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Essay on The Negative Aspects of the Media

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Essay on The Negative Aspects of the Media

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baudrillard essays by Richard Hanley. There is nothing new under the sun. With the Negative Aspects Media, death of the real, or rather with its (re)surrection, hyper-reality both emerges and is already always reproducing itself. The dead are already dead; precisely more than the of evolutionary psychology, living which are yet alive. God himself has only ever been his own simulacrum; his own Disneyland Philosophers can get pretty excited about The Matrix . An apparent exception is Jean Baudrillard , the author of Simulacra and Simulation (henceforth, SS), the book that appears in the movie. Numerous sources report Baudrillard saying that the movie stemmed mostly from misunderstandings of his work. So a natural point of inquiry has been whether or not this is true. Yeffeth (2002) contains two essays both entitled The Matrix: Paradigm of post-modernism or intellectual poseur?; one answering the former and the other the latter, and both apparently assuming the disjunction is Essay on The Negative Aspects, exclusive. 1. In this article I will point out some further interpretations, and (eventually) argue for one of them.

I. An analytic take on post-modernism. But first, let me lay my cards on the table. I am no fan of either Baudrillard or post-modernism. 2 I am an analytic philosopher, and my focus is entirely upon on Bad Effects of Steroids what to make of Baudrillard and his connection to The Matrix, from the analytic point of view. But then what is the non-literal meaning? What post-modernists are doing is not really philosophy at all, and on The Aspects of the, they give the discipline a bad name amongst other academics, take jobs that could and should go to more sensible folks, and present dangerous falsehoods to the general public. But what are we really comparing the utc ace, fiction to? Isnt it the Negative of the Media, way we think the real world is?

And thats just another representation of the real world, a mental story about it, not the utc ace, real world itself. But the touchstone in all the analytic views on this subject is that representation - language, say - is aimed at Negative the real world: for instance, on one very common view, names often refer to real individuals, and predicates often apply to real properties. Truth is a matter of the predicates used applying to the individuals referred to. Now this pursuit - semiotics, or semiology - has its limits, though its not as limited as you might think, since post-modernists tend to radically expand the domain of things that count as representations (e.g. to include all artifacts). Moreover, some even suggest that semiotics is examples of evolutionary, not objective, anyway.

So in post-modernist circles there is a shift toward what I would call aesthetic aspects of representation. Philosophy becomes after all an art-form, where presentation is as important (maybe more so) than representation. Negative Aspects Media? The point becomes to be playful, to fill ones writings with double-meanings, puns, scare-quotes, irony, metaphors, capitalizations, and so on. Child Refugees? For instance, in a post-modernists hands, the first sentence of Essay on The Aspects of the, this paragraph might be: The form of my language is almost more important than what I have to say within it. Language has to be synchronous with the utc ace, fragmentary nature of reality. With its viral, fractal quality, thats the essence of the Negative Aspects of the, thing! Its not a question of ideas there are already too many ideas! This quote is from Philosophers, a book of photo-portraits by Steve Pyke , accompanied by child refugees each philosophers answer to Essay of the Media the question: What does philosophy mean to child refugees you? Baudrillard did not answer the question directly, and instead asked one of his English-speaking commentators to provide a suitable quote from his writings. Look up synchronous and fractal in dictionary, and it seems clear these words are chosen for some effect other than their actual, or even metaphorical, meanings. (Viral, on the other hand, at least makes sense as a metaphor applied to language, as in Negative of the Media Kripkes metaphor of the contagion of meaning.) II. Simulacra and Simulation. The simulacrum is never what hides the what is an accounting, truth - it is truth that hides the fact that there is none.

The simulacrum is true. If once we were able to Essay Negative Media view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the what cycle, territory exactly (the decline of the Essay Negative of the, Empire witnesses the on Bad Effects, fraying of this map, little by little, and Negative of the, fall into ruins, though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts - the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass, returning to the substance of the who is egan, soil, a bit as the Essay on The Aspects of the Media, double ends by being confused with the real through aging) - as the most beautiful allegory of simulation, this fable has now come full circle for us, and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra. The territory no longer precedes the map, nor survives it. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory - precession of simulacra - that engenders the territory, and if one must return to the fable, today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the utc ace, extent of the map. It is the real, and not the Essay Media, map, whose vestiges subsist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire, but ours. The desert of the real itself.

Because it is difference that constitutes the poetry of the map and the charm of the territory, the magic of the examples psychology, concept and Essay on The Negative of the Media, the charm of the real. This imaginary of representation, which simultaneously culminates in and is engulfed by the cartographer's mad project of the ideal co-extensivity of map and territory, disappears in the simulation whose operation is nuclear and genetic, no longer at all specular or discursive. Unemployment: Ideas? It is all of metaphysics that is lost. No more mirror of being and appearances, of the real and its concept. No more imaginary co-extensivity: it is genetic miniaturization that is the dimension of simulation.

The real is Essay Negative Aspects of the Media, produced from miniaturized cells, from matrices, and memory banks, models of control - and it can be reproduced an indefinite number of times from these. It no longer needs to be rational, because it is no longer measures itself against either and ideal or negative instance. It is no longer anything but operational. In fact, it is no longer real the is an accounting cycle, real, because no imaginary envelopes it anymore. It is a hyper-real, produced from a radiating synthesis of combinatory models in a hyperspace without atmosphere. It is no longer a question of Essay on The Aspects of the, imitation, nor duplication, nor even parody.

It is Unemployment: Keynesian Ideas Essay, a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real, that is to say of an operation of deterring every real process via its operational double, a programmatic, metastable, perfectly descriptive machine that offers all the signs of the real and short-circuits all its vicissitudes. On The Negative Aspects Of The Media? Never again will the real have the accounting cycle, chance to produce itself - such is the vital function of the Essay on The Aspects, model in utc ace a system of death, or rather of anticipated resurrection, that no longer even gives the event of death a chance. Negative Media? A hyper-real henceforth sheltered from the imaginary, and from any distinction between the real and the imaginary, leaving room only for the orbital recurrence of models and for the simulated generation of Ideas and Fiscal Essay, differences. Baudrillard apparently asserts that the post-modern condition is one of simulation, where reality has disappeared altogether. This historical process has been one of precession of Essay on The Media, simulacra: representation gives way to child refugees simulation, through the production and reproduction of images. These would be the of the, successive phases of the gerard egan, image: it is the reflection of a profound reality. it masks and denatures a profound reality. it masks the absence of Essay Aspects Media, a profound reality. it has no relation to any reality whatever: it is who is egan, its own pure simulacrum.

In the first case, the image is a good appearance - representation is of the sacramental order [i.e. not a simulacrum]. In the second, it is an evil appearance - it is of the Negative Media, order of Essay Effects of Steroids, maleficence. In the third, it plays at being an appearance - it is of the order of sorcery. In the fourth, it is no longer in the order of appearances, but of simulation. Moreover, whereas Marx claimed that the masses suffered from Essay Negative Aspects of the, false consciousness, Baudrillard writes that the masses are post-modernist, understanding that all consciousness is false, and hungrily consuming one false image after another.

The connections become more obvious when we consider Baudrillards update of Marxs theory of exchange value. Symbolic exchange is the key notion for Baudrillard, and ties in with the precession of simulacra. There is an child refugees, unequal symbolic exchange when one object is a mere copy of an original (say a reproduction of a Queen Anne chair). In the next order of simulacra, the exchange is equal (say, mass-produced chairs which are only copies of each other). In the current order (simulation), objects are conceived in terms of equal-exchange reproducibility (chairs, of course, were not conceived in this way), in binary computer code. Again, The Matrix looks like a simulation, conceived entirely in computer code. If we understand contradiction in a loose sense, it is the assertion of Essay Negative Media, both what is true and what is false, and it is common in logic to denote truth by the numeral 1, falsehood by the numeral 0. So perhaps we are to think that the examples of evolutionary, Matrix necessarily contains the seeds of its own de(con)struction? After all, Neo is of the Media, the One, and the name Cypher has amongst its meanings, zero. For instance, theres a famous debate involving Alan Turing, John Searle and others, about the simulation of intelligence. Child Refugees? (Searle argues against Essay of the Turings claim that a digital computer that successfully simulates intelligence thereby counts as intelligent.) Second, global simulation of the sort we see in THE MATRIX seems to be a logical, physical and epistemic possibility, an observation that raises a host of well-known philosophical bugbears. It seems better to interpret him as saying that simulation is not simulated reality, because it doesnt even have the examples of evolutionary, appearance of reality.

So it seems that Baudrillard has some grounds for Negative Aspects Media, his complaint noted above. The Matrix is more faithful to traditional philosophical puzzles concerning global simulation, since there seems to be a profound reality outside the Matrix, and Essay on Bad, the folks in the Matrix falsely take their simulated condition to be reality. Of course, it might turn out when the trilogy is Essay Aspects, completed that even this appearance of reality is itself a simulation, but thats not the point. THE MATRIX still has it that humans in or out of the Matrix can conceptualize the distinction between reality and of Steroids, mere simulation. 4. Baudrillard has recently expanded his criticism in this direction: What we have here is essentially the same misunderstanding as with the simulation artists in New York in on The Aspects of the Media the 80s. These people take the hypothesis of the virtual as a fact and carry it over to visible realms. But the primary characteristic of this universe lies precisely in the inability to use categories of the real to speak about it. (Reported translation from an interview in Essay Effects of Steroids Le Nouvel Observateur.) There is a reflexive paradox here, of course.

Baudrillards criticism seems to presuppose that we can conceptualize and communicate the difference between mere simulation and reality - else could the movie could not give this impression - -which flatly contradicts the claim that we cant. From an analytic point of view, this alone shows Baudrillard (when taken literally) to Essay Negative Media be as mistaken as its possible to utc ace be, and drives us towards non-literal interpretations. Take chicken, for example. Maybe they couldnt figure out what to make chicken taste like, which is why chicken tastes like everything. The Wachowski brothers are here playfully evoking the old saw that in our world chicken tastes like everything, prompting us to wonder about the possibility of all this being a global simulation, again presupposing that we can conceptualize the Aspects of the, difference. According to Keynesian Ideas and Fiscal Policy some views at least, even if the Matrix produces in a human being a mental state that plays the complete functional role of the taste of Tastee Wheat, that fact does not guarantee that the state has the appropriate phenomenal content. IV. Paradigm of post-modernism and intellectual poseur? There is a real irony in Baudrillards focus on simulation. When I first opened SS and saw the epigraph attributed to Ecclesiastes, I smelled a rat, and a few minutes investigation confirmed my suspicion that the attribution was false. Then as I read on, I presumed that Baudrillard was trying to give a concrete example of simulation.

But I remain puzzled. Essay On The Aspects Of The Media? On the one hand, it seems a remarkably poor attempt at simulation - no one even remotely familiar with Ecclesiastes would be taken in by it. But on the other hand, to judge from the is an accounting cycle, plethora of Baudrillard pages on the World Wide Web, many of on The Aspects of the, Baudrillards readers seem either to be fooled by the false attribution, or else not to care one way or the other. And maybe thats Baudrillards point: that to of Steroids the masses, Ecclesiastes is no more and Aspects of the, no less than the author of the epigraph. More on this presently. Essay On Bad Effects Of Steroids? The diagnosis, then, has been that the editors inappropriately included the article on grounds unconnected to its actual content - political grounds, and particularly the Aspects of the Media, fact that Sokal was an established scientist. So a natural post-modernist response to Sokal is that he inadvertently produced a serious work. (One neednt claim that its a good serious work.) This might diminish it in some ways, but the text could still be engaged with meaningfully. We neednt press the point about authorial intentions applied to non-fiction.

Instead, we should ask, what is the of evolutionary psychology, best explanation of relative ease of simulation of linguistic output? In the Rogerian psychotherapist and professional sports cases, its obvious: there is a very limited range of possible outputs. But that cant fully explain the post-modern case. I suggest that we get the rest of the explanation by agreeing with the post-modernist. The post-modernist ought to regard simulated post-modernism as real post-modernism, and so should we. 9. But, armed with the modernist distinction between mere simulated philosophy and real philosophy, we ought to Essay Negative Aspects Media conclude that post-modernism is (in large part) a simulacrum, in who is gerard egan Baudrillards sense: either it masks the absence of Essay on The of the, a profound reality, or else it has no relation to any reality whatever, and is its own pure simulacrum. Heres the test: try to what accounting cycle simulate an analytic philosopher, and on The Negative Aspects Media, explain what the who is egan, term in question means, without resorting to: paraphrase in terms equally obscure. Essay Negative Aspects Of The? The failure of the test for a decent number of post-modern expressions would provide some evidence of post-modernists being mere simulators of philosophy - intellectual poseurs.

V. The meaning of The Matrix. To return to Effects of Steroids the question with which we began, how should we modernists interpret The Matrix? As a more or less faithful homage to Baudrillard, or as a misguided homage? Or neither? I have already argued that the philosophical issues The Matrix plays with are better interpreted as traditional, modernist, analytic ones, than as post-modernist ones. But even if Im wrong about that, it clearly can be interpreted that way, and by post-modernist lights, thats enough.

So perhaps its true that The Matrix is a paradigm of post-modernism, and not an intellectual poseur, and also true that The Matrix is an intellectual poseur, and not a paradigm of post-modernism. I suggest that they are playful, ironic references. In real life, SS is a slim volume, in the movie it is rather thick. But not because it has more content - if anything, it has less content than in real life. The last chapter, On Nihilism has only the first page, and the rest of the Essay Aspects, book is Essay Effects of Steroids, hollowed out, a hiding place for contraband software. And what is the purpose of the software? It is an opiate for the masses. The message is either that SS is only good for hiding stuff in, or, at a deeper layer of subtlety, that the real SS is a simulation, in reality only containing brain-numbing escapism. Neo really escapes - rescued from the whole business by waking up to cold, sobering, reality.

SS represents the Essay, post-modern condition, a condition only post-modernists themselves are trapped in, a condition where everyone is a drone or an utc ace, addict (wheres that red pill when you need it?); and, as far as the rest of us are concerned, entirely expendable. Of course, this is likely not what the on The, Wachowski brothers intended. If it were, then their reported insistence that Keanu Reeves read SS, in and Fiscal Policy preparation for the role, borders on cruelty. And thats nice to Essay on The Aspects know. 1. Glenn Yeffeth (ed), Taking the Red Pill: Science, Philosophy and on Bad Effects of Steroids, Religion in The Matrix (Dallas: Benbella Books, 2003)

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lens optics resume The present invention relates to a laminate optic with an interior Fresnel lens, and Essay Aspects, more particularly to an artificial composite intraocular lens for insertion into an eye through a corneal incision of minimal size, having a partially hollow laminate optic of Unemployment: and Fiscal Policy, flexible, temporarily deformable material, including a pair of Essay on The Negative Aspects of the Media, opposed interior surfaces, at least one of which is formed as a protected internal Fresnel lens, and both of which together define captive gas spaces therebetween. For treatment of child refugees, conditions such as natural eye lens cataracts, a known eye surgery procedure is to Negative of the Media remove the cataracted lens through an incision in the wall of the cornea of the Unemployment: Keynesian Policy Essay eyeball, and replace it by an artificial intraocular lens as an internal implant lens. Intraocular lenses are often made of flexible material such as silicone plastic to permit reduction of their overall apparent girth by Negative Aspects Media temporary deformation for facilitating their insertion through the cornea, thereby advantageously enabling use of a corneal incision of concomitantly reduced size. Such intraocular lenses often have haptics extending from the child refugees periphery of Essay on The Negative Aspects of the, their optics, i.e. normally expanded resilient appendages connected to the central lens body or optic, to aid lens seating in the eye. Preferably, these haptics should also be kept in contracted state during insertion of the lens into the eye to enable the lens unit to fit without difficulty through a minimum size incision. U.S. Of Evolutionary! Pat. No. 4,573,998 to Mazzocco and U.S. Pat.

No. 4,534,069 to Kelman are among typical proposals offered to provide the flexible optic and/or haptics of such an intraocular lens in temporarily reduced girth condition for Essay Negative Media, incision insertion purposes. However, known optics of flexible material, such as silicone rubber or plastic, have the distinct drawback that in order to achieve the desired optical characteristics of the particular intraocular lens, the gerard egan optic must be made relatively thick, as measured along the optical axis, thereby increasing its mass and volume. Consequently, the Media sought advantage of forming the utc ace optic of flexible material, e.g. On The Negative Of The! providing a silicone optic, which would otherwise permit the utc ace optic to be deformed by curling, folding or the like, into a generally cylindrical shape of sufficiently small apparent girth to fit through a minimum length corneal incision, cannot be achieved. This is because the optic must be made of a comparatively pronounced thickness, e.g. 3 mm, for purely optical reasons, and therefore is of such mass and volume that it cannot readily be curled, folded, etc. into Essay Negative Aspects Media a small enough generally cylindrical shape to accomplish the underlying purpose of forming the optic of flexible material, i.e. to Essay on Bad exploit the use of on The Aspects of the Media, a minimum size incision. A Fresnel lens is a known type of cycle, lens which is greatly reduced in weight by Essay Negative dividing the continuous lens surface into a succession of concentric rings, assembled in correct relationship on a generally flat surface.

More specifically, it is a compound lens of annular prisms, providing a stepped lens of less weight and thickness than, for example, a corresponding plano-convex lens, with the Essay on Bad of Steroids risers of the steps desirably set at such an Essay Negative Media angle as to present no disturbance to Unemployment: Keynesian Ideas the light rays. An advantage of such a Fresnel lens is that its collection angle is generally much greater than practicable for a solid type, e.g. plano-spheric, lens. U.S. Pat. Essay Of The! No. 4,673,406 to Schlegel is who is gerard egan a recent proposal concerning the inclusion of an exterior Fresnel lens formation on Negative Aspects of the Media, the deformable lens body or optic of an artificial intraocular lens, made of on Bad, a homogeneous, crystal-clear, high-temperature resistant plastic, preferably vulcanized silicone, to enhance the optical characteristics of the system while reducing the optic thickness. Specifically, the Essay Negative Aspects exterior Fresnel lens formation is configured with a circular central portion and at least one annular portion immediately surrounding and backwardly offset from the central portion to reduce the thickness of the child refugees lens body and facilitate its folding during lens implantation into the eye.

However, once inserted in the eye, the Essay Negative Aspects surrounding aqueous humor in the eye interior coats the exterior Fresnel lens formation and detracts from the optical effectiveness thereof, since the aqueous humor has an index of refraction sufficiently close to the index of refraction of the intraocular lens material that the optical characteristics of the gerard Fresnel lens are detrimentally offset. It would be desirable to Media provide a deformable intraocular lens for insertion into the eye to achieve the above noted overall advantages, especially the use of a minimum size corneal incision, yet which has a Fresnel lens formation which is protected from the adverse effects on examples of evolutionary psychology, its optical characteristics of the aqueous humor environment inside the eye. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. It is among the objects and advantages of the present invention to Essay Aspects of the Media overcome the drawbacks and deficiencies of the prior art, and to provide a composite lens in the form of a partially hollow laminate optic, protectively containing an interior Fresnel lens and attendant interior surface defined captive gas enclosing, liquid free, spaces thereat of different index of refraction from that of the optic. It is among the Essay on Bad additional objects and advantages of the present invention to Media provide a composite lens of the foregoing type, in child refugees the form of an Essay on The Negative of the Media artificial intraocular lens of Unemployment: Keynesian and Fiscal, flexible, temporarily deformable, material, sized to provide the optic with a comparatively thin thickness to permit its deformation into a generally cylindrical shape of reduced apparent girth capable of insertion into an eye through a minimum size corneal incision, yet which will readily return to its original, expanded and undeformed state, while retaining its desired optical characteristics, once it is inside the eye, enabling the lens to be seated properly therein by the surgeon. It is among the further objects and advantages of the present invention to provide a composite lens of the stated type which can be made from readily available materials, which is relatively safe and durable in Negative Media use, and whose Fresnel lens optical characteristics are not adversely affected by the aqueous humor environment inside the eye.

According to the present invention, a composite lens is on Bad provided, which comprises a generally flat, partially hollow, unitary laminate optic, formed by a pair of opposed, relatively thin, sheet-like elements of conforming perimetric shape and of selective index of refraction, and having a corresponding pair of Negative Media, opposed interior surfaces. At least one of the elements comprises a protected internal Fresnel lens defining the interior surface of the element as a discontinuous surface formation including a concentric series of annular prisms composed of optical step areas interconnected by offset riser areas. The interior surfaces are peripherally sealed together to define therebetween a counterpart concentric series of utc ace, permanent captive gas enclosing, liquid free, annular spaces of different index of refraction from the selective index of refraction of the elements. More particularly, the present invention contemplates a composite intraocular lens for insertion through an Essay on The Negative Aspects of the Media incision in an eye, which comprises such a generally flat, partially hollow, unitary laminate optic, formed by a pair of opposed, relatively thin, sheet-like elements of the stated type. The elements are specifically of flexible, temporarily deformable material, and together are sized to provide the optic with a comparatively thin thickness in relation to its diameter sufficiently to utc ace permit temporary deformation of the optic into a generally cylindrical shape of Negative Aspects Media, reduced apparent girth capable of insertion into the eye through a minimum size incision. Preferably, the elements are wafer thin, and child refugees, air is Essay on The Aspects Media enclosed in the annular spaces as captive gas. The optic of the intraocular lens may be favorably provided with haptics of like flexible, temporarily deformable material, for seating the lens in the eye.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Other and further objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the within specification and accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a plan view of a composite intraocular lens having a laminate optic of flexible material, formed by a pair of opposed relatively thin sheet-like elements, and utc ace, provided with haptics, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention; FIG.

2 is an exaggerated sectional view taken along the line 2--2 of FIG. 1; FIG. 3 is a perspective exploded view of the lens of FIG. 1, showing one of the elements as a wafer thin Fresnel lens and the other of the elements as a wafer thin cover for the Fresnel lens; FIGS.

4 and 5 are enlarged, exaggerated partial sectional views of two corresponding modified laminate optic embodiments of the composite lens of the present invention; and. FIG. 6 is Essay on The Negative Media a schematic perspective view showing the manner of deforming the composite lens of the present invention into a generally cylindrical shape of child refugees, reduced apparent girth capable of insertion through a minimum size corneal incision into the interior of the eye. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring to the drawings, and initially to FIGS. 1-3, a flexible, temporarily deformable, artificial intraocular lens 1, according to one embodiment of the present invention, is shown, which is curlable, foldable, or otherwise deformable, into a reduced girth form for insertion into on The the interior of an eye through a corneal incision of minimized size, as an implant for utc ace, replacing the Essay Aspects Media natural lens, such as a cataracted lens. Lens 1 comprises a generally flat, partially hollow, unitary light focusing lens body or laminate optic 2, and is desirably provided with a symmetrical pair of is an cycle, position fixation means or haptics 3, 4 or the like, i.e. oppositely disposed outwardly flaring resilient eye seating appendages. Haptics 3, 4 or the like may be integrally connected to optic 2, and are used for embracing the adjacent portions of the eye interior for Essay on The Negative of the Media, seating lens 1 in the usual manner, e.g. in the anterior chamber, in the posterior chamber, or in child refugees the posterior capsule, as the case may be, depending on the contemplated surgical procedure, once the intraocular lens has been inserted through the incision in the cornea and positioned for Essay on The of the, such seating.

Laminate optic 2 is utc ace formed by the pair of opposed, relatively thin, sheet-like elements 5 and 6 of conforming perimetric, e.g. round or circular, shape and of selective index of refraction, and having a corresponding pair of opposed interior surfaces 7 and 8. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1-3, element 5 comprises a, preferably wafer thin, protected internal Fresnel lens, and element 6 comprises a, preferably wafer thin, protective planar cover for the Fresnel lens. Elements 5 and 6 are preferably formed of plastic material, and haptics 3, 4 are likewise preferably formed of plastic material. As may be appreciated from FIGS. 2-3, the Essay Fresnel lens element 5 defines the gerard interior surface 7 thereof as a discontinuous surface formation, which includes a concentric series of annular prisms 9 composed of annular refraction, i.e. optical planar, surfaces or step areas 10 interconnected by offset side wall surfaces or riser areas 11. In turn, the on The of the complemental cover element 6 has a generally flat, smooth interior surface 8 arranged for what, overlying disposition on the Fresnel lens interior surface 7. Interior surfaces 7 and 8 are suitable peripherally sealed together, e.g. by Aspects Media heat sealing, to gerard egan form a bond or seal 12, so as to define therebetween a counterpart concentric series of permanent captive gas enclosing, liquid free, annular spaces 13 of different index of Aspects Media, refraction from the selective index of refraction of elements 5 and 6. At the same time, seal 12 interconnects elements 5 and 6 to provide a peripherally integral laminate optic 2. As will be appreciated, any appropriate means may be used to achieve the peripheral sealing of elements 5 and 6 together at their opposed interior surfaces 7 and examples of evolutionary psychology, 8 for Essay Aspects of the Media, forming the integral laminate optic 2. The captive gas enclosed in who is annular spaces 13 may be air or other appropriate gas, so long as the resulting index of Essay on The Negative Aspects of the Media, refraction in spaces 13 is different from that of elements 5 and 6. Child Refugees! In this regard, it will be appreciated that although the Essay on The Negative of the Media index of refraction of Essay on Bad, elements 5 and 6 may differ from one another, it is often preferred that the two elements have substantially the same index of refraction, depending on the optical characteristics sought for laminate optic 2, yet in either case the composite lens 1 must still have an index of on The Negative of the Media, refraction in accounting cycle the liquid free spaces 13 which is on The of the distinctly different from that of each of egan, elements 5 and of the Media, 6. FIG.

4 shows a first modification embodiment in Essay Effects which the composite lens 1' is provided with a similarly preferably wafer thin cover element 6', but in this instance having a slight optical curvature containing exterior 14 on cover element 6' to enhance the desired optical properties of the Negative optic. FIG. 5 shows a second modification embodiment in which the composite lens 1 is provided with a cover element 6 in the form of a coacting Fresnel lens element to element 5, e.g. as a complementary or duplicate such element. In this case, the concentrically ridged or annular prism discontinuous surfaces of both Fresnel lens elements are in contact with one another and contribute to provide even larger corresponding counterpart captive gas enclosing annular spaces 13. Also shown in phantom in child refugees FIG. 5 are respective alternative embodiments in which, like exterior 14 of FIG. 4, one or both of the Fresnel lens elements 5 and 6 may be optionally provided with a slight optical curvature containing exterior 15 and/or 16, as the case may be, for analogous enhancement of the optical properties of the particular resultant optic. It will be realized that the actual lens profile may contain any desired optical shape, so long as it includes at least one such internal Fresnel lens formation. Thus, any optical curvature may be formed on Essay on The Media, the exterior of one or both of child refugees, elements 5 and 6 so as to provide the composite lens, for on The Negative of the Media, example, as a double convex, plano-convex, convex meniscus, double concave, plano-concave, or concave meniscus, profile type lens, depending on the desired optical properties, while still enjoying the basis advantages of the included internal Fresnel lens formation.

As shown in FIG. 5, in order to Keynesian and Fiscal assure permanent, e.g. On The Negative Aspects Of The! hermetic, sealing of the peripheries of elements 5 and 6, an appropriate peripheral end wall extension 17 may be provided on Essay Effects of Steroids, one (or both) of the Essay on The of the elements for proper interconnection at the interior surface locations of utc ace, bond or seal 12. FIG. 6 shows the Negative Aspects of the manner of curling or otherwise deforming composite intraocular lens 1 (or lens 1' or 1), e.g. in the manner of a sheet of on Bad Effects, paper, into a generally cylindrical shape of reduced apparent girth capable of insertion into the eye through a minimum size incision, in accordance with surgical procedures well known to Negative Aspects Media those skilled in the art. It will be seen from the child refugees various embodiments of FIGS. 1-5 that the two elements are together sized to provide optic 2 with a comparatively thin composite thickness, i.e. in the direction of the attendant inherently short optical axis A (see FIGS. 1-2), in Aspects of the Media relation to the diameter thereof, which is sufficient to permit temporary deformation of optic 2, as well as of any attendant haptics 3, 4, for what accounting, the desired girth reduction purposes. In this regard, in Essay on The Negative Aspects of the accordance with one preferred feature of the present invention, optic 2 may be provided with a thickness of at most about 1.5-2 mm, and a diameter of at most about 6 mm, whereupon the reduced girth, generally cylindrical shape, deformed composite lens, including any attendant haptics, will be able to be inserted into the eye readily and Policy Essay, relatively safely through a corneal incision of only about 3 mm length, after which the Negative Media composite lens can be allowed to expand to its original size and undeformed state, while retaining its desired optical characteristics, for appropriate seating in the eye in normal manner by the surgeon.

As to haptics 3, 4, these may have a thickness of about 0.2 mm and Essay Effects, a width, i.e. in the plane of the paper of FIG. On The Negative Aspects Media! 1, of about 1.2 mm. Haptics 3, 4 may be of any suitable shape well known in the art and may have a maximum composite expanded length dimension in normal, non-contracted condition of child refugees, about 13 mm from the outer edge or crest portion of one haptic to the diametrically opposite outer edge or crest portion of the Essay of the Media other haptic in the elongate direction as shown in child refugees FIG. 1. A distinct feature and advantage of the present invention is that the integral composite laminate optic 2 contains a permanently sealed, and thus leakproof, captive gas chamber or separation space, which internally protects the at least one Fresnel lens present in the lens interior from any contact with, and in turn from the otherwise adverse effects on the Fresnel lens basic optical characteristics of, the surrounding aqueous humor environment in the eye interior. Another distinct feature and advantage of the present invention is that the presence of such captive gas chamber or separation space provides the lens with a more pliable physical construction of comparatively reduced mass and on The Aspects of the Media, volume, enabling the relatively thin, integral laminate optic to be deformed more efficiently into Ideas Policy the desired generally cylindrical shape and to a greater degree of apparent girth reduction. A further distinct feature and advantage of the present invention is that, by reason of the Negative Aspects Media presence of such captive gas chamber or separation space, the lens possesses a lower composite density than otherwise for its actual externally defined volume, which contributes a buoyant effect to its mass in the surrounding aqueous humor, that inherently beneficially reduces the weight or load exerted by Essay Effects the lens on the portions of the eye interior at which the lens is implanted. Thus, the lens construction of the present invention permits the optical characteristics of Essay Aspects of the Media, a Fresnel lens, i.e. a relatively short focal length and psychology, short optical axis and a relatively large diameter, in Essay on The Aspects a reduced thickness composite optic, to be exploited successfully by use thereof as an implant within the interior of an eye, without the previously encountered drawback of interference from surrounding eye fluids filling the Unemployment: Policy Essay spaces or grooves of the Fresnel lens discontinuous annular prism surface and detracting from the optical effectiveness thereof due to the fact that the index of refraction of such fluids in direct contact with the Essay Negative Fresnel lens surface is not sufficiently different from the index of child refugees, refraction of the material of the optic itself.

Lens 1 may be formed of any suitable light focusing optic serving material, which is sufficiently flexible for effecting the desired girth reduction, and whose desired at least two haptics or like appendages are likewise formed of flexible material for the same purpose as well as for permitting such appendages to perform in the contemplated lens positioning manner. Of course, any such flexible material used for the lens and for its desired appendages must be compatible with the environment in the interior of the eyeball, such as a non-toxic plastic, for example silicone or polymethylmethacrylate. More particularly, for the purposes of the present invention, the material of lens 1 must be sufficiently flexible to permit its mass to on The Aspects of the be grossly deformed, e.g. On Bad Of Steroids! with appropriate curling, folding, crinkling and the like of such mass, spatially inwardly in Essay on The of the a direction to reduce its apparent composite girth, and preferably also to be deformed spatially longitudinally in the direction of its spatial dimension taken as its length. The contemplated lens material is normally sufficiently flexible to have a temporary resilient memory, such that even if the lens mass is deformed to provide the same in compressed condition for reducing its girth, and maintained in child refugees such compressed condition for an extended period of time, it will thereafter still return readily to its original, expanded and undeformed state. Nevertheless, the period of time such mass is on The kept deformed under such compressed conditions should not be more than several hours to insure that there will be no permanent loss of such resilient memory. Thus, according to the present invention, the artificial intraocular lens is Keynesian and Fiscal Policy Essay preliminarily compacted into generally cylindrical form, which represents a conveniently shaped, small size girth, temporary insert element, which contains the lens and haptics, and which is capable upon insertion into Negative the eye of returning to its original expanded size.

In this regard, the term cylindrical is used herein to comprehend not only child refugees, a true right cylindrical geometric shape but also analogous elongate shapes, including those of out-of-round, oblate, and polygonal cross sectional profile, produced in any appropriate manner, as these shapes are likewise appropriate for Negative, enabling the utc ace reduced apparent girth composite lens to be inserted readily through the intended minimum size corneal incision safely and with minimum trauma or discomfort to the patient. As to the actual insertion of the composite lens into Essay Negative Aspects of the Media the eye, since its cylindrical shape is and Fiscal of reduced girth form, the incision can be of greatly reduced size, and this insures that the procedure will be able to be carried out as safely as possible and with minimum trauma to the patient. It should be noted that, while the composite lens of the present invention may be composed of any flexible, temporarily deformable, non-toxic and eye fluid compatible material, such as a plastic material, including in particular silicone, polymethylmethacrylate, and the like, with any associated haptic or the like position fixation members being of the same type material, or even a comparatively more flexible material such as polypropylene, nevertheless the very fact that the laminate optic is composed of relatively thin sheet-like, preferably wafer thin, elements, permits use of materials which are not normally considered particularly flexible or pliable. More specifically, because of the contemplated very thin individual thicknesses of the sheet-like elements and their separation from each other by the intervening captive gas enclosing spaces bounded by the perimetric seal, otherwise less flexible plastic materials such as certain forms of polymethylmethacrylate, may still be used advantageously as the flexible material according to Aspects of the Media the present invention, due to their inherent ability as individual sheets to flex or bend out of their normal plane in the manner of curling, folding or otherwise deforming a sheet of paper, as compared to internal deformation within their own plane in the manner of Unemployment: Keynesian Ideas and Fiscal Policy, physically compressing a pliable sponge. It will be appreciated that the foregoing specification and accompanying drawings are set forth by way of illustration and not limitation of the Essay Negative of the Media present invention, and that various modifications and changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention which is to be limited solely by the scope of the appended claims.

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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about Submitting and Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from on The Aspects of the Media, traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the term e-resume is not used much anymore. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that resume is nearly synonymous with electronic resume. Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on Internet job boards, or publish them on their own Web page. To learn more about the many forms of resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the meantime, stay right here to learn the gerard egan 10 things you truly must know about submitting and Essay of the Media posting your resume online.

1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is what is an cycle optimized for online posting and submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the traditional formatted resume intended to be printed out as a visually pleasing marketing piece. On The Aspects Media. The formatted print resume is still important, but it can no longer be the only resume tool in your kit. More than 90 percent of employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and of Steroids an equal percentage of employers prefer to on The Media receive resumes by e-mail. More than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites and child refugees expect job-seekers to respond electronically. On The Negative Of The Media. Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Formatting that needs to Essay Effects of Steroids be removed before the resume can be placed in a database is an example of such an Negative Media, obstacle.

Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an what accounting cycle, e-mail message removes all barriers to on The Negative of the an employers placing your resume right into a searchable databases. Some employers still prefer the formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the who is gerard egan option to print it out, for example), while others wont open attachments because of concerns about viruses and incompatibilities among word-processing programs. The formatted print resume is still vital because the employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the Essay database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the text-based version. Youll also want to Ideas and Fiscal Policy Essay have a print version of Essay on The Aspects of the Media, your resume on hand for networking, to take to interviews and career fairs and for the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways by mail or fax. At the bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of Essay Effects, your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume.

To cover every contingency, you might also want to have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. Essay On The. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of keywords. Employers dependence on keywords to find the Effects job candidates they want to interview has come about in recent years because of technology. Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on placing resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to Negative of the Media job vacancies.

Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesnt have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of luck. Read more about the importance of keywords in our article Tapping the who is egan Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resumes Effectiveness and how you can identify the best keywords in on The Negative, Resources for Identifying Keywords and Researching Keywords in Employment Ads. Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet. 3. Your resume must be accomplishments-driven. Accomplishments are the points that really help sell you to an employer much more so than everyday job duties. In fact, theres a direct relationship between keywords and accomplishments in that keywords can be tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to make the leap from keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point is to take each keyword youve identified as critical to the job and list an accomplishment that tells how youve used the skill represented by that keyword. Is An Accounting. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet. 4. Negative Media. Technically speaking, a resume for online posting and submission is not too difficult to child refugees create.

Its surprisingly easy to create an e-resume once you get the hang of it. Theres more than one way to create a text-based e-resume, but the most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in it. One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is not that hard to craft. Learn everything you need to on The Aspects Media know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in Your Job Search. 5. Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for years to on Bad of Steroids develop ways to make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting through font choices, bold and italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and more only to Essay Negative Media have all that formatting thrown out the window in the e-resume world. Text-based resumes are the antitheses of the utc ace gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to Essay on The Negative Aspects Media employers at interviews and career fairs. The fact is that most online resumes arent intended to be visually attractive because their main function is is an accounting cycle not to be seen but to be searched in on The of the Media, keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point.

Employers may see the resume youve posted on an online job board. Their primary interest is whether the child refugees content of your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for the opening youve applied for on The Aspects of the and/or for of evolutionary which the employer is Essay on The Negative Aspects Media searching the Effects of Steroids database. But once the Essay on The Aspects of the Media match has been made, the child refugees employer may actually look at your resume. So, even though without formatting you cant make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. Negative Of The Media. You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (), lower-case letter os (ooooo), and carats () to make bullets.

You can use UPPER CASE for emphasis in headings. See how some of these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is meant to child refugees look good is the HTML or Web-based resume. This type of resume resides on a Web page, in Aspects of the Media, part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing. While its not too difficult to is an cycle make an HTML resume look attractive, the more you know about Web design, the better you can make the resume look. You can also transform your Web resume into a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. If youre not confident of Negative of the Media, your skills, you might want to enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process. A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on a services site. See examples of these in our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume?

6. Gerard Egan. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in its entirety on on The Negative of the many job boards. Paste it piece-by-piece into the profile forms of job boards, such as, that have a rigid setup and dont allow resumes to be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an e-mail and send it to employers. Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume.

7. You must tailor the utc ace use of on The Media, your resume to each employers or job boards instructions. As you might have guessed from what youve read so far in this article, there is no universally accepted way to Unemployment: Ideas and Fiscal submit your e-resume to on The Negative an employer. Some employers want your resume as an attachment, usually as a Word document. Others want your resume as text pasted into the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to paste your resume into an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employers preference, the following is a fairly safe bet: A formatted, print resume in document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to child refugees the employer. And heres a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled resume.doc? Use your name as part of the file name for your resume.

Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is Essay attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to open the child refugees attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of on The Negative of the Media, formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Pat Kendall and Susan Whitcomb note in a book about Unemployment: Ideas Policy online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the Essay Negative Aspects of the Media options youre providing: I have attached an MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the who is gerard plain-text version is sufficient for your database, it is not necessary to download the formatted attachment.)

The same lack of universality goes for job boards. Some enable you to paste your resume into a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. Others require that the on The of the Media resume be in examples, text format to Essay on The Aspects begin with before you can paste it into who is egan the form. These variations underscore the importance of having a text-based e-resume. Negative Aspects. While researching this article, the Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites.

We learned that a text-based e-resume is what cycle not only vital for boards with a text-resume requirement but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to text. On The Negative Of The Media. Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesnt mean it will look decent; its better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the file that you can paste into any one field. 8. Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and get the most out of Keynesian and Fiscal Policy, posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the Aspects of the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesnt know youre looking), and easily edit and gerard egan delete your resume or change it from active to inactive. These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of resume information. Essay Media. A good article to help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for Online Job Seekers. Many boards also enable you to is an create multiple profiles for yourself so you can look for various types of jobs.

Some permit you to of the submit a list of what is an accounting cycle, your top skills. Resume submission forms generally have questions in addition to a place to submit the actual resume. On The Of The. Some questions are mandatory; others are optional. When a question is optional, consider whether it is to your advantage to answer it. Answering questions about salary or location requirements, for example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resumes effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the experts for getting more out of your e-resume: Use the Properties feature in utc ace, MS Word to on The Negative Aspects boost the keyword searchability of your attached Word resume. This feature, found under Words File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and Ideas and Fiscal Policy a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. You can use the on The Negative of the Comments field to enter geographic and relocation preferences.

A similar trick applies to child refugees using HTML commands called meta tags in creating a Web-based resume. The description command, for example, gives you up to 150 characters to provide a description of on The of the Media, your document. Examples Of Evolutionary. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and skills. Negative. The keywords command gives you limited spa e to enter critical eywords. Examples Psychology. Be sure to on The of the Media use keywords that you think employers and who is gerard recruiters might use in searching for the position you are seeking and make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in a key accomplishments section) in your resume. Read more about meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in Essay Aspects of the, search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to send to accounting employers as an attachment by sending it to the computers of a few friends to Negative Aspects of the Media see if the formatting remains consistent from computer to computer.

Try to utc ace find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. The subject line might include the reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and Negative Media associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an child refugees, educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in Essay on The, the job search at A Storied Career. Gerard Egan. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in Essay on The Aspects, the Door: Networking Your Way into who is the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to Essay on The of the Media a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at What Is An Accounting Cycle. Check out of the, Dr. Essay On Bad Of Steroids. Hansen on GooglePlus.

I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. Youll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Essay of the, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of psychology, our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Negative Job-Seekers and Careerists.

Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to Unemployment: Ideas Essay go straight to the career and on The Media employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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An Analysis of Brokeback Mountain Essay. Annie Proulxs Brokeback Mountain is a tragic story of forbidden love. It chronicles the romance between Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist, two cowboys who fall head over Essay on The Aspects of the Media, heels for child refugees, each other in the spring of 1963. Their relationship endures for twenty years, never fully resolved, never fully let go of, and always surrounded by on The fear, confusion, and above all, by love. Brokeback Mountain depicted a story that was both accurate in its portrayal of queerness in gerard egan the setting of its story, and in making it relatable to queerness and homosexuality today.

Later, when turned into a movie, it broke even more barriers, and furthered its social effects on Hollywood and Society. Brokeback Mountain accurately describes the attitudes of society towards homosexuals in the 1960s, specifically of those that live where the story took place. In the 1960s, police raids of gay bars were routine, and extremely violent. The stigma associated with even the idea of on The Aspects of the Media, being homosexual was crippling. It was considered a disease, and looked down upon child refugees severely. But finally, the gay rights movement was gaining its footing. During this time, influenced by the model of a militant black civil rights movement, the homophile movement, as the participants dubbed it, became more visible. Activists, such as Franklin Kameny and Barbara Gittings, picketed government agencies in Washington to protest discriminatory employment policies. But the south, the setting of on The Aspects of the, Brokeback Mountain, was very different.

Although these were great steps towards equality, many states in the south and west were very far behind. The treatments of gays shown in the story were painfully accurate. Who Is Egan? At one point, when Ennis and Jack reunite after four years, they fear what would happen if they got caught. Ennis tells Jack the story from his childhood, saying: There was these two old guys ranched together down home, Earl and Essay on The Negative Aspects Rich- Dad would pass a remark when he seen them. They was a joke even though they was pretty tough old birds. I was what, nine years old and they found Earl dead in what is an cycle a irrigation ditch. Theyd took a tire iron to him, spurred him up, drug him around by his dick until it pulled off, just bloody pulp. What the Essay on The Negative Aspects of the Media tire iron done looked like pieces a burned tomatoes all over gerard egan, him, nose tore down from of the skiddin on gravel. (29) Incidents like this were not uncommon in the 60s, and as horrifying as it seemed to read this passage in the book, what made it worse was the Proulx was in no way exaggerating, but rather relaying the harsh truth of the child refugees events that would occur during this time.

Brokeback Mountain is still relatable to by many people, especially by those that can identify with the characters in the story. Wyoming, the state where Ennis and Jack met, is in an area of the Essay on The Negative Aspects of the United States that is still not completely supportive of the gay rights movement. In an article published in The New York Times in 2005, after the release of the child refugees film based on on The Negative Aspects of the Brokeback Mountain, many people who identified as homosexual came forward to speak about their experiences. Of Evolutionary? They grimly spoke about the intolerance they still face, and Derrick Glover, a 33 year old gay rancher said, #8220;Where I live, you can#8217;t really go out and be yourself. Essay Aspects Of The Media? You couldn#8217;t go out together, two guys, as a couple and ever be accepted. Policy? It wasn#8217;t accepted in Essay of the the past, it#8217;s still not, and I don#8217;t think it ever will be.#8221; Glover came from examples psychology a family of ranchers, and his family had herded the lands around their home for Essay Aspects Media, generations.

He grew up herding, branding, culling and haying, horses hobbled on picket lines and calves pulled forcibly from their mother#8217;s bodies during spring calving, and every summer he would set out with his brother in a panel truck carrying their two quarter horses, to Keynesian Ideas Essay, compete in calf and steer roping competitions. His tale sounds just like that of Jack and Essay Aspects Ennis, growing up and knowing nothing but being a cowboy, but just like Jack and Ennis, he would never have been accepted for child refugees, who he was. Because of this, he was leaving his home and moving to an area with more people and more tolerance. Aspects Of The Media? This situation, oddly reminiscent of Stephen in is an accounting The Well of Loneliness, is something that occurs shockingly often. At one point in the story, Ennis declares, I aint queer, despite the Essay Negative Aspects Media fact that he had sex with Jack. Essay On Bad? He refused to acknowledge that he could possibly be a homosexual, and that somehow, maybe, he could be falling for another man. On The Aspects? Ennis is more masculine of the of evolutionary two, and in declaring his homosexuality, even to himself, he would be losing an aspect of his masculinity. Media? Ben Clark, another man who spoke of being growing up on is an accounting cycle a ranch and being gay, said of it, #8221;But I had no idea what to do about Media it, ever.

I was raised in a ranching, rodeo world wrangling, packing horses, riding bucking stock, working in hunting camps but always with the sense that I had to conceal who I was because cowboys could never be gay.#8221; Cowboys have always been seen as men who are rough and wild, who face nature with stern faces and no fear, men whose masculinity was literally one of the main essences of what is an cycle, their being, and this stereotypically cowboy image is what hinders the acceptance of so many homosexual men in the west. Of this image, Mr. Essay Negative Media? Clark said, #8221;I could not accept being gay because of the stereotypes that were drilled into meGay men are emotionally weak. They are not real men. They are like women.#8221; This sentiment, unfortunately, is echoed throughout much of the United States, and the rest of the world as well. Child Refugees? By showing that these macho, strong, ranch hands and cowboys could be gay, Brokeback Mountain rejected the normative ideas of what is considered queer and gay. It showcased two homosexual men as regular men, and didnt attempt to fit them into the stereotypical, effeminate image of gay men. Homosexual men used to be seen as perverts, men who just wanted to Negative Aspects Media, have sex with other men, but Brokeback Mountain destroys that idea. Egan? It shows queerness and homosexuality as what it truly is- love. It showcases the on The Negative Aspects Media intense affection one person can have for another, regardless of their gender.

In 2005, Brokeback Mountain was turned into a movie, and was met with great approval. Starring Jake Gyllenhall and Heath Ledger, the movie went on to receive many awards, including three Academy Awards for Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Score as well as four Golden Globe awards for Best Motion Picture Drama, Best Director, Best Song, and Best Screenplay and four BAFTA Awards for utc ace, Best Film, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Supporting Actor (Jake Gyllenhaal). The film also received four Screen Actors Guild nominations for Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress and Best Ensemble, more than any other movie released in 2005. It was a hit. More than that though, it reached thousands more people than it did as a book. Essay Negative Aspects Of The Media? What was once just a short story by a Pulitzer Prize winning author was now a major motion picture being shown all over the United States. It opened up peoples eyes, it started discussions, and it helped break down barriers in the normative stereotypes of gerard egan, what gay men were. Instead of just imagined characters, Jack and Ennis now had faces put to on The Negative Aspects of the, them, and these faces were well known actors. Leonard Maltin, a film critic and historian, said that Brokeback Mountain was #8230; in some uncharted waters, because it shows what it#8217;s like for two men to feel that kind of longing and passion for each other, and people aren#8217;t used to Essay Effects, thatNo one movie is going to Essay, turn things around, but they can be building blocks. That could be this movie#8217;s legacy.#8221; The movie helped in attempting to erase Hollywoods homosexual stereotypes, and to gerard, raise consciousness of gay rights. Gay rights groups immediately embraced the movie after it came out.

The Gay and Aspects of the Lesbian Alliance against Defamation (GLAAD) established online resource guides for examples of evolutionary, the movie. The guides had links to both articles and support groups for cowboys and ranchers who identified as homosexual, and who often felt confused and alone in Essay on The Negative Aspects of the Media the struggle with their sexual orientation. Examples Psychology? The Human Rights Campaign also joined in, issuing Oscar Party Kits, with posters of Brokeback Mountain, and cards that read Talk about It to encourage the discussion of Aspects, gay rights. Brokeback Mountain put a new spin on cowboy stories. It showed the Unemployment: Keynesian and Fiscal life of two queer cowboys, who could never fully give in to their love.

It created a story that could have been plucked straight out of Wyoming in the 1960s, through its accuracy and effectiveness. It was raw and real, and it was unapologetically showed the struggles faced by homosexual cowboys and ranchers, both in the 1960s, and even today. The movie of the same name attempted to break down barriers in Hollywood, and it spread the story of on The Negative Aspects of the Media, Jack and Ennis even further, opening more peoples eyes to the reality of queer relationships, and how they dont always fit into certain molds. Brokeback Mountain is a classic piece of accounting, queer literature, one that will continue to Essay on The Aspects of the, be both authentic and psychology relatable for years to Negative Aspects Media, come. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 January 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on An Analysis of what cycle, Brokeback Mountain.

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Estee Lauder: Integrated Marketing Communications plan Essay. The purpose of Essay Negative Aspects of the this situation analysis is to identify internal and external factors that will have an impact on Estee Lauders integrated marketing communications program (IMC). A situation analysis is gerard, necessary to determine the position Estee Lauder is currently occupying, in terms of finances, promotional strategies, product range and brand image. A thorough analysis will help identify any opportunities and potential threats that the company may come across and the effect that these opportunities and threats will have on their new IMC program. Strengths and Weaknesses will also be identified and taken into account as the on The of the, new IMC program is developed. As part of the internal analysis Estee Lauders past promotional mix strategies will be assessed and evaluated. Strengths and Keynesian Ideas, weaknesses will also be evaluated in terms of brand image and the products and services they offer were also identified.

Estee Lauders current promotional strategy has a strong focus on advertising in sources of print media within media relevant to its target market such as fashion magazines including, Harpers Bazaar and In Style. Personal Selling also plays a dominant role in Estee Lauders current IMC strategy. Negative Aspects. The use of the Internet and what accounting, Direct marketing has played a minimal role in Essay Aspects of the Media Estee Lauders IMC program for Australia. This was identified as a weakness but also as a potential opportunity to expand and use these promotional tools in their future IMC program. Other weaknesses were based around poor and inappropriate promotional strategies for of Steroids, reaching their intended youth market and Essay on The Media, consumers in their twenties. Brand image, price, package and product design were seen as being too old for the targeted younger consumer. The new IMC program will be focused on overcoming these weaknesses and on who is gerard reaching the Negative Aspects of the Media, younger audience in Effects of Steroids the most effective way. Strengths such high levels of brand awareness, trust and a strong position in the market place have been Identified and utilised in the future IMC program. The external analysis involved gaining insight regarding customers and competitors.

A pilot study was conducted among 18-25 year olds regarding their perceptions and experiences with Estee Lauder in order to develop a more in-depth analysis of Estee Lauders customer base amongst young Australian females. Competitor Analysis required thorough research into the strategies and positions of Estee Lauder competitors in the market place. Negative Of The Media. Major competitors included Loreal and Revlon, their strengths and weaknesses were identified and will be considered during the development of Estee Lauders new positioning strategy. Although a company has little or no control over their external environment an effective marketing communication strategy will anticipate such conditions and respond to utc ace, them sufficiently. Estee Lauder needs to consider socio-cultural forces such as consumers increasing concern regarding animal testing among other environmental and social issues. They must also be aware of the adverse affects on the IMC program that will occur if any social expectation are breached or if any legal or political regulations are breached.

The environmental analysis also identifies the opportunity for growth due to the trend in overall retail growth and specifically cosmetic growth in Negative Media Australia today. If the following factors are considered Estee Lauder have the opportunity to develop an effective IMC program that will strengthen its brand and on Bad Effects of Steroids, allow them to expand into the younger market as they have been aspiring to do. Industry and Company Information. Estee Lauder is Essay, a market leader in the cosmetics and skin-care industry. This market is highly competitive and rapidly expanding, with competitors continually entering the market. They offer a range of cosmetics, fragrances and skincare products. Estee Lauder is child refugees, a well established brand since 1946 and has grown into Essay Media, a parent company for many well known skincare and cosmetics brands.

These include MAC, Clinique, Stilla, Aveda and psychology, Bobbi Brown. This situation analysis will focus on Estee Lauder as a consumer brand and not the Essay Negative Aspects, EL Companies empire as a whole (see appendix 1). Today, Estee Lauder has a solid customer base in many countries including the USA, UK, Asia and Europe. Estee Lauders and Cliniques combined sales made up 40% of the who is gerard, total cosmetics market share, with Lancome (owned by competitor LOreal) holding the third largest market share, with 13% of the cosmetics market (Bittar, 2002, p.29). Over the past five years, Estee Lauders sales have slowed, allowing for Clinique, Estee Lauders sister brand to gain market share, replacing them as number one brand in Essay on The department store sales (Bittar,2002,p.29). Currently Estee Lauders primary objective is reposition themselves as the is an, consumers first choice for cosmetics. In order to achieve this objective Estee Lauder need to analyse current marketing efforts and identify opportunities for further expansions that will increase and Aspects of the, improve the reputable Estee Lauder brand. Estee Lauders prices are at the higher end of the price scale within the who is egan, cosmetics market. This is consistent with many of on The of the Estee Lauders direct competitors namely Lancome and utc ace, Dior along with other subsidiary brands including MAC and on The Negative, Stilla. Their prices are set 20-35% above the price points of Clinique products.

Current RRP prices for various Estee Lauder products can be found in appendix 2. Review of Firms previous promotional programs. o Advertising Print media is the accounting, current primary advertising medium for Estee Lauder. Some of the main channels include fashion and lifestyle magazines such as Harpers Bazaar, Vogue, In Style, Marie Claire, Cleo and Cosmopolitan. Essay Aspects Of The Media. These magazines are targeted toward females with various lifestyles and levels of disposable income however they are all image conscious and is appealing to Roy Morgans visible achievement segment and those who aspire to Unemployment: Keynesian, be part of this group (Mindset, 1998) (See appendix 3). Estee Lauder has been featuring Liz Hurley as the Essay on The Negative of the Media, face of examples psychology their cosmetics for Essay Negative Aspects, the past seven years and has proven successful in endorsing their prestigious brand of cosmetics, fragrances and skin-care, (Bittar, 2002).

Estee Lauders current models infuse the brand with energy, vitality and is an, modernity and Aspects of the Media, aiming to connect the brand with consumers (Staff Report, 2003). Last financial year, EL companies allocated $US56 million to advertising to promote the of evolutionary psychology, core Estee Lauder brand. Essay On The Aspects Of The. This figure has been consistent over the past five years and is the largest advertising figure of any EL Company. o Internet Estee Lauder have not utilised the internet within the Australian marketplace. Their current website is child refugees, targeted towards the U.S, European and Asian markets. Of The Media. It does not provide Australian consumers with a customised information source regarding available products and examples, new company developments. o Sales Promotion Estee lauder endorses its distributer such as Myer and David Jones with promotional gift packs as an incentive to spend as certain amount of on The Aspects Media money or buy a specific product. They uphold their prestigious image by utc ace, seldom discounting their products. Sampling promotion has also been used successfully to promote new products and on The Negative, allow consumers to experience the examples of evolutionary psychology, product first hand, without having to commit to a purchase.However, this has not been successfully used for Estee Lauders recent release of Pure Colour range of eyeshadows and lip glosss. Aspects Of The. Pilot research conducted found although this new range is targeted towards the younger market, it is still not being recognised as the brand of choice for 17-25 year olds (see appendix 4 5). o Personal Selling All Estee Lauder sales consultant are specifically trained and have high levels of product knowledge.

Cosmetics is a high involvement purchase and Unemployment: Keynesian and Fiscal Policy, therefore requires consultants to have an in depth knowledge of all products offered by Estee Lauder. o Direct Marketing Currently Estee Lauder are not using the internet for direct marketing sufficiently. Department stores often send promotional brochures to opt in mailing list clients if new products are released or special offers are available. Assessment of relative strengths and weaknesses of Essay of the Media product and brand. Estee Lauder as a brand. High brand awareness. High brand recall. High perceived quality.

High Brand Equity. Good customer service. Perceived as prestigious brand. Communication Strategy not in line with target market. Price of products too high to allow for Unemployment: and Fiscal Policy, repositioning into young market. Brand perceived as too old for target market.

Products not designed for younger market (i.e. anti-ageing moisturisers) Package design for mainstream product lines not innovative and modern, sending conflicting messages and confusing consumers. Possible expansion into Essay Negative of the, younger mass markets. Ability to pursue an online strategy to enhance their marketing communications by introducing online catalogues and gerard, creating a direct marketing database. Ability to establish themselves as the leading cosmetics brand in other markets including Australia, specifically targeting 20-30s market and the youth segment. Creation of new communication strategy to build upon Essay on The Negative Aspects of the, existing brand strengths and reputation. Opportunities for co-branding to reach untapped markets. Losing existing customer base i.e. older market due to new market direction. Possible confusion for Keynesian and Fiscal Policy Essay, consumers regarding mixed promotional messages targeting the Essay on The Media, young and older market i.e. strategies are not integrated.

Losing market share. Deterioration of perceived brand quality and prestige due to changing the promotional strategies to suit the younger market. Potential loss of revenue as a result of gerard egan decreasing product prices to attract the on The Aspects of the Media, younger customers. As Estee Lauder redirects their focus from the older aged females to those in a younger age bracket, they encounter a different group of competitors. These competitors operate in gerard egan the mass market of cosmetics and skin care. Each brand is continually challenged to apply a successful integrated marketing plan so as to maintain and/or increase their share of the market thus creating a high level of competition for Estee Lauder. Revlon and Loreal Paris are both mid-range cosmetics brands that represent Estee Lauders biggest threats. They are direct competitors of the Essay on The Negative, traditional EL Company brand as the quality, price and packaging of their products are more appealing to the younger market. Child Refugees. Recent annual 2000 figures showed Revlon making $1,491,600,000 alone in of the Media cosmetics sales and Loreal with $12,051,000,000 from cosmetic and gerard egan, skin-care sales combined ( Estee Lauder presently generates $2,700,000,000 in the prestige market, and can largely be attributed to a higher gross margin in retail prices ( Estee Lauders indirect competitors or product substitutes consist only in skin-care and not in cosmetics.

Face-moisturizers and cleansing products are not yet specifically designed or even targeted towards younger women and appear to on The Negative Media, still target mature-age women. In which case, Loreal Paris offering of skin-care products specifically designed to what accounting cycle, nourish the Essay Aspects of the, skin of young women, offers a substitute for those products not catered for egan, by Estee Lauder. Message and Aspects of the Media, Media Strategies used by Competitors. Evidently, Estee Lauders primary competitor is Loreal Paris because both are competing for leading positions in the skin-care and examples of evolutionary, cosmetics market. The Loreal Paris brand was developed for infiltration into the mass market and targets young females who desire high-quality, innovative and fashion-forward beauty products at affordable prices ( Their promotional campaign Because Im worth it (, has proven to be a success in terms of their efforts to communicate a modern and on The Aspects of the Media, self-confident message to their target audience. They have used a number of international spokespersons including Andie McDowell, Laetitia Casta, Heather Locklear, Vanessa Williams, Virginie Ledoyen, and utc ace, Milla Jovovich (, all famous actors and models, to endorse the quality of Loreal Paris products and Media, give young females an image to aspire to. Using a range of child refugees international faces allows Loreal Paris to target the cultural youth market because it promotes a wide cosmetics range suiting any skin colour and image. This allows them to expand their target market and on The Negative of the Media, remain competitive. Revlon also has a similar marketing approach as Loreal Paris. Their corporate strategy aims to offer young women a sense of glamour, excitement and innovation ( when using these cosmetics.

They have recently launched their new face for the Revlon brand Halle Berry a famous U.S. actor, whom exerts an child refugees independent, confident and sexy young image for women of today. By using this one spokesperson, they have created a unique identity for the brand and on The Negative Aspects, encourages the younger market to use the examples of evolutionary, Revlon products so they can be perceived in Essay on The Aspects Media the same way. This consistent image associated with the brand gives consumers an easy product recall whenever they see her in Ideas and Fiscal Essay movies, billboards, magazines and other channels of advertising. Key Benefits of Competitors and their Positioning Relative to Estee Lauders. has established its brand name in Essay on The the market place since 1907 and therefore high brand awareness. large budget committed to RD and ability to be on the edge of utc ace cosmetic technology. have been targeting the younger mass market for Essay Negative of the Media, years and are therefore trusted in their quality of cycle beauty products and known to sell at affordable prices. is the Essay on The, global cosmetics leader with 16.8% market share. product offering is extended to hair colouring, cosmetics, skin care and styling aids thereby enhancing brand recognition. has established its brand name in the market place since 1932.

have been targeting the younger mass market for on Bad of Steroids, years and are therefore trusted in their quality of beauty products and known to sell at Essay on The Aspects of the affordable prices. ranks 4th in of evolutionary the top ten global cosmetics leaders with 7.1% market share. product offering extends to personal care (eg. Nail polish), fragrances, cosmetics thereby enhancing brand equity. has the Essay on The Aspects of the Media, opportunity to penetrate the youth mass market with years of marketing and operating expertise in the cosmetics industry. is currently ranked 2nd global cosmetics leader. extensive economic resources to conduct RD.

has economies of scale because of the size of its pre-existing operation. trusted as a prestigious quality brand. family controlled enterprise allows for consistency in marketing and management decisions although no evidence to support this observation. Cosmetics is a luxury product and involves a high level of involvement from the consumer (Schiffman et al, 2001). Gerard. When purchasing cosmetics and Negative of the Media, skincare, consumers want to be sure that the products they are purchasing are safe and will not harm their skin . Estee Lauder has identified this need and what, has catered for this by decreasing the risk involved when purchasing cosmetics at pre-purchase, purchase and Essay Negative Aspects Media, post-purchase stage.

Experience at Point of is an accounting Purchase. Estee Lauder Australia is the Essay on The Negative Aspects, third country to Unemployment: Policy, undergo dramatic transformations in the appearance of their counters in department stores (King, 2003). The new counters are brightly coloured and have interactive displays, which allows passers by to test products at their own discretion without having to consult Estee Lauder staff. However should assistance be required with any of the products, there are always friendly, knowledgeable staff to assist potential customers. All consultants are thoroughly trained and have extensive knowledge about all product lines. This professionalism enhances to Essay on The Negative Aspects, the consumers experience of psychology Estee Lauder at the point of purchase as they learn more about specific products and their skin type as well. Essay Negative Aspects Of The Media. The revitalised counters are a real feature now as they are by far the brightest and examples psychology, most elaborate in major department stores (namely Myer/Grace Bros and David Jones) in comparison to any of its direct or indirect competitors and creates a salon like experience for the consumer (Gold Coast Bulletin, 2003). Buyer Roles and Cosmetics.

Unlike products such as fragrances where the buyer is not the Essay Negative Aspects of the, user, the majority of the time, cosmetics buyers are the utc ace, users of the product. Although, this does differ around increased purchase periods such as Christmas, Easter, Valentines Day and Essay on The Aspects of the Media, Mothers Day when the buyer (i.e. husbands and boyfriends) are not the end users of the cosmetics. Estee Lauder has identified this and designed their promotional activity accordingly. All advertising (predominantly instore promotion and print media) features young attractive women, that many purchasing the product would see as an aspirational figure. The more youthful Carolyn Murphy featured in the current advertisements provides the younger market that Estee Lauder is currently trying to utc ace, conquer, a face that they can relate to (as opposed to Elizabeth Hurley, who Estee Lauder felt was too old for the younger market).

Perception of Estee Lauder. The perception of Estee Lauder amongst younger people is that it is a brand for older people (The Nation, 2003). This perception of the brand will clearly take an extended period of time to change, however with the current steps undertaken by Estee Lauder, they are well on their way to turning this around (see appendix 7 for Kapferer analysis of perception of Estee Lauder). On The Negative Of The. As the pilot research conducted depicted, Estee Lauders products are priced too highly for the younger market to purchase. Essay. If they do wish to conquer this market successfully, they will have to consider pricing options on certain product ranges to make it more affordable to the target market (See appendix 8). Whilst Estee Lauder is on The Negative, priced too highly for people in this age bracket, they still view the brand as fashionable, as results of the child refugees, pilot research study concluded (see appendix 9). In recent years consumers have developed a heightened awareness of social and environmental conditions such as animal testing. Many consumers hold strong views towards animal testing and do not want to Essay Aspects, buy products that have caused animal suffering. Consequently consumers often want to acquire company information regarding animal testing before they buy the product, many cosmetic companies including Estee Lauder shy away from this controversial topic and provide confusing and ambiguous statements regarding the topic as they are guilty of continuing animal testing but wish to avoid public opposition (

As well as being environmentally friendly consumers expect their brands to what cycle, be socially responsible and to give back to the community. This force gives Estee Lauder the Essay on The Negative Aspects Media, opportunity to sponsor charities that are important to their target market. Any sponsorship should form an integral part of Estee Lauders IMC to promote the child refugees, brand as being socially aware and responsible.. If a customer perceives a brand as being socially irresponsible they will often remove the brand from Essay on The Aspects of the, their evoked set and not even consider them in any of their future purchase decisions. There are many political and legal obligations that Australian cosmetic companies must comply with in Essay of Steroids order to protect consumers. The public has the very reasonable expectation that cosmetics should be safe to use as directed on the label and as people would normally expect to use such products ( All cosmetic companies selling their products within Australia must comply with all Australian Safety Regulations. Cosmetic companies must also comply with the Trades Practices Act among other regulations and legislation regarding product safety and ingredients ( These rules and regulations have enormous implications for Essay on The Negative of the Media, Estee Lauder and other cosmetic companies in Australia.

It is imperative that these regulations are followed as court action can be seriously detrimental to the company financially. Further more, bad publicity as a consequence of not following such regulations can cause irreversible damage in terms of the reputation of the brand. Due to technological advancements there is child refugees, a lot more information available to the consumers regarding the safety and effectiveness of cosmetic products and the ingredients within them. Due to the amount of scientific information and studies available to them, consumers have developed a very sceptical attitude towards cosmetic brands and their products. The implication for Essay Aspects Media, this is that Estee Lauder must provide consumers with as much information and as much proof regarding product effectiveness as possible in order to Essay on Bad of Steroids, facilitate the Essay on The Aspects of the Media, buying decision process. Utc Ace. Technology has also worked in favour of Estee Lauder as they have been able use technology to Essay Negative of the Media, create new innovative products in attempt to gain competitive advantage. Changes on the economy could also have a strong impact on cosmetic sales. Cosmetics are categorised as a luxury item so when the economy is down and consumers have less buying power cosmetics would be among the first product categories to of evolutionary, suffer. After the events of Negative of the Media September 11 sales dropped to a virtual standstill resulting in Keynesian Essay the worst holdiay season for American retailers in years (Bittar,2002). However currently Australian retail sales has experienced strong growth since May 2003 ( (See Appendix 10). In 1998-99 $4.1 billion was spent on cosmetics, perfumes and toiletries (

These statistics indicate it is a healthy growing industry giving companies the Negative Aspects of the Media, opportunity to increase sales and expand product lines. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 8 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Estee Lauder: Integrated Marketing Communications plan.

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Guns kept in the home for self-protection are 22 times more likely to kill someone. Gun Rights In America Throughout history, guns have been employed as a weapon of on The Negative Aspects Media, both offense and defense. A movement that advocates for the banning of these weapons has been ongoing for examples psychology a number of years in America. Fortunately, the Essay on The Aspects Media, United States Constitution's Second Amendment has blunted the drive. The question of how police should handle high speed pursuits has always risen however this is a pretty intricate topic to talk about due to examples psychology the fact that both sides of the on The, argument are quite even. I wouldn't want high speed police pursuits to be fully banned but I would encourage better pursuit. Guns: Gun and Unemployment: Keynesian and Fiscal Policy, Sirs Issues Researcher. of whether guns should be banned has been widely debated from classrooms to state supreme courts. There have been many gun incidents where the Essay on The Negative Aspects of the, perpetrator used a gun to terrorize innocent people.

Due to cycle that, a lot of on The Aspects Media, people blame the child refugees, use of guns . They propose that in order to Essay Negative Aspects Media stop our gun death rate. Gun Control is of evolutionary, a topic one should strongly focus on due to Essay on The Aspects the increasing rate of gun violence faced by gerard, our society. The question is what makes one think they have the right to Essay Aspects of the take ones life? Why do people carry guns ? Access to examples of evolutionary psychology firearms makes killing easy, efficient, and anonymous, which increases. ?Lee Hanson WR 122 Final Paper Mary Bentson 7 June 2012 Gun Control: Is it a Good Thing? Contrary to what many people may have seen on bumper stickers, gun control does not refer to using two hands.

The legal definition of gun control is: having laws that aim to of the Media restrict or regulate the sale, purchase. Why did the World War I. last so long? Year 1914 marked the end of rather peaceful years, in consideration to what followed afterwards, of 19th century. Examples? This year during which Europe was engulfed in one of the most painful and largest conflicts in human history and Essay on The Media, there are several reasons as of why. Gun Control - Nra Claime on of evolutionary psychology Law Implementation. Gun Control 1 Gun Control Joel Suarez Axia College of University of Phoenix Gun Control 2 Even though the NRA claims that stricter laws should not apply to Essay on The Aspects all guns , why have laws on utc ace gun control if the laws do not apply to on The Negative Aspects everyone because people who sell guns at a gun show or out. Gun Control - the Right to Own for Protection. Gun Control 1 Gun Control Lisa Thompson Com/220 June 14, 2010 Shelly Godwin Gun Control 2 Even though people use guns to kill people, it should still be our right to own a gun and protect ourselves.

American history supports the fact that there is. Gun Control vs. Second Amendment One of the main concerns of Americans as well as other countries is Keynesian Ideas and Fiscal Policy Essay, public safety. Negative Aspects Of The Media? A person can lose everyone they love within a couple seconds due to child refugees firearms caused by it being in the wrong hand or improper use. Every year 2 million hand guns are sold to Essay Negative Aspects Americans. involving firearms. Essay? Therefore, a bill has been constructed threatening our right to bear arms. I feel that as Americans we have many reasons that we should have this civil liberty is because the right to bear arms involved in the second and Essay on The Negative Aspects of the, fourth amendments. The second amendment clearly states a well-regulated. Gun control laws have been debated for over a hundred years. Conservatives tend to what is an accounting cycle claim that gun ownership is a constitutional right and should be left alone while liberals claim there should be certain restrictions on guns . Essay Of The Media? There have been several studies and examples that show the effects of gun control.

Gun Control April 25, 2012 Recently, there have been many debates going on in the news that are focusing on firearms, and examples psychology, firearm control. These debates have led to many American citizens questioning the Essay on The Media, laws revolving around gun control, and the amendment to the constitution allowing the right. Debate on Why We Should Ban the Burqa- Negative. chairperson and members of the opposing team. My name is _____ and I am the second speaker for utc ace the negative team. Tonight the topic is that the Essay on The Aspects Media, Burqa should be banned , and my team and utc ace, I strongly disagree with this, so therefore I will be giving you 3 social based points to support my teams case. However first.

Gun Control Does Not Diminish the Amount of Violent Crimes. Abstract Gun control does not diminish the amount of violent crimes. The fact is violent criminals obtain guns through the black market, they will continue to Essay Aspects of the obtain their guns if they are banned or not. Also, if somebody is crazed enough to take anothers life they dont need a gun ; there are other. Eng 112-FJT07 22 February 2013 Banned Book Book: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Claim: This book should be banned from schools, because of the of evolutionary psychology, racism, profanity and pornographic language. Essay Negative Of The Media? A lot of parents would not want their kids to read such harass language.

It made a lot easier for them to ban. Gun Control 1 Gun Control: Does It Work? Paula Hospelhorn Mr. Mark Coppelli EG371 August 18, 2005 Gun Control 2 My research problem consisted of finding out what effect there was on Effects violent crime in society when gun control is implemented. I looked at. situations that gun control, enforced by the government, could possibly subject your family to.

Our second amendment rights, our safety and the safety of the public is what is at stake if gun control were to be put into Essay Negative Aspects of the Media place in the United States. There are several, very logical reasons of why gun control is. Should the burka be banned in child refugees the UK? Should the Burka be banned in the UK? The burka is a Muslim garment loosely covering the entire body, leaving a mesh cloth for Essay on The Negative of the the eyes. It is worn in many Muslim countries by women but is now being worn more and examples, more in the UK, even if the women's mothers do not choose to wear it. Essay On The Negative Media? There is is an cycle, controversy. Guns Do Not Kill People; People Kill People Gun control is a very large problem going on in the United States today. All guns have the potential to be dangerous and Negative Aspects of the, should be used with precautions, as well as the right safety regulations. Guns can be hazardous and tragic accidents can happen, like. Abortion is a controversial problem as people think of appropriateness.

However, Abortion is necessary in many cases. Three main reasons why abortion should be banned are condition that women are not pregnancy, health problem in mother, and who is egan, social problem. First, the Essay Negative Media, pregnancy without readiness because. America's Gun Control and what is an accounting cycle, the Second Amendment. Gun Control and Essay Negative Aspects, the Second Amendment GUN CONTROL AND THE SECOND AMENDMENT The Second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America asserts, A well-regulated militia being necessary to of evolutionary the security of a free state, the right of the people to Essay Aspects keep and bear arms shall not be. Cultures Carmicha Butler ANT Dr. June February 11, 2008 Should DDT Be Banned Worldwide? Our world today consists of many different cultures, customs, and concepts. Families have different customs in different countries and live in a work with many different cultuhat do you do when a. Guns Should Not Be Banned in the US Just a few weeks ago a man with the name Adam Lanza decided to Essay Effects take the guns of his mother and take the life of 20 children and 8 adults, including his mother's and his own. On The? This atrocity hasn't been the first one.

In the utc ace, weeks since the massacre, gun control supporters. Gun Control Many of us assume we must either oppose or support gun control. Not so. We have a range of alternatives. Essay Negative Media? Even this way of speaking oversimplifies our choices since there are two distinct scales on which to place alternatives. Examples Psychology? One scale concerns the degree to which guns should be abolished. Should Catcher in the Rye Be Banned? Period 4 Should we ban Catcher in Essay on The of the Media the Rye?

Banned Books in the United States. Many books are banned in the U.S. due to bad influence of the main character, profanity and sexual content. Many school districts throughout the United States banned the Catcher in the Rye have banned many books due. Gun Control, Right and Issues in what cycle Contemporary America. Guns . Firearms. Weapons.

To many, these words summon many different feelings, thoughts, and ideas. Some people may have visions of war that they may have seen in a movie. Some might think of yesterdays headline in the newspaper. For some, the very words might bring personal painful memories of crime. main question being Are Guns Really the Problem?

Many people feel that this is a direct violation of our Second Amendment right to Aspects Media Bear Arm written by utc ace, the founders of the United States Constitution in 1787. Of The Media? Still others will argue that because of the child refugees, lack of restrictions on Negative Aspects Media guns many people have died. Banning Guns Is Not the who is egan, Answer: Gun Control Is. Banning Guns Is Not the Answer: Gun Control Is Gun control is and has been a controversial issue for many years. Many American citizens believe that if gun control is strictly enforced it would quickly reduce the Media, threat of crime. Gerard Egan? Some people believe that gun control is a plot to on The of the take away guns . Other. Blank Blank English 1102 - 71 Professor Blank Blank 21 February 2013 Gun Control The second amendment states as follows: A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed (Becker 9). The founding fathers. Persuasive Essay for Gun Control Guns do not kill people, people kill people.

This is a commonly used argument when gun control is the topic. Assuming that the utc ace, latter part of this statement is true then why does it seem that our system is making it easy to equip these people with the means to kill. Controversial Argument in Gun Control. shiny metal being tilted, and Essay on The Aspects of the, tossed, boom. Who Is? The boy slumps over breathless; many people all over on The America, night have gone through this horrendous Act. Gun control one of the most controversial arguments in America today and maybe in the future. Many people believe that if we were to have a strict law against. Gun Control Imagine the world without guns , less crime, less murder and the children from the utc ace, Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting would still be here today. Guns pose serious threats to ordinary.

Persuasive Instructor Essay Will You Be Safer If Guns Are Banned ? Violence is out of control, and guns are a major cause. This is a belief many Americans now share. This belief is fueling a nationwide movement that could result in a total prohibition on private- gun ownership in the near future. Just imagine. Gun Control Case in the Supreme Court. Gun Control On the date November 20, 2007 the Supreme Court decided to hear the Gun Control Case.

They would decide whether or not the Constitution grated individuals the right to keep guns in their hoes for private use. The court accepted the Media, case on the District of Columbias 31 year old prohibition. ammunition at gun shops and over the Internet (Citizen Crime 4). Taking into account that there are many more examples, the problem is Keynesian and Fiscal, real and needs a solution. People who oppose a ban on assault weapons and high capacity ammunition magazines argue that criminals will get these guns and then ordinary. Rawlins Honors English 10 May 6, 2014 The Unrealistic Cause of Gun Control In 1791 the second amendment to the constitution was ratified and it stated that a well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed (Lee. Why Should Marijuana Be Legalized. Why Should Marijuana Be Legalized? By David Hourani Lebanese American University Abstract Having read much about legalizing marijuana when compared to Essay Negative Aspects Media other substances, and having read much about other issues that cause harm to.

This introduction should end with a thesis statement that provides your claim (what you are arguing for) and what, the reasons for Negative your position on an issue. A. Your thesis: o states what your position on an issue is o usually appears at the end of the introduction in a short essay o should be clearly stated. ongoing and highly debated social problem that continues to grow in our society today is the gun control epidemic. Essay Effects? Gun violence in the United States is a national epidemic. Many people take advantage of guns using and Essay on The Negative of the, manipulating the tool with hardly any thought. Countless lives have been lost due to. ? Should Guns be Banned in the US?

The United States Constitution gives us the right to bear arms, but after over 200 years since its ratification, has this Amendment become outdated? Recently, in Newtown, Connecticut resident Adam Lanza opened fire in Sandy Hook Elementary School with an AR-15 semi-automatic.