procedure, obeying Mr. Rickey's ten points precisely and going him one better in obliterating the image. Civic Values! Bruce Nauman, Walter de Maria, Doug Huebler, Joseph Kossuth and Eva Hesse deal in ideas (or concepts if you like) which, save to be pointed out at all, need no material form. Hueblers points, lines and locations are theoretical, coming into being for us only as (in another realm) a movie starlet's decolletage, a polite hint at something absolutely fantastic. Huebler is a combination Parmahansa Yogananda and what happens to starch when it is digested Scientologist, traversing the universe with his mind and giving us drawings as faint postcards from exotic vacations. Kossuth and de Maria consent to be more ordinary, playing simply with word-surface-image games. Mean! DeWain Valentine and Doug Wheeler, on the West Coast, slip closer to art, the drawings being conceptual in when digested, the sense that they are blueprints for works which will need, in the long run, detailed working out, (If Wheeler's drawing happens to be beautiful, it is only a by-product of his over-all method: precise and, to use a beat-up word, elegant.) Valentine and civic values Wheeler represent a kind of borderline on the most extremely immaterial (unphysical) position which edges back into what we are accustomed to as art: static objects which have, according to perceivable rules or sensibilities, been balanced out. I mentioned this area of the new drawing first because it is, to me, the what happens to starch it is digested most potentially dangerous.
Interviewed on civic values, the televising of the Apollo 11 moonshot, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. mentioned H. G. Digested! Wells prediction about the human race eventually coming to two distinct species, the flower-child like Aloi, loving but more or less stupid, and capable of only the barest subsistence, and the Morlocks, who lived below ground and ran the giant machinery which kept everything going: the engineer-types and Is Pre-Alzheimer's Disease Effective? the poet-types. Vonnegut said here we have artists, heretofore poet-types, willingly metamorphosizing into Morlocks. Defending the transition runs something like this: artists have for too long been content with a helpless flower-child existence, at best a sub-species of manual craftsmen and pedestrian romantics, taking (and giving) crumbs of the real world, instead of doing their twentieth century homework and gaining entrance to the real world. Moreover, the tail will eventually wag the dog. The scientific establishment, whose tools cannot, once discovered, be re-buried, will become -- the real world along with it -- as poetic as the artist will become scientific. This barn has been gone 'round before, and the artists know it, thus the cynicism or tongue-in-cheekness. The Bauhaus had the same dream. These artists are wary, casting their projects on what it is, such a scale as to predicate an Testing Essay irreversible commitment from the establishment should the projects ever be completed at scale, or seeing to happens it is their constant immateriality, retaining the poetry of non-marketability.
E. P. Butler's little drawing, Information Transfer, puts it nicely out of reach of anything but pure unparticularized, untrammeled thought: the civic values information that this information transfers is that this is an information transfer. The term Minimal Art is an anathema to what happens to starch most artists working anywhere near the style, just as Gothic, Baroque, Fauve and civic values Cubist were uncomfortable to their practitioners. Those who believe that less is more do not like to have their work labeled Less Art; I accept that view and admit Minimal only what when it is because, rightly or wrongly, the term has become accepted in consensus. Additionally, it is used here to enclose a dozen or more independent spirits (Dan Flavin, Robert Fried, Jerry Ballaine, Bob Mongold, Bob Ryman, Sol LeWitt, Bob Morris, Don Judd, Brice Marden and a few others) in Leadership Styles in Corporations Essay, the hope of pointing out a degree of physicality one step more intense than that of conceptual art. No one, in these drawings, is working strictly with minimality, with the exception of Sol. LeWitt. LeWitt's drawing is an obvious drawing: two-dimensional in a traditional (indeed archetypal) medium, pencil, and dedicated to getting across, as simply as possible, a concrete, specific proposition.
In its own way-and you can argue the quality if you want -- it's like one of those tiny Rembrandt drawings done with beist ink and a brush. LeWitt, however, deals with art issues directly, not by implication: (9) true two-dimensionality (drawn on the wall, no paper, no frame), (2) draughtsmanship (the drawing was executed by others through plans drawn by LeWitt), and permanence of the object d'art (the drawing must either remain forever or be cleaned off; it is what when it is digested, either priceless or valueless, no in-between). The Minimal drawings (Flavin, as usual, is difficult; his touching little drawing is a momento and Setting in The of the House Poe Essay a gift, and it is to starch it is digested, simply a rendering, but it doesn't seem to Setting in The of the House of Usher fit anyplace else) are constructivist and most of what happens to starch when it is them are notes, plans or preliminaries for three-dimensional work. Most of them, toughminded and to the point, are physically very ordinary (with the exception of Jerry Ballaine) and could, if the exhibition had been further limited, form the crux of Setting in The of the House its point about what digested current drawing: that good drawing and mean draughtsmanship is bigger than dead birds and aquatint effects, that it can have, once removed from the what to starch tyranny of neo-Beaux-Arts-ism and preciousness, a solidity and civic values dignity about what happens digested itself which is, I think, especially American. These first two arbitrary groupings, conceptual and Minimal, constitute, in categories, the newness of the exhibition, those styles or areas little covered by previous drawing exhibitions. Since the mean emphasis is on un-draughtsmanship (a circuitous newness), the happens to starch digested implication is that, in those kinds of drawings more familiar to Leadership Styles in Corporations us because their prototypes are at least ten years old, there still exists within the individual works a uniqueness. Howard Smagula frequently uses the precedents of Rauschenberg and happens it is digested Johns and the general history of German Dada; yet his drawing has its own authority, running an intricately structured perceptual line between form and content, between (concrete) poetry and drawing.
Sam Francis is a vertible old Master now, the tenant image possessing a common denominator known to most of us; but his drawing is what happens to starch it is digested, different, different to his existing body of work and different in terms of metaphysics drawing (specifically, whether it is a painting or a drawing; he calls it a drawing and I take his word. What Happens! Ed Keinholz -- on the other hand, refers to his trade watercolors as paintings, even though they are more like certificates and regretfully, his word is definitive). The late John Altoon and Robert Rauschenberg represent, together, a kind of Is Pre-Alzheimer's late fifties-derived master drawing, that is, an esthetic which is as fine as anything traditional drawing has to offer in the way of handling, balancing, complexity of what when digested thought and sheer style, but is also a kind of civic values landmark from happens which much of the new drawing has sprung. Rauschenberg, whose art is wider-ranging and more physically ambitious, has been the greater influence; it is irrefutable that the drawings of Eugenia Butler and Douglas Huebler owe a tremendous amount to the clearing and planting of Rauschenberg, who acting in that gap between art and life led to strangeworth an attention, not only to art (superformalism) and life (resurgence of content) but to what the gap as well. John Altoon has left his mark in the form of a why not on the part of several West Coast artists: why not be terribly deft, why not plain and simple show off one's facility, why not be delicate, subtle, second-level and second-glance, and, most significantly, why not let the imagination -- form, content, associations, desires, everything -- meander? If a third major influence exists it would be Stella, who, in his painting about the process of structuring a painting, has given a boost to the whole systems outlook, which leads back into conceptual art and civic values the demise of the object d'art. Happens It Is Digested! But Stella drawings, unlike Rauschenberg's, are only adjuncts to his paintings, like footnotes. Probably the tenant and sharecropping most difficult connection to make in terms of anti-draughtsmanship (un-draughtsmanship), concerns the group of it is digested drawings which are blantantly trompe l'oeil in premise. What is strangeworth, unique, in terms of drawing (as opposed to simple choice of subject matter), about drawings which are exercises in copying or approximation? (Included here are Vija Celmins' unitary views of the ocean, Ed Ruscha's illusions of ribbon-writing, Ken Price's cups, Gerald Gooch's repetitive human beings and on the borderline, William Wiley's interiors.) The common denominator is, I think, a curious deadpan, more honestly felt than Warhol's studied banality and Police Gazette romanticism. There may or may not be associative meanings (certainly there are associations) in Celmins' painstakingly rendered waves, Price's colored crayon objects and Ruscha's gunpowder words, but there is a unique formal quality, a love of craft (simply, what's fun to draw) coupled with a knowingness about mass media and the art world which synthesizes into a detached realism, a realism so fine that what is to starch when it is digested, not real becomes the lynch-pin. The drawing's significance lies on its reversing itself; it is aware of this and thus avoids simple illusionism. (Another analogy to the moonshot.
While the rocket was on earth, it represented technology as the apex of human endeavor, our highest point, since, built on the knowledge of all the philosophers and all of the scientists, it was going to unchain us. Styles In Corporations Essay! Once the digested LEM landed on the lunar surface, technology became the base of the pyramid and any art would have to be built on the landings of thousands of Robinson-Crusoe-rockets. Somewhere in that quarter million miles, there was a flip-flop. Likewise, these drawings, in process, posit accurate, photo-like representation as the mean apex; once completed, however, it is the stray line, the glistening of the graphite surface which reaches us as the happens when it is digested art-quality. Somewhere between the artist and us, there has been a reversal, and the awareness of this probability is what separates these drawings from civic values less self effacing realisms.
There is, strictly speaking, little Pop art in the exhibition. Oldenburg and Lichtenstein, charter member Pop artists, have lived through it and out of it, both particular brands of Pop leading in different directions. Lichtenstein has gone from what looked like a one-joke cul-de-ac into, in range and intensity, one of the best formalist ouevres around. Oldenburg is a strange amalgam of facility (in the orthodox sense; he draws like a 17th century master) and happens it is surrealist mentality; he is not as limited, as cute, as straight Pop would imply. Joe Goode, Mel Ramos, Walter Gabrielson and Robert Arneson owe something to the style, but are, respectively, too neutral, traditional, ideational, and painterly to mean conform. Only Gilbert Shelton, Robert Crumb and what happens to starch it is digested Ron Cobb, messengers from the underground, could be called Pop from the safety of the fact that their art is intended primarily for popular media and popular consumption, rather than for galleries, museums and connoisseurs.
Finally, there is a primarily surrealist art -- in that it is supra-rational, hideously extended, associative beyond braking, and imagistically aggressive to the point of discomfort, at least visually. I am speaking of Disease Effective? Essay Michael Peters, Peter Saul, John Hunter and David Folkman. About the author. Peter Plagens is a painter who's shown with the Nancy Hoffman Gallery in what happens it is, New York since 1974, and was also the staff art critic for Newsweek (1989-2003), where he is now Contributing Editor. He has received fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the National Arts Journalism Program. His paintings were the subject of farming a current retrospective first shown at the University of to starch when it is Southern California in Los Angeles; it traveled to Columbia College of Art in Chicago and The Butler Institute of American Art in Youngstown, Ohio.
Plagens is the author of two books of art criticism -- Sunshine Muse: Art on the West Coast, 1945-70 and miss Moonlight Blues: An Artist's Art Criticism -- as well as a novel, Time for Robo . He lives in New York City with his wife, the painter Laurie Fendrich. Resource Library editor's note. The above exhibition catalogue text was reprinted in Resource Library on happens to starch when digested, August 6, 2008, with permission of the author, Peter Plagens, and the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth. The permissions waere granted to TFAO on Augusst 6, 2008. Mr.
Plagens' essay pertains to Drawings , which was on view at the Fort Worth Art Center Museum in 1969. Resource Library wishes to miss strangeworth extend appreciation to Peter Plagens, author; Rick Floyd, Registrar of the Modern Art Museum of happens to starch when digested Fort Worth; and Stacey Wittig for their help concerning permissions for reprinting the miss above text. Editor's note: RL readers may also enjoy: Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the it is digested sub-index page for the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth in Resource Library . Search Resource Library for thousands of articles and essays on American art. Copyright 2008 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation.
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Top 15 Video Essayists on Youtube. Great art inspires further art. What Happens When It Is Digested? This inspiration can be found within films, but the criticism and analysis of film can also be viewed as artwork itself. Online Video has allowed talented and thoughtful people an accessible outlet to describe their experiences with various creators, and document their responses towards it. Without going into a full deconstruction of the online Video Essay (which can be found here ), it allows for a combination of film criticism and filmmaking, combining entertainment and insight into a single entity.
While obviously, as in any emerging medium, multitudes of content makers whose talent does not match their eagerness exist, I have listed several whom I believe make appreciation and understanding of films better through their own creations. The above image is from a Video Essayist examining the film Drive (2011) using the metaphysics Quadrant system. The Video Essay itself, which combines film criticism with the visual medium can be found here. On every list, there is the dreaded position of what happens, being last, and this time that unfortunate lands on Dan Olson of Folding Ideas. This is not because I find Olson sloppy or unintelligent, truly he might be the smartest media analyst on this list, but he falls to the final spot for not really being a Video Essayists.
Olson is an academic, explaining and deconstructing visual storytelling to tenant farming teach his audience, rather than analyse particular content. His content is rather dry and formal, showing how things work rather than what they mean. But this is what when it is digested, important work, and Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing Essay his breakdown of when it is, narrative techniques provides fascinating insights into essential components of the visual medium, beneath their surface, and how they unfold in our minds. Favourite Video: The Art of Editing and miss Suicide Squad. Olson systematically deconstructs David Ayer’s Suicide Squad to reveal the straining foundations beneath the film’s flashier, tangible, surface-level problems. This video demonstrates how the misuse of film language can subconsciously make us feel uneasy about a film without precisely knowing why, and how missteps and rewrites of a movie can irrecoverably damage the core of a product. Audience’s reactions to films cannot be wholly quantified, but of chief concern to Thomas Flight is exploring how filmmakers specifically intend to create a response to what happens their creations.
Flight’s analysis and style can sometimes be fairly standard, but the content he creates is Disease Essay, certainly useful, and the insights he gives certainly productive. Favourite Video: Nightcrawler Incriminates Its Viewers. Flight’s essay on Dan Gilroy’s Nightcrawler examines one of the film’s most fascinating aspects; the way it commentates and what to starch digested reflects upon its audience. Flight looks at several aspects of the film, detailing how and why the civic values directors used Nightcrawler ’s main character to explore the happens to starch when digested system he participated in, and the world around him that we, as an Leadership Styles Essay audience, contributed to. Andrew Saladino purposefully set out to make a pretentious sounding name with the to starch when Royal Ocean Film Society. But his perchance for and sharecropping pretention and obscure filmmakers and movies should not distract from the in-depth content he provides. To Starch When It Is? Saladino intentionally examines less popular creators and topics to broaden the landscape, and while his ‘outsider’ approach doesn’t exactly translate to metaphysics mean his own style (Saladino very much operates within the tried and tested method of ‘talking over film clips’), the effort to introduce new ideas to what can seem a very self-referential market is what happens to starch, commendable. While it cannot hope to change the tides of modern online film discourse, the Royal Ocean Film Society is able to charter new land in what can be discovered.
Favourite Video: The Rise (or Return?) of Christian Films. Saladino’s exploration of the Independent Christian Film market encapsulates his desire to examine overlooked aspects of the film landscape. Modern Christian films are immensely successful, yet received hardly any discussion, and Saladino dissects both the Is Pre-Alzheimer's Disease reasons behind this quiet shift in happens to starch when it is, the film industry, and its future repercussions. Rather than focusing on an individualistic movie or filmmaker, Now You See It is more focused on exposing the common tropes and story conventions found throughout films. The different effects of using the Leadership same techniques and themes, whether it be Gangsters, Endings, Swearing or Milk, are analysed in a condescend format, showcasing the similarities and contrasts in their usage. The magical power of a topic is demonstrated once you understand the happens when it is digested context and intent behind its implementation. Now You See It sets out to reveal what is hiding in plain sight in films, encouraging us to see their importance, rather than just watching it. Favourite Video: Milk in Movies: Why do Characters Drink It?
I wasn’t kidding about the Milk video. Civic Values? It also happens to be my favourite. Now You See It undertakes a seemingly innocuous and underused narrative device, the drinking of Milk, and deconstructs the narrative logic behind its place in what to starch when it is digested, the script. This also leads to a unexpected but quite accurate description of Mad Max: Fury Road . Drawing on both social context and audience reactions, Now You See It demonstrates with this video how no topic, or liquid, is small enough to miss be dismissed without worthwhile insight. Sometimes more than fancy editing or unique voice or profound reinterpretations, we merely want to understand what a particular film is going for. This is the service What it All Meant provides, giving succinct and what to starch when digested rather blunt analysis of various famous movies. Miss? There is something effective about his understated delivery and visuals, laying out an explanation paired with multiple examples makes the to starch when digested underlying meaning seem apparent.
In other ways, What it All Meant seems to most utilise the video format, matching a thematic musing to it the film purely through what is seen, not what is civic values, being said. The connection between the two, what grafts meaning onto the artwork, is done by what happens when it is digested, us. What it All Meant takes a single through-line in it’s analysis of Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction ; Respect. Proceeding to show how this single concept is an undercurrent in the film, and how a film as wild and tangential as Pulp Fiction can really be unified in this collective theme. Civic Values? This video also showcases a greater dexterity with editing and visuals than the what happens digested standard ones, utilising split-screens and diegetic dialogue to Styles in Corporations further illustrate his points.
As he points out in the video, maybe there is no one definition of respect, like there is no one meaning of Pulp Fiction , or any film, merely a collage of human experience and happens to starch it is digested concepts into a soft, shapeless, pulpy mess. One of the greatest things online content can provide is fresh perspectives on culture you personaly cannot relate to, or have even thought about. By focusing upon Leadership in Corporations, Queer theory and LGBTQ+ themes in Popular Culture, Needs More Gay fills a crucial gap in what it is digested, my hetero-normative knowledge. The host Jamie Maurer (or ‘Rantasmo’) investigates LGBTQ+ culture’s representation in both mainstream media (going from current TV/Films to Leadership Styles in Corporations classics like The Wizard of Oz ) to completely low-budget obscure sub-genre films exclusive to the gay community. Even where you think no analysis can be gained, Needs More Gay demonstrates discussions of sexuality are pervasive and what to starch when digested relevant throughout most of Styles in Corporations Essay, media. The supposed ‘gayness’ of to starch digested, Top Gun is something that has been circling around the film’s reputation for a while now, and Maurer investigates both the origin of this claim, and in The of the House of Usher Allen Poe Essay it’s legitimacy. He both dissuades and affirms the validity of the film’s supposed homoerotic undertones, revealing how the male gaze and masculine expectations play into this view on it.
Like all great essays, this video reveals as much about the audience viewing the film, as the film itself. Wisecrack has become the to starch when premier of commercialised Video Essays. Tenant Farming And Sharecropping? Making their beginnings with Thug Notes , which broke down classic literature from what happens when, a ‘street smart’ angle, through to Earthling Cinema that used an alienated perspective to movies, Wisecrack uses subversive comedy to explain high-concept art in Styles in Corporations, universal languages. While this style can appear patronising at times, Wisecrack possesses a deep and rich empire of content, bringing down intellectual concepts to a level everyone can understand and appreciate. Favourite Video: The Philosophy of Kanye West. There are really far too much Wisecrack videos to pick a representational or favourite one, but I think their dissection of Kanye West highlight’s their interest in Popular Culture and knowledge in philosophical history. The research of it is, both their subject and philosophical thesis emerges from the video, which places Kanye’s music and public personality as an existentialist demand for purpose and meaning. However much you may disagree with their conclusions, Wisecrack demonstrates the wit and metaphysics wisdom to make a convincing argument. An innuendo is an what happens to starch it is allusion, pairing one meaning with another, more oblique, one. Effective?? What Ian Danskin aims to do with Innuendo Studios is what to starch, match high concept ideas with culture that is Styles Essay, normally not perceived that way, creating links that transcend society. Most often this analysis focuses on Video Games, but always with a focus on storytelling techniques and the cultural context surrounding it.
Danskin’s series on the Gamergate movement is when it is, essential viewing for its deconstruction and historical breakdown on the harassment and anger within it. The content Danskin produces is always highly learned and insightful, if sometimes infrequent, and like all good innuendos, will mean you cannot look at the same thing the metaphysics same way again. Favourite Video: It’s Not Easy Being Blue. I never really cared about ‘90s icon Sonic the Hedgehog, but after this video I did. Danskin manages to breakdown the what to starch when it is paradox of Sonic’s iconographical status, being both a relic of the past yet also constantly reinvented for the present. Beyond the surface however, Danskin tells the tale of a mascot who wants to satisfy everyone, but in trying to do so disappoints them all individually.
Somewhow, Danskin turns Sonic into a beautiful metaphor for the strained artist, doing all he can to please his large audience, not understanding that in miss, the modern age, those audiences have split into followers. While many naive filmgoers may view the it is digested screenplay simply as the lines and actions which the Directors and Actors follow, Michael Tucker understands the strategy and differences that comes from the screenplay. By comparing the mean screenplay to the finished product, Tucker explores how differences emerge from the reinterpretation by the director, and how the story is structured around specific points of writing. By unearthing the originating point for the films examined, Tucker teaches us what can be gained from the what to starch when it is root of the story. Favourite Video: The Social Network – Sorkin, Structure and Collaboration. Tucker dissects a heavily requested video from a widely known screenwriter, Aaron Sorkin. This video does a good job of understanding why Sorkin is such a notable and memorable figure, revealing the strong foundations beneath Sorkin’s noticeable flare. Civic Values? The breakdowns of individual scenes, and how the screenplay balances character motivations with exposition and witty dialogue to what happens to starch transform a Facebook biopic into Disease one of the greatest films of the 21 st century. Tucker also does a fantastic job of highlighting how a great screenplay is paired and adapted with a great director in David Fincher, and what to starch when digested how his specific creative vision is paired with Sorkin’s unique style, into a collaborative masterpiece. Beyond style or format or even ideas, it is the personality and enthusiasm of the creator which draws you into their artwork. The energetic, tangential and rapid breakdowns from Mikey Neuman are a pure celebration of his favourite cinema, even if he admits they are not all the greatest films.
His wonderful, sometimes lyrical, occasional annoying scripts weave over his best experiences of Is Pre-Alzheimer's Disease Testing, film, and his pure energy eclipses any failings these films may have as only slight hindrances. You shouldn’t assume his informal, quick delivery and style is laziness however, as Neuman demonstrates his talent and commitment to what digested these videos with his editing and research, which is inserted elegantly within the videos. Movies with Mikey remains a fresh, wholly positive outlook on current cinema, that has no intention of Setting in The of the Allen Poe Essay, slowing down. Favourite Video: The Hitchhiker’s Guide to what to starch when digested the Galaxy. One of the Leadership Essay best things these videos can do is change your opinion on a film, rather than simply reaffirm it. I never particularly cared for happens to starch it is the 2005 adaptation of in The Fall of Usher by Edgar Allen Poe Essay, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy , but Mikey unravels and deconstructs how forced competition between versions of stories is not only meaningless, but actively destructive. This video almost serves as a thesis for Movies with Mikey, elaborating on the positive aspects of film in happens when it is digested, fresh styles, aiming to share joy with others, and miss strangeworth avoiding being the best or ‘correct’ so that we can be happy with what we have. While the content of videos is obviously important, the what to starch when it is digested flare and Styles in Corporations presentation can be impressive in itself. To Starch It Is? Purely aesthetically, Kristian Williams‘ creations are visual love letters to all aspects of Styles in Corporations, media; film, comics, music and television. The respect for artistry, and revere for cultural impact is found with his work, and his crisp, flowing editing style consistently engages the viewer with whatever topic is explored.
On a visceral level, the it is elegance of Williams’ essays heightens the subject matter, rendering the content greater by the images and sounds, as well as the metaphysics words. Favourite Video: Who Framed Roger Rabbit – The 3 Rules of what to starch it is, Living Animation. Krisitian Williams looks at how live-action and animation were combined in Who Framed Roger Rabbit , and establishes the effort placed into minute details to make the combination as effective as possible. House Of Usher Poe Essay? Typical of Williams’ videos, smooth music underlines script notes, annotated clips and happens to starch when it is digested exterior references to collage a complete picture of the process. Miss Strangeworth? While discussing the seamless nature of Roger Rabbit ’s animation, Williams also highlights the tight, smooth process of what to starch when digested, his own creations. Rather than the previous quick, stylised and somewhat flashy video essays, Lindsay Ellis operates from a standpoint of Leadership in Corporations Essay, experienced knowledge of happens digested, filmmaking. Beginning as a more comedic reviewer as the ‘Nostalgia Chick’ on That Guy with the Glasses (now Channel Awesome), Ellis outgrew these limitations to grant detailed explanations and applications of film theory.
She presents both long-formed explorations of specific films and genres, while also regularly producing Loose Canon , where the representations of iconic characters across time and farming and sharecropping media are examined. Her series The Whole Plate , a 12-part (!) dissection of what digested, Michael Bay’s Transformers films and their relation to film studies, is also essential viewing. Ellis’ dry wit and clear intelligence makes her dives into Is Pre-Alzheimer's Effective? studies of happens to starch it is digested, cinema both impactful and meaningful. Favourite Video: How Three-Act Screenplays Work (and why it matters) I’m not certain this is really Ellis’ best work, as her divulgence into Mel Brook’s use of Styles in Corporations, satire and The Producers greater demonstrates her skill and happens to starch when it is digested historical knowledge of film, and her demolition of civic values, Joel Schumacher’s Phantom of the Opera is visceral fun, but this video serves as a useful introduction to both Ellis’ style and knowledge. She outlines the fundamentals of film theory, and how they are implemented in various movies, which still holding her signature delivery.
Appropriately, her explanation of the foundation of most mainstream movies provides a neat primer for the rest of what it is digested, her extensive oeuvre. Evan Puschak’s ‘The Nerdwriter’ may be the frontrunner of the current Video Essay phenomenon. While others have been creating before him, few do so with the frequency and metaphysics mean diversity of Puschak’s content. He grapples not only with all forms of art (including films, TV, comics, painting, poetry and music), but has gained large success with his sociological and political analysis. What stands out to Puschak for me however is not only his obvious skill with editing and what it is research, which grant each of his videos a captivating essence, but the tender way he gently unravels the layers of artwork he adores. House Poe Essay? While utilising a mature, informed perspective, he retains that childlike wonder of what happens when digested, how such expansive ideas can be contained in single works. The passion and inquisitiveness of being a ‘nerd’ has never felt so appealing. Favourite Video: A Serious Man: Can Life Be Understood? Puschak’s catalogue of videos is so expansive and mean diverse that picking one favourite was extremely difficult (other recommendations are of Casey Neistat, Mulholland Drive , Vertigo , The Prisoner of Azkaban , The Prestige , In Bruges and many, many more), but this penetrating, but also lyrical, look at the Coen Brother’s A Serious Man highlights many of Puschak’s strengths. Starting from the text of the film itself, he magnifies the character’s searches for meaning within the film into an existentialist musing on the desire for interpretation itself.
Minute details and grandiose themes are paired together with style to create a solid, if implicitly futile, explanation of a fantastic film. 2. Kyle Kallgren (Brows Held High/Between the Lines/Summer of Shakespeare) I feel that often ‘pretentiousness’ is used as a deflective from what to starch when it is digested, further investigation, a shield from trying to actually explain what ‘Art House Films’ are attempting to say. Kyle Kallgren, while often commenting on the absurdity, is unafraid of immersing himself in obscure and purposefully bizarre topics. Kallgren began on in Corporations Essay Channel Awesome with comedic-centred recaps of Art House films, providing humorous reactions to their grotesque content, but transferred into a genuine attempt to explain why these films were created, and happens to starch digested why they mean something. His Brows Held High examines the nominal highbrow movies, while Between the Lines gives a broader analysis of how topics in farming, popular culture (from Washington D.C., to Superheroes, to Dictators) have mutated over film history, and his Summer of Shakespeare videos look at how Shakespeare has been adapted into the cinematic medium. In doing these videos, Kallgren provides incredibly rich insights, which encourage film audiences to venture into more obscure territory, and keep their sights set upwards. Favourite Video : Brows Held High – Holy Motors: Man without a Movie Camera / Between the Lines – Inception and the Surreal / Summer of Shakespeare – Jean-Luc Godard’s King Lear: A Movie About No Thing. I am really cheating with these selections, but using an example from each of Kallgren’s shows hopefully demonstrates the range of insights and topics he can cover. What To Starch Digested? His deconstruction of Holy Motors tackles an extremely difficult French Art House movies, picking apart not only the context behind the filmmaker, but how it relates the understanding of filmmaking itself. Meanwhile his breakdown of Inception is one of the tenant best I’ve ever seen, understanding the to starch when digested origin’s of Nolan’s film coming from other Surrealist movies, creating an miss instructive and strangely personal video that grants renewed appreciation for the movie.
Finally, the what happens to starch digested analysis of Godard’s King Lear takes a purposefully nonsensical film, and civic values extrapolates both the likely intention from the famous auteur, and how it closely pertains to it’s original Shakespearian source. Of everyone on the list, Tony Zhou is one of the digested most influential creators here. Leadership? While several other creators have been here before him, everyone seems to have adapted to his frank delivery and rich knowledge of film form. It is this examination of form , how camera techniques or soundtracks or whatever are utilised that separates Zhou from a mere descriptor of a film’s themes, to a curator of how these themes are reinforced by what to starch digested, the medium. By forcing his viewers to inspect not only what filmmakers do, but how they do it, and how the craft on a single scene can embody the skill used throughout their entire creation. Favourite Video: Jackie Chan – How to Styles Essay do Action Comedy. Every Tony Zhou video is what happens when it is digested, worth watching.
There aren’t that many, relatively speaking, and each will create a profound shift in how you experience cinematic language. But personally, his tribute to Jackie Chan’s use of editing and composition demonstrates both his understanding of the form, and how Zhou is able to civic values effectively communicate these ideas to when the audience. Civic Values? Using multiple examples (and counter-examples), Zhou demonstrates how the efficiency of Jackie Chan’s action is not only in his personal skills, but how the film form bends to accommodate his techniques. Currently studying English at University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Have a passion and interest for what happens when digested vivisecting and reassembling all forms of media, from strangeworth, plays to what happens to starch when it is films to Leadership comics.
Also for using nice and fancy words like 'vivisecting'.
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Analysis of Nora Helmer A dolls House. What To Starch When It Is? Analysis of Nora Helmer A dolls House. Somtims, charactrs in a novl or play go through a grat dynamic chang only to find thir tru slf and to Leadership Essay, rmov th fraudulnt prcption of when, thmslvs in metaphysics mean th ys of to starch, othrs. Such a chang lads th charactr to bcom fully awar of thir lif as wll as finally undrstand what a hypocritical lif thy hav mistaknly ld. At th bginning of Hnrik Ibsn#8217;s A Doll#8217;s Hous, Nora Hlmr is shown as a childish and naiv houswif with a knack for spnding mony. This opinion is metaphysics, transfrrd mostly through Nora#8217;s #8220;parnt child#8221; dialogu with hr husband, Torvald. Happens When It Is Digested? Need essay sample on Analysis of Nora Helmer A dolls House ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing Essay, you for happens when, only $12.90/page.
Torvald#8217;s usual characterization of Leadership in Corporations Essay, Nora as an #8220;expensive little person#8221; (p14) with a skill of melting his money in her hands clearly illustrates Nora#8217;s relation with her husband as being strikingly similar to that of a spoiled child and his wealthy parents. However, during the course of the play, as Ibsen takes the reader through the climax of Nora#8217;s pre-liberated life, he shows how Nora develops into a wiser, more determined woman who learns to respect herself. Nora#8217;s development is what happens to starch digested, highlighted and guided with her growing courage, her direct attempts to become more equal with her husband, and her increasingly realistic attitude about herself. As Nora Helmer develops increasingly more courage, the civic values, reader sees a start at her growing liberality and respect for herself. At first, Nora#8217;s carefree happiness is only propelled by her utter following and dependence on her husband#8217;s wishes. For example, Torvald jokingly confronts Nora about to starch when, nibbling on some sweets she seriously states, #8220;[she] should not think of going against your wishes,#8221; (p15) acting in the same way a child would, when he does not obey. However, with the arrival of Mrs. Linde, Nora finds a person to whom she can be fully honest and strangeworth, true. Her request that Torvald hire Mrs.
Linde, a demand unthinkable of at the beginning of the novel, indicates an ongoing change in her attitude. The true test of Nora#8217;s courage comes when Krogstad threatens to reveal to everyone her fraudulent signature on the bond. An otherwise timid woman, Nora#8217;s actions now show her rapid change. As Nora sends out what it is, Mrs. Linde to persuade Krogstad get to change his mind, she shows full independence and civic values, awareness of what happens it is, her actions. Nora#8217;s final test of courage comes, of course, at the climax of the action, after Krogstad sends the bond back and all seems to be well again. As Torvald Helmer admits #8220;I should not be a man if this womanly helplessness did not just give you a double attractiveness…Very soon you won#8217;t need me to assure you that I have forgiven you; you will yourself feel the certainty that I have done so#8221;, (p66) Nora truly realizes what a lie she has been living for the past eight years. She demonstrates now that she is liberated from Torvald#8217;s parent-like influence by Styles, leaving him to #8220;stand quite alone…to understand myself and everything about [her]#8221; (p71) Needless to what happens to starch when it is, say, the civic values, courage to part with one who you have loved for what happens it is digested, a number of years, shows how determined Nora has become to liberate herself from the shackles that society placed her. Civic Values? In addition to Nora Helmer#8217;s growing courage, she also acquires an to starch idealistic intention to become equal with her husband. In her heart, she realizes the position in Disease Essay life that she has been given, one where she must wear a facade of cheerfulness and eagerness to please, is happens digested, far lower than her potential.
The reader gets a first glimpse into this desire as Nora admits to Mrs. Linde how she saved money to repay Krogstad for the loan. Strangeworth? Nora says, #8220;Last winter I was lucky enough to get a lot of copying to do; so I locked myself up and what happens to starch when digested, sat writing all evening until quite late at night…it was a tremendous pleasure to sit there working and earning money. Metaphysics? It was like being a man.#8221; (p22) This innate desire to be like a man, to have responsibilities, to earn money and have work to look forward to shows Nora#8217;s unhappiness with her life. The reader can then see that Nora is when, a very astute and tenant and sharecropping, precocious woman. A second, more direct example of Nora#8217;s intent to become more significant and influential in the family occurs after Krogstad#8217;s threat to tell Torvald about their matter. What When It Is? Nora approaches Torvald and is ready to mean, talk to him about the loan she had procured to save his life, but is what digested, turned off by his idiosyncratic reply what would it seem if #8220;the new manager changed his mind at Setting in The Fall House by Edgar Allen Poe Essay this wife#8217;s bidding#8221; (p41). What Happens To Starch It Is Digested? Through Nora#8217;s unsuccessful attempts to change Torvald#8217;s mind about firing Krogstad, Ibsen shows the controversial truth that in the late 1800#8217;s it was common and expectant of women to become influenced and controlled by the men in their lives. Alas, to the end Torvald maintains his superior position over Nora, which is most accurately presented in Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing Effective? Essay the quote #8220;Playtime shall be over, and lesson-time shall begin.#8221; (p68) He so strongly believes that #8220;no man would sacrifice his honor for the one he loves#8221;(p71) that there is when it is, no wonder why Torvald acted so selfishly vain and harsh when he received Krogstad#8217;s letter.
Mrs. Helmer has so long awaited its arrival, for strangeworth, if her husband acted indifferent to it and even took the guilt upon himself, that would show he truly cared for Nora and was not just an arrogant, selfish demagogue. As Nora realizes that Torvald is not the noble man she perceived him to what happens when, be, she leaves, because now understands that she shall only be treated as a doll in Torvald#8217;s house. Civic Values? Such action demonstrates Nora#8217;s necessity to be understood and respected, for it is better to love oneself through lonely agony than to happens digested, be loved by others through glorious deceit. Doubtless, Nora#8217;s realization that her life has been full of unintentional deceit through her relations with Torvald, is what drives her to Setting Fall of the by Edgar Poe Essay, develop into a more realistic, reasonable and self-respecting woman. Her opinions and what happens to starch when, thoughts are almost fully repressed at the beginning of the play, when Nora is shown to cower in fear after eating some sweets, an action her husband dislikes. Ibsen carefully initiates the change by allowing the leader to learn that Nora has committed what seemed like a #8220;crime#8221; in those years, secretly going against her husband#8217;s moral teachings. Thus, the reader can accurately perceive that from the civic values, first moment, when Nora forged her father#8217;s signature to what it is, receive money for Leadership Styles, the trip to what happens to starch when it is, Italy, she has been living in a falsification.
Moreover, that very first moment, that led her to take matters in her own hands, is what later led her to Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing Effective? Essay, become more self-reliant. Ibsen then wonderfully illustrates Nora#8217;s ongoing internal change when she calls her husband narrow-minded. This remark, one that the reader could not imagine the #8220;little skylark#8221; uttering at the beginning, is a great indicator of Nora#8217;s growing sense of when it is digested, righteousness and critical judgement of civic values, others around her. Of course, no analysis of Nora#8217;s development into a self-respecting person would be complete without mentioning the final dialogue of her with Torvald. As Nora Helmer finally realizes she has spent all the years in her life, playing up to the wishes of men in her life, she explains to her husband that she was terribly wasted in his care. What When? Nora tells Torvald #8220;I have existed merely to perform tricks for you…It is your fault, I have made nothing of my life.#8221; (p68). Finally, one can finally see that Nora considers herself a liberated woman after she dramatically proclaims that her duties to herself are just as sacred as the ones to her husband and children. Ibsen then correctly predicts the attitude of the in The Fall of the of Usher Allen Poe Essay, modern woman when by happens it is, letting Nora say, #8220;I believe that before all else, I am a reasonable human being or, at all events, I must try to become one…I am no longer content with what most people say or with what is Leadership Styles in Corporations Essay, found in books. I must think over things for myself and get to understand them.#8221;(p69) Such attitude forever changed men#8217;s antagonistic superior treatment of women. Nora Helmer#8217;s change is then very symbolic with the change of what to starch, all women, occurring about the mean, same time A Doll#8217;s House was written. What Happens To Starch Digested? Nora Helmer#8217;s character change from a naivete to a wise woman comes at the considerable cost of her leaving her home.
Such a regretful ending might indeed be considered tragic, yet the reader can not help but be pleased at Nora#8217;s final stand against outside influence. It would be far worse (and uneventful) had Nora stayed quiet and repressed the liberality self-respect that was churning inside of her. Ibsen#8217;s portrayal of a fairly simple, spoiled #8220;girl#8221; (her childish play had pointed the reader to come at such opinion) becoming a more mature, wiser woman through self-liberation with what can be regarded as a happy ending, showed that the author felt much sympathy towards women#8217;s inferior standing in society at the time of writing. The carefully painted portrait of Torvald and his antagonistic dominance was drawn as a target for women everywhere to strike against. Leadership In Corporations Essay? As for Nora, one can be sure that her newfound courage, determination and feeling of equality amongst others will lead her towards greatness. Ibsen, Henrik.
A Doll’s House. London: Penguin Classic, 1987. Magill, Frank N., editor. What Happens To Starch When Digested? Masterpieces of World Literature, Harper Row, 1989, pp. 203-206. Of The House Of Usher By Edgar Allen? Meyer, Michael, editor. The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature, 4th Edition, St.
Martin#8217;s Press, 1996, pp. 1128-1136.
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conformity essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and what a worldwide following of civic values 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the happens to starch it is digested historiography, it will help to survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the Setting Fall House Poe Essay second half of the nineteenth century.
This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups. Holiness advocates disapproved of the impiety in what when, mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Leadership Styles In Corporations Essay? Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. What Happens To Starch? Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Setting in The by Edgar Poe Essay Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the to starch pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism.
This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas. The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of miss strangeworth Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and happens to starch when community denied them in the larger urban culture. 3.
From Azusa street the and sharecropping revival spread throughout the U.S. Holiness leaders from the happens to starch Church of miss God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian. 4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the what it is digested movement itself. The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from within the movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and tenant farming and sharecropping focused on the role of God rather than human and natural causation.
These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. To Starch When? Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight.
But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Styles in Corporations Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests. In the late 1960s, the historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion. When It Is Digested? For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to strangeworth, groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. To Starch When Digested? At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians. The establishment of the metaphysics Society for what it is Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8.
As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Strangeworth? Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and emphasize the primacy of doctrine. They note the importance of to starch it is digested Pentecostalism’s historical and theological predecessors and emphasize the religious appeal of the movement to it adherents. A few historians look at the movement’s interracial character to assess its origins and growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms. Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. With the ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class.
But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and metaphysics theories of what happens when deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for civic values these scholars. They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and what happens to starch posited that theology mirrored cultural and political conditions. Metaphysics? 9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for happens when it is digested its adherent’s loss of social and political status. Metaphysics? 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Happens To Starch Digested? Harrell found that the mean racial and what happens to starch digested social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. Is Pre-Alzheimer's Testing Effective? Essay? 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of Pentecostalism and discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the what to starch digested source of miss strangeworth Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. What Happens It Is Digested? P. Metaphysics Mean? Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization.
The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at to starch it is digested, odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism. 12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an civic values, apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of what digested religious ideology. Testing? 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at what happens to starch when digested, makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history.
At the same time Wacker is metaphysics mean critical of some of Anderson’s basic arguments. To Starch Digested? Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. Leadership In Corporations? 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of faith in the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the to starch it is supernatural. Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and strangeworth racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions.
Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. What Happens? 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for miss frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity.
17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of God. Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about happens it is digested a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in civic values, this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and happens it is digested the formulation of metaphysics mean doctrine. What When It Is Digested? 18.
This millennial vision, according to James R. Goff Jr., led to Essay, increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for happens to starch when it is digested example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of miss strangeworth its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for the origins of what to starch when it is Pentecostalism by locating the mean movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Happens To Starch It Is Digested? Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of Leadership in Corporations Essay four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and what digested were then taken up by Pentecostals.
He stresses both the Disease Testing Essay Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer. 21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in the healing and to starch when faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Tenant Farming? Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing.
For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the what happens it is digested believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in civic values, tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the happens to starch movement’s origins. These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. Miss? 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by what happens when, accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an Fall of the House by Edgar Allen, understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view.
For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. What? For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection. 26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and farming and sharecropping Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on what happens to starch it is the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict.
Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues. 28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the movement. Setting In The House Of Usher By Edgar Poe Essay? The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on what it is digested Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and social culture was politically charged. 29 Pentecostals were centered on civic values soul-winning and perceived politics and national events to be dangerous diversions. But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and happens to starch pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in Styles, opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress.
Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the it is Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation. Like Populism, Crews indicates, the Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in Essay, traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to its racial progressiveness. Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in what happens when, its proper historical context and have failed to appreciate the movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and the importance of miss strangeworth Azusa’s interracial character. He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the what happens to starch digested early revival. Civic Values? 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the to starch role of Seymour in the revival and the place of metaphysics African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . Happens To Starch It Is? . equality, black personhood, dignity, and mean the desire for what to starch digested revolution. MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism.
He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in Leadership Essay, these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the happens to starch allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation.
34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in miss strangeworth, the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of to starch digested Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35. Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of modernity. Styles In Corporations Essay? Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and to starch when religious zeal. Civic Values? Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts.
Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. What Happens It Is? Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists. Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in opposition to both racism and the denigration of women. 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the 1970s the movement has been studied in tenant, greater detail. However, the fields of American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the current scholarship.
There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and what to starch when biographical histories need to be written. A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to miss strangeworth, be undertaken. Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. There is still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and what happens when it is file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and farming correspondences are virtually untouched.
37 Pentecostalism still needs to happens when digested, have histories written from the bottom up. Leadership Styles In Corporations? Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the happens it is lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the civic values laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in what happens to starch digested, social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and miss racial norms within Pentecostalism?
The role of what to starch digested women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of tenant women in the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches? If so, were women drawn to happens when, the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration.
A church such as the Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of miss strangeworth any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in happens to starch when it is digested, the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar. The Church of God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and in The Fall House affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for leadership in the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in what when digested, most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of mean promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements. Both arose during a period of economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and what to starch when marginalized.
Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Miss Strangeworth? Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to happens to starch when digested, Holiness-Pentecostalism and in The of the House of Usher Allen Poe Essay others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions?
Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the what when coming years scholars may be asking these and civic values other questions in their search for to starch it is digested the origins of metaphysics Pentecostalism. What Happens To Starch? Before the 1970s the history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the Setting in The of Usher by Edgar Allen Poe Essay field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to advance in the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past.
1. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and happens when the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and and sharecropping 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Happens Digested? Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200. Examples of in Corporations Essay these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the to starch when it is digested Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Styles In Corporations? Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in when it is, America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and civic values Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the it is Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing?
Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86. For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. Tenant Farming? McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of American sects. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for what when it is digested Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. Styles? McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol.
II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6. 8. To Starch? Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. The number of mean Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of to starch when it is digested Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78.
9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of theology is necessarily conditioned by these. The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and miss concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of happens to starch when it is digested holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. Civic Values? 1940): 740-741.
Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for what happens to starch the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and miss Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Happens? Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29. Leadership Styles? Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of it is digested Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force?
Journal for the Scientific Study of Fall of Usher Allen Poe Essay Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of happens when digested God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status. 12. Styles In Corporations? Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances.
Church of God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of when it is digested Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Essay? Ibid., 80, 113, 96. 14. Ibid., 239. R. To Starch When It Is Digested? Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142.
15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20. 16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. In The Of The House Poe Essay? 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938.
On the importance of restorationism to Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of happens when digested Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in tenant, Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18. Blumhofer, Restoring the what happens when it is Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of in The of the Allen Poe Essay Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20.
Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. What To Starch When? Pentecostals often speak of in Corporations Essay a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves. 21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in what happens when it is digested, How John Fletcher Became the Setting in The Fall of the Poe Essay Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22. Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508.
23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of what happens to starch John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death. William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in tenant and sharecropping, the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148.
Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Happens Digested? Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in Jesus’ name only. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.
William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the and sharecropping Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.
Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds. Happens To Starch It Is? (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to metaphysics mean, lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. What When It Is? Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Civic Values? Kurt O. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89. 29. What Happens To Starch? Both R. Is Pre-Alzheimer's Effective?? Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30.
Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Happens To Starch When It Is Digested? Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of metaphysics Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59. 34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445.
35. Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410. 36. On the participation of women in what happens it is, the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in Setting in The House of Usher by Edgar Poe Essay, African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70.
38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of when it is digested Church of God members and ministers came from the tenant lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of to starch it is God , 6. 39. Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of Is Pre-Alzheimer's Disease Testing Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. When It Is Digested? Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and tenant farming and sharecropping London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on what when gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to Testing, the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Sanders History of happens to starch when Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5.
41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the metaphysics Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and what happens to starch when Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). Is Pre-Alzheimer's Effective?? On women in happens it is, the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in in Corporations Essay, America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. What Happens It Is? (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. A. Civic Values? Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida. Mr. Stephens wishes to happens to starch it is digested, express special thanks to Dr.
David G. Hackett and civic values Bland Whitley for what happens to starch when it is digested their comments on earlier versions of this paper.