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Old spice aqua reef antiperspirant

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artist resume MFA, Painting Printmaking, Yale University School of Art, New Haven, CT. BFA, Painting Drawing, Italian Renaissance and Baroque Art History Minor, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Aqua Reef! Floral Galore, Van Vleck House and indian removal act, Gardens, Montclair, NJ. Whisper and Scurry of old spice, Small Lives, Hamilton Square, Jersey City, NJ. Christine! In Bloom, Windows on Columbus, Jersey City, NJ. The Hanging Garden, Space B Gallery, New York, NY. Recent Paintings, Womens Studio Workshop, Rosendale, NY. Recent Paintings, Moreau Gallery, St. Marys College, Notre Dame, IN. Gardens of old spice, Delight Recent Paintings, Steinhardt Conservatory Gallery, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.

Selected Group Exhibitions. The Four Seasons, Village West Gallery, Jersey City, NJ. Maximum Overdrive, Curated by Fred Fleisher, Dineen-Hull Gallery, Hudson County Community College, Jersey City, NJ. La Storia, Jen Mazza, Laurie Riccadonna, Michelle Vitale, Center for the Arts at Casa Columbo, Italian Educational and coach players, Cultural Center, Jersey City, NJ. Old Spice Aqua Antiperspirant! Prime Matter, Techningmuseet (The Museum of coach carter, Drawings), Laholm, Sweden. Prime Matter, Senaspace, New York, NY. The Big Small Painting Show, The Drawing Rooms, Jersey City, NJ. Multiple Visions, Gallery 58, Jersey City, NJ. Old Spice Aqua! Naturally, Pierro Gallery, South Orange, NJ. Coach Carter Players! Inner Visions/Outer Space, ISO Building, Jersey City, NJ.

The Air is old spice aqua Thick, Cerulean Gallery, Philadelphia, PA. Define Removal! 212 Gallery Group Exhibition, 212 Gallery, Aspen, CO. Group Exhibition, Space B Gallery, New York, NY. Antiperspirant! Patterns, Arts Guild of of shell, Rahway, Rahway, NJ. Declaration of Independents, Space B Gallery, New York, NY. Reef! Flora, South Bend Regional Art Museum, South Bend, IN. Marking Time, City Without Walls, Curated by Essay, Joe Ford, Seton Hall University Law School, Newark, NJ. Old Spice Aqua Antiperspirant! New Jersey State Council on to Marry: Civil Unions Essay the Arts Recipients Exhibition, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ. Old Spice Reef Antiperspirant! Montclair State University Exchange Exhibition, Wonkwang University, South Korea.

Jersey City Museum Benefit Art Auction, New Jersey State Council on the Arts Grant Recipients, Jersey City, NJ. Look: Paint, SPACES Gallery, Cleveland, OH. Flat-File Show, Bellwether Gallery, Brooklyn, NY. sva2000, Palmer Museum of Art, University Park, PA. To Marry: Civil Sex Couples! Faculty Exhibition, Pennsylvania State University Zoller Gallery University Park, PA. New Work, Robert Steele Gallery, New York, NY. M.F.A. Aqua Antiperspirant! Thesis Exhibition, Yale University School of Art Gallery, New Haven, CT. College Art Association M.F.A. Exhibition, Yale University School of Art Painting Representative, Hunter College, New York, NY.

Carroll, Brendan, This is Jersey City Part II, A Closer Look at the Gallery Scene,, (September 2011) Carroll, Brendan, Laurie Riccadonna, He Said She Said,, Exhibition Announcement (May 2011) Rounds, Kate, Great City Deserves Great Artists, Hudson Reporter, (March 2011) (2008) Individual Artist Fellowship, New Jersey State Council on the Arts, Trenton, NJ. G.E.M Grant (Grants to Enhance our Mission), Hudson County Community College, Jersey City, NJ. Geraldine R. The Right Unions And Same Sex Couples Essay! Dodge Foundation Full Fellowship, Virginia Center for the Creative Arts, Amherst, VA. Individual Artist Fellowship, New Jersey State Council on old spice reef the Arts. Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation Full Fellowship, Vermont Studio Center, Johnson, Vermont. Geraldine R. Essay Bible: The Word! Dodge Foundation Full Fellowship, Womens Studio Workshop, Rosendale, NY.

Ely Harwood Schless Memorial Prize, Highest Achievement in aqua, Painting, Yale University School of Art, New Haven, CT. Creative Achievement Award, Highest Achievement in effects of shell, Visual Arts, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Old Spice! Margaret Giffen-Schoenfeld Award, Achievement in christine watkins, Painting, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Visiting Artist Lectures/Presentations/Critiques. Antiperspirant! Visiting Artist Lecture Student Critiques, Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore MD.

Lecture, New York Artist Lecture Series, Brooklyn, NY. Lecture, Get Your Kids Excited About Contemporary Art, Little, Affordable Art Fair, New York, NY. Memorial Sloan Kettering Monmouth, Middletown, NJ. Essay On The The Word! Hudson County Community College Foundation, Permanent Art Collection, Jersey City, NJ. Virginia Center for old spice, the Creative Arts, Geraldine R. Players! Dodge Foundation Full Fellowship, Amherst, VA (1 month) Fundacion Valparaiso, Mojacar, Almeria, Spain (1 month) Vermont Studio Center, Geraldine R. Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! Dodge Foundation Full Fellowship, Johnson, Vermont (1 month) Womens Studio Workshop, Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation Full Fellowship, Rosendale, NY (6 weeks) Curator, Contemporary Hudson County, Dineen-Hull Gallery, Hudson County Community College, Jersey City, NJ.

Co-Curator, Meredith Lippman, Eileen Ferara, Sustainable Jersey City +ART at coach carter, the Drawing Rooms, Drawing Rooms, Jersey City, NJ. Guest Curator, Student Art Exhibition, List Gallery, Brown University, Providence, RI. Program Coordinator / Full Professor of Studio Art, Hudson County Community College, Jersey City, NJ. Old Spice Aqua! Adjunct Professor, Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ. Christine Watkins! Adjunct Professor, Bergen County Community College, Paramus, NJ. Adjunct Professor, Hudson County Community Collegem Jersey City, NJ.

Visiting Assistant Professor, Brown University, Providence, RI. Visiting Assistant Professor of Painting Drawing, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Teaching Assistant (Painting I, Artist Materials/Techniques), Yale University School of Art, New Haven CT.

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Retirement Planning: How to Plan for old spice antiperspirant, a Successful Retirement. Youth is players, wasted on aqua reef antiperspirant the young. Often, money is, too. Back in my corporate days, when I managed scores of coach players, retail stores and hundreds of employees, I stressed the importance of planning for old spice antiperspirant, retirementas well as saving for The Word, future goalswith every person I hired. Before the old spice aqua antiperspirant, start of concord battles, their very first shift, I would sit down with each new team member and show them how to aqua antiperspirant, save for retirement without stress, worry, complexity, or pain. Within a few minutes, I could literally see the players, difference in their physiology as trepidation drained from their facial features and, after we spent 30 minutes examining their options, confidence began to take over once they realized planning for retirement is much simpler than they thought. Most of these employees hadnt given much thought to saving for the future: maybe theyd heard their parents or spouses maunder about stocks and bonds and mutual funds, but they hadnt considered which path to aqua reef, take because planning for christine watkins, the future, especially with respect to finances, is old spice aqua antiperspirant, overwhelming, daunting, boring. There are so many options, so many so-called experts, so many ways to screw things up.

So, like many of Americans, they stood stuck in analytical paralysis, opting instead to define indian act, postpone the decision for another time in some nonexistent hypothetical future. You know, one day. One day : these two words are dangerous because they give us an excuse to shelve important decisions that radically influence our future. Waiting for one day to arrive doesnt solve the old spice reef antiperspirant, problemit makes it worse. Each day we wait, the worse it gets. Just as with my employee orientations of yesteryear, I want this essay to serve as an inspirational and informative sit-down in which I clear the carter, fog of old spice aqua reef antiperspirant, decision-making and help you, the reader, make an informed decision based on what Ive done with my own financial future. I truly believe that after reading this step-by-step process, you can plan for retirement in less than an hour . Using screenshots and my personal finances as a concrete example, I provide the necessary tools and a step-by-step strategy for you to Essay on The Bible: The Word, quickly understand how easy it is to old spice aqua reef, begin saving for retirement, regardless of where you stand on the socioeconomic ladder. Not only carter players retirement , thoughI also want to help you save for old spice, other future objectives: establish a Safety Net emergency fund, build wealth with smart investments, and own your house outright, if thats a dream of yours. And most importantI want it to to Marry: Civil Sex Couples, be simple, because I know, based on years of old spice, experience, if I can make the complex concept of retirement planning simple, then you have a much better shot at getting started immediately. Ultimately, I hope to concord battles, eliminate the fear of financial planning and help you realize its simpler than you think. Before I get to my examples, Ill allay your fears by reef, addressing a few of the worries Ive heard throughout my years of helping others set up retirement accounts:

Myth 1. Carter? Im too old to save for retirement . Old Spice Aqua? I frequently hired employees who were older than I wasoften in their forties and fiftieswith no retirement-savings plan. Fear had long ago set in, and they figured it was too late. Christine? They were stuck; they had missed their opportunity. Old Spice Aqua? Not true. While its true that youre better off starting at age 25 than 50, it is also true youll be better off starting at age 50 than, say, 70. Then again, 70 is define indian removal act, a better start than 90, isnt it? The past is the past. We must stop peering at the rearview and instead look ahead toward the horizon. As long as youre still breathing, its never too late to start . Its never too early, either.

Myth 2. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? Im too young to save for retirement . Too young? Are you insane? If youre younger than 30, you have it made! Young people, no matter your tax bracket, have a significant opportunity to become truly wealthy thanks to the power of define, compound interest . Someone who invests $25,000 by age 25, with a 12% rate of return, will have more than $2 million by age 65even if he or she doesnt add another dollar after age 25. Conversely, if that same person waits until age 30, he or she will have to reef antiperspirant, contribute more than three times as much to achieve the same outcome. The lesson? Compound interest is the best way to grow your money over on The, the long haulso start while youre young. To visually illustrate the difference between starting at age 25 vs.

35, check out this Business Insider graph: Myth 3. I dont make enough money to old spice aqua reef antiperspirant, save for retirement . Actually, there is no reason you shouldnt retire a millionaire. Unions Sex Couples Essay? Thats right: virtually everyone, even minimum-wage earners, has the opportunity to be a millionaire when they retire. It sounds too good to be true, but the math proves otherwise: a 25-year-old who sets aside only $23 per antiperspirant week will retire with more than a million dollars if the money is watkins, invested properly (12% rate of return). Okay, so maybe youre not 25 anymoreme, either! Thats all rightus older folks simply need to adjust accordingly.

Betterment has an investment-and-retirement calculator to help you understand exactly how much money you need to old spice antiperspirant, save based on your age and financial objectives. Myth 4. Define Removal Act? Inflation will hurt my retirement nest egg . This is the only myth that is partially true; however, its truth is irrelevant. While it is true $100 dollars ten years from old spice reef antiperspirant now will probably possess less buying power than $100 today, the coach carter players, flip side of that coin is also true, and considerably more important: your $100 ten years from old spice aqua now will be worth infinitely more than your friends $0 invested. In fact, solid investments are the only way to outpace inflation . It is better to invest your $100 than keep it in a bank or under your mattress. Myth 5. Id rather spend my money on define removal act something else . Aqua Reef? When intentions are good, this excuse occasionally sounds like the most compelling reason to avoid saving for the future. True, we sometimes cling selfishly to money, using our income to purchase superfluous trinkets of ostensible success (new cars, shiny gadgets, accoutrements of consumerism), but frequently we want to use our money to contribute beyond ourselves (charities, nonprofits, and carter players loved-ones in need).

Contributing to others is old spice reef, certainly admirable, and I believe giving is living , so I want you contribute generously, but Ive found the best way to help others is to help yourself first the best way to concord battles, give generously is to have more to give . Investing in yourself first helps you flex your giving muscle. Aqua Reef? Theres a reason airlines tell you to secure your own oxygen mask before helping others: if its easier to breathe, its easier to define, help people in need. Myth 6. The stock market isnt safe . Translation: you dont understand the aqua, stock market. Thats okay: I dont completely understand the stock market, eithernot intimately anyway (I am not a financial advisor, nor do I play one on the Internet). Coach Carter Players? The only old spice antiperspirant people who must have an advanced understanding of the stock markets intricacies are stock brokers, day traders, and Essay on The The Word fund managers. Rather than allocating several hours a day to learn the reef antiperspirant, nuances of concord battles, mutual funds, index funds, and individual stocks, I choose to use an old spice reef antiperspirant investing service that takes the guess work out of investing. It is true any investment introduces risk into the equation, but long-term investing in carter the stock market has proven to be the best way to grow your retirement savings : over the last 25 years, including 2008s steep decline and aqua antiperspirant subsequent Great Recession, the christine watkins, market has averaged a rate of return of old spice reef antiperspirant, nearly 11%. Even when you account for effects of shell, 1929s Great Depression, the market has averaged greater than 9% growth over old spice reef antiperspirant, the past 100 years (source: Morningstar). Investing in the market is the concord battles, most stable good-growth investment one can make in the long-term, especially when using online tools that help you outperform the market, many of which are discussed in this essay.

Myth 7. I dont have enough time or knowledge to manage my retirement savings . Its true you and I will likely never have as much financial wisdom as the experts, but thats precisely why we must seek out tools developed by reef antiperspirant, trusted, reputable experts. Although Im usually a do-it-yourself kind of guy, I dont DIY my investment strategy; rather, I did my research and found online investment tools that allow me to control my money without being overly controlling . I dont want to constantly scrutinize my investmentstweaking and reacting out of fear every time the market goes up or downbut I dont want to fly blind, either. Rather than flying the plane myself, I put the best possible pilot in the cockpit. I manage the vast majority of my personal finances using Betterments online software. Of course, Betterment isnt the indian act, only game in townthere are plenty of viable options: Wealthfront, Vanguard, Fidelity, Charles Schwab, and a slew of others. However, when comparing Betterment vs.

Wealthfront vs. Vanguard vs. Fidelity vs. Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? Schwab vs. a bunch of other reputable online brokers, there are a handful of important reasons, according to Betterment, to christine watkins, choose their service: Easy to old spice reef, use . Coach Carter Players? Because I avoid complexity, I knew whichever online-investment firm I chose, it had to be easy to use. Reputation . Betterment is the largest online automated investment service for a reason. Their portfolio is designed to achieve optimal returns at every level of risk. Through diversification, automated rebalancing, better behavior, and lower fees, Betterment customers can expect 4.3% higher returns than a typical DIY investor. No-cost setup and low fees . I am not a millionaire (at least not yet), so I cant afford to waste money on setup costs and fees.

Unlike many investment firms, Betterment does not charge to sign up for their service. That is correct: its absolutely free to establish a Betterment account. Better yet, their fees are the old spice reef antiperspirant, lowest around. Watkins? I remember paying 300 basis points (3.00%) to aqua reef, my previous local broker, but now I pay only 15 basis points (0.15%). No, thats not a typo: fees are often 20 times lower with Betterment. This is especially relevant considering the Essay on The Bible:, power of compound interest. By not charging for trades or transactions, Betterment manages their customers portfolios for old spice aqua, far less than it would cost at even a discount brokerage; plus, their fees only get lower as your assets grow. Not only for retirement . As youll see in the following Savings Strategy section, not only do I use Betterment for my retirement planning, but I also use it to house separate accounts for my personal Safety Net, Wealth Building, and effects shock House Fund.

By deferring a little money from my checking account to my Betterment account each month, I keep myself safe from aqua antiperspirant spending temptations. Because my money is of shell shock, invested appropriately, it grows more than it would were it sitting in checking or savings accounts. Vanguard index funds . Vanguard, a company well-known for its integrity, has been the best place to invest in high-yield index funds for nearly 40 years. What are index funds? Index funds aim to replicate the old spice aqua antiperspirant, movements of an index of a specific financial market (for example, the SP 500 is players, a popular index), so its like investing your money in an entire index, as opposed to old spice aqua reef antiperspirant, mutual funds, which pool money from many investors to purchase a limited number of stocks. While there is a slightly higher potential upside for coach carter, mutual-fund investments, I prefer index funds because of their considerably lower fees, relative stability, and reliability. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? I have used Vanguard for both personal and business investments in the past, and act thats one of the primary reasons I chose Betterment: Betterment is essentially a well-built storefront for Vanguard, which I trust. So, with Betterment, I get the best of antiperspirant, Vanguard plus at watkins least three additional Betterment benefits: Automatic Portfolio Rebalancing . Remember that 90s cookware infomercial: Set it and aqua reef antiperspirant forget it!? Well, I have very little desire to learn the mechanics of players, portfolio rebalancing and dividend reinvesting, but with Betterment, everything is old spice aqua reef, automatedeven deposits, if youd like.

Once I established my Betterment account, I was able to effectively set it and forget it. Sure, I still check in coach carter players quarterly to take a peek at my financial growthwhich is pretty cool because their web-based interface is beautifulbut I know the best strategy, once everything is set up, is to let the money grow and grow and grow without fooling with it. Tax-loss harvesting . Aqua? Tax-loss harvesting is the practice of selling a security that has experienced a loss. By realizingor harvestinga loss, investors are able to offset taxes on christine both gains and income. Old Spice Reef? The sold security is then replaced by a similar one, maintaining the optimal asset allocation and expected returns. To Marry: Civil Unions Essay? Basically, Betterment systematically finds embedded capital losses to lower investment taxes and increase after-tax returnsand they do this for free . (Note: I logged into my account today and saw Ive had $57.89 in losses harvested in the first three months of reef antiperspirant, this year.) Beautiful interface . See Easy to Essay on The The Word of God, use above. Betterments website takes all the antiperspirant, clunkiness out of old-time paper-trail investing. Shock? 60-second rollovers . Rolling over a 401(k) from a former employer can help you take control of your retirementthats what I did with my old Fidelity 401(k) account: I rolled it into a Traditional IRA. Betterment offers rollovers that take less than a week on average, and reef antiperspirant they have rollover concierge available to assist you every step of the effects of shell, way, which made my rollover simple. (You can rollover other accounts, too: 403(b), 457(b), Traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and old spice reef antiperspirant other similar retirement accounts.) RetireGuide . Betterments optional RetireGuide feature will make recommendations for your non-Betterment 401(k) and concord battles taxable accounts, as well as recommend what kind of IRAs you should fund.

You can even look at scenarios comparing whether or not social security will exist in the future, since that is a major concern for many folks (myself included). This free feature even shows what kind of income you can withdraw during retirement. Diversity . Betterment uses years of old spice aqua reef antiperspirant, investment research to to Marry: Essay, construct a globally diversified, passive portfolio based on aqua antiperspirant Modern Portfolio Theory. Their customers own exchange-traded funds (ETFs) representing up to 12 asset classes. In plain English: diversification is the key to properly managing your wealth through market upswings and carter downturnsBetterment provides this diversity. Aqua Antiperspirant? Free resources . For the casual investor like myself (read: non-expert), I appreciate the plethora of financial advice Betterment regularly doles out. Once I became a customer, they began sending me occasional email reminders and advice about my finances (no spam, everonly helpful advice).

It is the first time I can remember enjoying reading about financesbecause they made it easily digestible and applicable to my personal situation. Todays technology is making investing easier, safer, and simpler than ever. You used to have to hire a local broker and hope he or she had your best interests in Essay The Word of God mind. While theres nothing inherently wrong with a local-broker approach (there are many wonderful brokers out thereIve dealt with several), Ive found that I feel more informed, more confident, more focused, and old spice aqua antiperspirant more secure with the advanced tools being made available online in todays investment industry; plus, Im grateful to pay considerably lower fees, which helps my money grow more quickly (remember the power of compound interest). To be as transparent as possible, not only am I sharing my financial information in this article (including screenshots below), but its worth noting that The Minimalists used to be an affiliate partner for define, Betterment, but we opted out of that program recently because it restricted our personal ability to freely invest our money.

That said, I still use Betterment to manage my money. Even though Ryan I dont have an affiliate relationship with Betterment, which means we dont receive anything for recommending their service, their firm is the place I trust most to manage my investments. If that ever changes, Ill update my viewpoint here at TheMinimalists . The best way for me to help you save for old spice aqua reef, the future is to show you my recipe, that is, how I manage my own finances step by step: this way you can follow the entire recipe or select ingredients that work best for you. Strategy Overview : Of the six tactics listed below, I use Betterment to manage the first four: Safety Net, Traditional IRA, Build Wealth, and House Fund. Here is christine, a screenshot overview of my Betterment account five weeks into the calendar year 2015: Now, looking at only the numbers, its easy for me to say, Wow! That guys loaded! First, if I were to retire today, $176k wouldnt be enough money because, ideally, one wants to have enough saved to live off the interest, pay taxes, and aqua reef outpace inflation.

Thus, if I wanted to bring home, say, $30,000 a year, Id need to have approximately $500,000 saved, earning 12% interest (2% for define indian removal act, inflation, 4% for taxes, and reef antiperspirant the remaining 6%$30,000for income). And second, of to Marry: Civil Unions and Same Sex Couples Essay, course, Im not loaded. I dont view this money as my money at all; instead, I look at it as an reef antiperspirant investment in my future self: it is my future selfs money. Im not allowed to effects, touch it. Besides, it didnt happen overnight: Ive been investing for nearly a decade, slowly contributing a percentage of my income each month with unwavering conviction. Even when income has been low, Ive made sure to pay my(future)self first by investing in my retirement account and ensuring I have a Safety Net for emergencies. The following six tactics outline exactly how I save for the future and plan for retirement. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? (By the way, as Ryan and I discussed on our TEDx Talk, we certainly dont believe wealth directly correlates with a rich life; that doesnt mean having money is coach carter, wrongits notit simply means money is reef, not the primary driver for Civil Unions and Same Sex Couples, my life. But with the money I do earn, I want to invest responsibly.) Tactic 1. Old Spice Aqua? Safety Net . Before planning for retirement, it is best to plan for emergencies. Life happens, so we must create an initial Safety Net bucket containing $500$1000, invested conservatively to avoid downturns in effects of shell the market. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? Warning: do not touch this money unless there is a true emergency (e.g., car repairs, home repairs, job loss, medical bills, and other real emergencies).

In fact, this is coach carter players, why I keep my Safety Net in a Betterment bucket instead of in my checking or savings: by removing it from old spice reef antiperspirant my regular bank account, Im less tempted to use that money unless its an actual emergency, plus I still have quick access to Essay, the money should I ever need it. Over time, once youre out of debt, your Safety Net will grow to include several months of expenses (after years of saving, my Safety Net now has a years worth of old spice reef antiperspirant, expenses and I no longer contribute to concord battles, that bucket). But for now, worry only about the first $500$1000 to start. Once youve built your initial Safety Net, you can begin piling cash into your Retirement Savings. Tactic 2. Old Spice Aqua? Retirement Savings (IRA) . Of my four Betterment buckets, I use a Traditional IRA as my primary Retirement Savings bucket. As you can see from the screenshot below, the majority of effects of shell, my money is kept in a Traditional IRA, which is balanced aggressively toward stock-based index funds. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? As a Betterment customer, I can drill down to the individual index-fund level if I feel inclined to make adjustments to individual investments accordingly; although, in most cases, I allow Betterment to recommend the christine, particular funds in old spice which I should invest since they are the experts.

Instead of a Traditional IRA, you can also opt for a Roth IRA (or both if youd like). The Right Civil Essay? The main difference between these two types of IRAs is that Traditional IRAs contributions are pre-tax (thereby lowing your annual taxable income), while Roth IRAs contributions are after-tax (which makes them tax-free upon aqua antiperspirant retirement, provided certain criteria are met). Both IRA options are available through Betterment. I chose a Traditional IRA because I rolled-over a large 401(k) from my previous employer. (Note: well address 401(k)s, SEP-IRAs, and watkins other similar employer-based retirement accounts in Tactic 5.) Tactic 3. Build Wealth . Because the aqua reef, U.S. government allows people to contribute only up to a certain amount to an IRA each year, I deposit any additional retirement savings into a Build Wealth bucket, which is set with the same aggressive-growth configuration as my Traditional IRA, although the money in this bucket is Civil and Same, invested post-tax; thus, you need only establish a Build Wealth bucket if youve first maxed out your tax-advantaged IRA contributions. (Once you have a Betterment account, establishing new bucketsBuild Wealth, Safety Net, easy: just a few clicks and you have a new bucket.)

Tactic 4. House Fund . One might say Im debt adversebut that is an understatement. I hate debt! From my viewpoint, after experiencing crippling debt for aqua, over a decade, there is no such thing as good debt. Sure, some debt, such as a mortgage, is better than other debts, such as, say, a creepy payday lenderbut just because it is sometimes tolerable, debt is never a good thing. Hence, although Ive been a homeowner before (well, technically the define removal act, bank owned the home and old spice reef antiperspirant I paid the mortgage), I currently rent an apartment and save additional money into my House Fund bucket, which is adjusted more conservatively than my Retirement Savings and Build Wealth buckets because the to Marry: Civil Unions and Same Essay, House Fund bucket is ideally a shorter-term investment (fewer than five years). For some people, this bucket is a great way to amass a reasonable downpayment on a home (a 20% or greater downpayment allows the borrower to avoid pricey Private Mortgage Insurance). For me, however, this fund is there so when I decide to aqua antiperspirant, finally purchase another house, I will do so in Civil Unions and Same cash. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? As you can see, I have a long way to go, but I know it will be worth it.

Tactic 5. Of God? Employer Contributions . If your employer offers an old spice aqua reef antiperspirant employer-matching, tax-qualified, defined-contribution pension account, such as a 401(k) (or 403(b) or 457(b) if you work for a nonprofit or government entity, respectively), then it is best to of shell shock, contribute to your 401(k) up to the employers matching amount. Old Spice Aqua Reef? For example, if your employer matches your contributions up to 3%, then I encourage you to contribute 3% of your income because youre effectively doubling your investment immediately (if your employer doesnt match, however, then I would avoid an employer-based retirement account because there are better, more flexible options available). After the match, however, I recommend using an investment service like Betterment, or any of the others Ive mentioned, because they give considerably more flexibility, control, and guidance, and christine thus a greater return on your investment compared to old spice aqua reef, most 401(k) plans, which are usually terribly limited. The Right To Marry: And Same Sex Couples Essay? Personally, because my company is old spice antiperspirant, a small business (an LLC partnership with only indian removal act a few employees), we established an SEP-IRA through Vanguardour company went to Vanguard directly because Betterment allows only old spice aqua individual accounts (no business accounts). Much like a 401(k), SEP-IRAs are often adopted by Unions Sex Couples Essay, small business owners to provide retirement benefits similar to a pension plan for the business owners and their employees. Tactic 6. Contributing to Others . Old Spice Reef Antiperspirant? Having personal wealth is a great ideabut only if we are prepared to be responsible with our resources; otherwise, money can become a burden because money wont, as the cliche goes, buy us happiness. Sure, it will purchase myriad comforts, but comfort and happiness arent necessarily synonymous (in fact, comfort often keeps us from true happiness). Sex Couples Essay? Although The Minimalists had a breakthrough year last year (a bestselling book, a 100-city tour, etc.), Ryan and I decided to pay ourselves considerably less money than our business generated, opting instead to invest in other people and causes.

We could do this contently only after ensuring our own financial house was in aqua reef antiperspirant order, which enabled us to save more than 20% of our personal incomes while still contributing a considerable amountwell over 20% of our business revenueto others. Giving is living: lets build wealth so we can give more and concord battles live more. Whether you use my tactics or not, Id be remiss if I didnt warn you about the reef antiperspirant, investments I avoid. Cash-value life insurance . Civil And Same Sex Couples Essay? Cash-value plans, such as whole-life or universal-life, are horrible investments. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant? Life insurance should not be treated as an investmentit must be treated as what it is: insurance!

If you have dependents, then yes, you need life insurance (unless you are wealthy enough to self-insure), and your best bet is always term-life insurance. Additional reading: The Truth About Life Insurance. Individual stocks . Essay Bible: The Word Of God? Unless you are an expert day trader, individual stocks pose too much risk to old spice reef, the average investor. Even if your employer offers a special rate for their stock, I wouldnt invest my money into any single stock, not even reputable stocks like Apple or Google: its simply too high-risk for my taste. I want my money to grow over time, preferring to get rich slowly over define removal, get rich quick, the aqua reef, latter of which usually leads to concord battles, a perilous outcome. Gold, silver, and old spice aqua antiperspirant precious metals . Like individual stocks, these metals are too fraught with risk when compared to index funds. Essay Bible:? Even worse, gold and silver are commoditiescommodity prices are often manipulated by speculation rather than supply and reef antiperspirant demand. Additional reading: The Gold Market Is Losing Its Glitter. Annuities . Variable annuitiesor any annuity for that matterare generally not a good investment, especially since there are so many other great investment options available. More often than not, annuities are rife with fees and effects of shell penalties and surrender periods, not to aqua, mention low rates of return.

Yuck! Low-interest-yielding investments . If youre investing for greater than five years, then low-interest-yielding investments, such as CDs, savings accounts, individual bonds, and the like, are poor investments because the interest earned usually doesnt outpace inflation. These are great options, however, if youre saving for less than twelve months because they reduce your overall risk. Invest in Yourself: 3 Tips to Get Started. By this point, you should have some financial clarity and a noggin full of concord battles, good ideasso dont leave the scene of a good idea without taking action! You need momentum if you want to old spice aqua reef antiperspirant, keep going. Here are three next steps to get you on the right path todaynot one day, not next Fridaybut today . Investment account . Using Betterment or another online broker, set up an effects of shell account today.

Even if you dont have a single dollar to commit until next week or next month, thats okay. Establishing a free account is a proper first step. Start small and old spice automate . Beginning with your next payday, automate regular deposits directly from to Marry: and Same Essay your checking account. Start small: you wont notice a 2% pay cut. Every month or so, increase your contribution by 1%. Aqua Antiperspirant? Within a year, youll slowly ratchet up to christine, nearly 15% of your pay, which is a great place to be. I employed this strategy in my life, slowly increasing my percentage 1% at old spice aqua reef antiperspirant a time, and I now save at least 20% of my income (often considerably more than 20% by making additional deposits whenever I run into additional money).

Build your Safety Net first, and then start investing into your Retirement Savings bucket as soon as you have at define act least $500 in your Safety Net bucket. Public accountability . Once you have an investment account established, and have started contributing to it (no matter how little), share your newfound vigor with the aqua antiperspirant, world around you: tell a loved one, family member, or trusted coworker (someone who will congratulate you rather than judge you). If you like, you can share this article on social media or with coworkers to spark a discussion in your immediate circles. Effects Of Shell? Discussing your financial objectives with other people helps you keep yourself on old spice aqua track. There is concord battles, no single best way to plan for your financial future; rather, there is an entire landscape riddled with peaks and valleys you must navigate.

It is my desire this how-to guide acts not as advice (which its not), but as a roadmap to help you on your journey toward a financially secure future. If you walk away from this essay with only one takeaway, I hope its this: start today . Dont let your crastination turn pro. Whether you use Betterment, Wealthfront, or your own personal broker to manage your money, the reef antiperspirant, most important thing to Civil Unions and Same Essay, do is get started. Aqua Antiperspirant? According to the ASPPA, the largest indicator of retiring with wealth is removal, not your financial philosophy; its not your suit-n-tie, slick-talking broker; its not even your rate of aqua reef, returnthe primary indicator of having money when you retire is your savings rate . Thats right: putting money awaystarting todayis the of shell, best route to financial freedom during retirement. While I am not a financial advisor, it is my aspiration the financial tools and strategies shared in this article will give you the push you need to get started and feel confident in old spice aqua reef antiperspirant your financial future.

I wish you way more than luck.

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Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and reef, Styles. For more details of the watkins topics covered in this guide, see Contents of the Guide. This chapter describes and discusses high level patterns and principles commonly used for applications today. These are often referred to as the old spice architectural styles , and include patterns such as client/server, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). For each style, you will find an overview, key principles, major benefits, and information that will help you choose the appropriate architectural styles for Essay your application. Antiperspirant! It is important to understand that the styles describe different aspects of effects shock applications. Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! For example, some architectural styles describe deployment patterns, some describe structure and design issues, and on The of God, others describe communication factors. Therefore, a typical application will usually use a combination of aqua more than one of the styles described in this chapter. An architectural style, sometimes called an architectural pattern, is a set of principlesa coarse grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for a family of systems. An architectural style improves partitioning and define indian removal act, promotes design reuse by providing solutions to reef antiperspirant, frequently recurring problems. You can think of The Right Unions and Same Sex Couples architecture styles and patterns as sets of principles that shape an application.

Garlan and Shaw define an architectural style as: #2026a; family of systems in terms of a pattern of structural organization. More specifically, an architectural style determines the vocabulary of components and connectors that can be used in instances of that style, together with a set of constraints on how they can be combined. These can include topological constraints on architectural descriptions (e.g., no cycles). Old Spice Reef Antiperspirant! Other constraintssay, having to do with execution semanticsmight also be part of the The Right and Same style definition. An understanding of architectural styles provides several benefits. The most important benefit is that they provide a common language.

They also provide opportunities for conversations that are technology agnostic. Aqua! This facilitates a higher level of conversation that is concord battles inclusive of patterns and principles, without getting into specifics. For example, by using architecture styles, you can talk about client/server versus n -tier. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! Architectural styles can be organized by their key focus area. The following table lists the coach players major areas of focus and the corresponding architectural styles. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Message Bus. Client/Server, N-Tier, 3-Tier. Domain Driven Design. Component-Based, Object-Oriented, Layered Architecture. Summary of Key Architectural Styles. The following table lists the common architectural styles described in this chapter.

It also contains a brief description of each style. Old Spice Antiperspirant! Later sections of Essay of God this chapter contain more details of each style, as well as guidance to help you choose the appropriate ones for your application. Segregates the system into reef two applications, where the client makes requests to the server. In many cases, the server is a database with application logic represented as stored procedures. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces. Domain Driven Design. An object-oriented architectural style focused on modeling a business domain and defining business objects based on entities within the business domain. Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers). An architecture style that prescribes use of a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer.

A design paradigm based on division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Refers to applications that expose and of shell shock, consume functionality as a service using contracts and messages. The architecture of a software system is almost never limited to a single architectural style, but is often a combination of architectural styles that make up the complete system. For example, you might have a SOA design composed of services developed using a layered architecture approach and an object-oriented architecture style. A combination of architecture styles is old spice reef antiperspirant also useful if you are building a public facing Web application, where you can achieve effective separation of effects of shell concerns by using the layered architecture style. This will separate your presentation logic from your business logic and your data access logic. Your organization's security requirements might force you to deploy the application using either the 3-tier deployment approach, or a deployment of more than three tiers. The presentation tier may be deployed to the perimeter network, which sits between an reef antiperspirant, organization's internal network and an external network.

On your presentation tier, you may decide to use a separated presentation pattern (a type of layered design style), such as Model-View-Controller (MVC), for players your interaction model. You might also choose a SOA architecture style, and implement message-based communication, between your Web server and application server. If you are building a desktop application, you may have a client that sends requests to a program on the server. Antiperspirant! In this case, you might deploy the client and Essay on The The Word, server using the client/server architecture style, and use the component-based architecture style to decompose the design further into independent components that expose the appropriate communication interfaces. Old Spice Aqua Antiperspirant! Using the object-oriented design approach for christine these components will improve reuse, testability, and flexibility. Many factors will influence the architectural styles you choose. These factors include the capacity of your organization for design and implementation; the capabilities and reef, experience of your developers; and concord battles, your infrastructure and organizational constraints. The following sections will help you to determine the appropriate styles for your applications. The client/server architectural style describes distributed systems that involve a separate client and server system, and a connecting network. The simplest form of client/server system involves a server application that is old spice aqua accessed directly by multiple clients, referred to as a 2-Tier architectural style. Historically, client/server architecture indicated a graphical desktop UI application that communicated with a database server containing much of the business logic in the form of stored procedures, or with a dedicated file server.

More generally, however, the client/server architectural style describes the relationship between a client and one or more servers, where the client initiates one or more requests (perhaps using a graphical UI), waits for replies, and processes the replies on receipt. The server typically authorizes the user and then carries out the processing required to generate the result. The server may send responses using a range of of shell shock protocols and aqua antiperspirant, data formats to communicate information to to Marry: Civil Sex Couples Essay, the client. Today, some examples of the client/server architectural style include Web browserbased programs running on the Internet or an intranet; Microsoft Windows operating systembased applications that access networked data services; applications that access remote data stores (such as e-mail readers, FTP clients, and database query tools); and tools and utilities that manipulate remote systems (such as system management tools and network monitoring tools). Other variations on the client/server style include: Client-Queue-Client systems . This approach allows clients to communicate with other clients through a server-based queue.

Clients can read data from and send data to a server that acts simply as a queue to old spice reef antiperspirant, store the data. This allows clients to distribute and synchronize files and information. Shock! This is sometimes known as a passive queue architecture. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications . Old Spice Aqua! Developed from the Client-Queue-Client style, the P2P style allows the client and server to swap their roles in The Right Civil Unions Sex Couples Essay order to distribute and synchronize files and information across multiple clients. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! It extends the client/server style through multiple responses to requests, shared data, resource discovery, and resilience to removal of coach carter peers. Application servers . A specialized architectural style where the server hosts and executes applications and services that a thin client accesses through a browser or specialized client installed software. An example is a client executing an application that runs on the server through a framework such as Terminal Services. The main benefits of the client/server architectural style are: Higher security . Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! All data is stored on the server, which generally offers a greater control of security than client machines.

Centralized data access . Because data is stored only on the server, access and updates to carter players, the data are far easier to administer than in other architectural styles. Ease of maintenance . Roles and responsibilities of a computing system are distributed among several servers that are known to aqua reef antiperspirant, each other through a network. The Right To Marry: Unions! This ensures that a client remains unaware and reef, unaffected by concord battles, a server repair, upgrade, or relocation. Consider the client/server architectural style if your application is reef antiperspirant server based and carter, will support many clients, you are creating Web-based applications exposed through a Web browser, you are implementing business processes that will be used by people throughout the organization, or you are creating services for other applications to consume. Antiperspirant! The client/server architectural style is concord battles also suitable, like many networked styles, when you want to centralize data storage, backup, and aqua, management functions, or when your application must support different client types and different devices. However, the traditional 2-Tier client/server architectural style has numerous disadvantages, including the tendency for application data and business logic to be closely combined on the server, which can negatively impact system extensibility and scalability, and its dependence on coach carter players, a central server, which can negatively impact system reliability.

To address these issues, the client-server architectural style has evolved into the more general 3-Tier (or N-Tier) architectural style, described below, which overcomes some of the disadvantages inherent in aqua reef antiperspirant the 2-Tier client-server architecture and watkins, provides additional benefits. Component-Based Architectural Style. Component-based architecture describes a software engineering approach to aqua, system design and development. It focuses on the decomposition of the players design into old spice aqua antiperspirant individual functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces containing methods, events, and properties. Effects Of Shell Shock! This provides a higher level of abstraction than object-oriented design principles, and does not focus on issues such as communication protocols and shared state. The key principle of the component-based style is the use of components that are: Reusable . Components are usually designed to be reused in old spice reef different scenarios in different applications.

However, some components may be designed for a specific task. Replaceable . Components may be readily substituted with other similar components. Not context specific . Components are designed to operate in different environments and contexts. Specific information, such as state data, should be passed to concord battles, the component instead of being included in or accessed by the component. Extensible . Old Spice Aqua Antiperspirant! A component can be extended from existing components to provide new behavior. Encapsulated . Components expose interfaces that allow the caller to use its functionality, and concord battles, do not reveal details of the internal processes or any internal variables or state. Old Spice Aqua! Independent . Components are designed to have minimal dependencies on other components. Therefore components can be deployed into any appropriate environment without affecting other components or systems. Common types of components used in applications include user interface components such as grids and of shell shock, buttons (often referred to as controls ), and helper and utility components that expose a specific subset of functions used in other components. Other common types of aqua components are those that are resource intensive, not frequently accessed, and must be activated using the just-in-time (JIT) approach (common in remoting or distributed component scenarios); and queued components whose method calls may be executed asynchronously using message queuing and store and forward.

Components depend upon a mechanism within the platform that provides an environment in The Right to Marry: Civil and Same which they can execute, often referred to as component architecture . Examples are the component object model (COM) and the distributed component object model (DCOM) in Windows; and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) on other platforms. Old Spice Reef! Component architectures manage the mechanics of concord battles locating components and old spice aqua antiperspirant, their interfaces, passing messages or commands between components, andin some casesmaintaining state. However, the term component is often used in the more basic sense of a constituent part, element, or ingredient . The Microsoft .NET Framework provides support for building applications using such a component based approach. For example, this guide discusses business and data components, which are commonly code classes compiled into .NET Framework assemblies. They execute under the The Right to Marry: Unions Sex Couples control of the .NET Framework runtime, and there may be more than one such component in each assembly. The following are the main benefits of the component-based architectural style:

Ease of deployment . As new compatible versions become available, you can replace existing versions with no impact on the other components or the system as a whole. Reduced cost . The use of third-party components allows you to spread the old spice antiperspirant cost of development and maintenance. Ease of development . Components implement well-known interfaces to provide defined functionality, allowing development without impacting other parts of the system. Reusable . Concord Battles! The use of old spice reusable components means that they can be used to spread the indian removal development and reef antiperspirant, maintenance cost across several applications or systems. Mitigation of technical complexity . Components mitigate complexity through the use of a component container and its services. Example component services include component activation, lifetime management, method queuing, eventing, and transactions. Design patterns such as the Dependency Injection pattern or the Service Locator pattern can be used to manage dependencies between components, and promote loose coupling and reuse. Such patterns are often used to build composite applications that combine and reuse components across multiple applications. Consider the component-based architectural style if you already have suitable components or can obtain suitable components from third-party suppliers; your application will predominantly execute procedural-style functions, perhaps with little or no data input; or you want to effects of shell, be able to combine components written in different code languages. Antiperspirant! Also, consider this style if you want to shock, create a pluggable or composite architecture that allows you to easily replace and update individual components.

Domain Driven Design Architectural Style. Domain Driven Design (DDD) is an object-oriented approach to designing software based on the business domain, its elements and behaviors, and the relationships between them. It aims to enable software systems that are a realization of the underlying business domain by old spice antiperspirant, defining a domain model expressed in the language of business domain experts. The domain model can be viewed as a framework from which solutions can then be rationalized. To apply Domain Driven Design, you must have a good understanding of the business domain you want to model, or be skilled in acquiring such business knowledge. The development team will often work with business domain experts to model the domain. Architects, developers, and subject matter experts have diverse backgrounds, and in many environments will use different languages to describe their goals, designs and requirements.

However, within Domain Driven Design, the whole team agrees to only use a single language that is focused on the business domain, and which excludes any technical jargon. As the core of the software is the domain model, which is a direct projection of this shared language, it allows the team to concord battles, quickly find gaps in the software by analyzing the reef language around it. The creation of a common language is coach not merely an exercise in accepting information from the domain experts and old spice antiperspirant, applying it. Quite often, communication problems within development teams are due not only to misunderstanding the indian removal language of the domain, but also due to the fact that the domain's language is old spice reef antiperspirant itself ambiguous. The Domain Driven Design process holds the goal not only of implementing the language being used, but also improving and refining the language of the domain.

This in turn benefits the software being built, since the model is a direct projection of the effects of shell shock domain language. In order to help maintain the model as a pure and aqua reef, helpful language construct, you must typically implement a great deal of of shell shock isolation and encapsulation within the domain model. Old Spice! Consequently, a system based on Domain Driven Design can come at a relatively high cost. Define Act! While Domain Driven Design provides many technical benefits, such as maintainability, it should be applied only to complex domains where the model and the linguistic processes provide clear benefits in the communication of complex information, and in the formulation of a common understanding of the domain. The following are the main benefits of the Domain Driven Design style: Communication . All parties within a development team can use the domain model and the entities it defines to communicate business knowledge and old spice aqua antiperspirant, requirements using a common business domain language, without requiring technical jargon. Extensible . The domain model is often modular and flexible, making it easy to update and extend as conditions and requirements change. Testable . The domain model objects are loosely coupled and cohesive, allowing them to define removal act, be more easily tested. Consider DDD if you have a complex domain and you wish to improve communication and understanding within your development team, or where you must express the design of an application in aqua antiperspirant a common language that all stakeholders can understand. DDD can also be an ideal approach if you have large and complex enterprise data scenarios that are difficult to indian act, manage using other techniques. For a summary of domain driven design techniques, see Domain Driven Design Quickly at

Alternatively, see Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-12521-5) and Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns by Jimmy Nilsson (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-26820-2). Layered architecture focuses on the grouping of related functionality within an application into distinct layers that are stacked vertically on top of each other. Functionality within each layer is old spice antiperspirant related by a common role or responsibility. Communication between layers is explicit and loosely coupled. Layering your application appropriately helps to support a strong separation of concerns that, in turn, supports flexibility and maintainability. The layered architectural style has been described as an inverted pyramid of reuse where each layer aggregates the responsibilities and concord battles, abstractions of the aqua reef layer directly beneath it. With strict layering, components in one layer can interact only removal act with components in the same layer or with components from the layer directly below it. More relaxed layering allows components in a layer to interact with components in the same layer or with components in any lower layer.

The layers of an application may reside on the same physical computer (the same tier) or may be distributed over separate computers ( n -tier), and the components in each layer communicate with components in other layers through well-defined interfaces. For example, a typical Web application design consists of aqua a presentation layer (functionality related to to Marry: Civil Sex Couples, the UI), a business layer (business rules processing), and a data layer (functionality related to data access, often almost entirely implemented using high-level data access frameworks). For details of the n-tier application architectural style, see N-Tier / 3-Tier Architectural Style later in this chapter. Common principles for designs that use the layered architectural style include: Abstraction . Layered architecture abstracts the view of the system as whole while providing enough detail to understand the roles and responsibilities of individual layers and the relationship between them. Encapsulation . No assumptions need to be made about data types, methods and properties, or implementation during design, as these features are not exposed at layer boundaries. Clearly defined functional layers . The separation between functionality in each layer is clear.

Upper layers such as the presentation layer send commands to lower layers, such as the business and data layers, and may react to events in old spice aqua antiperspirant these layers, allowing data to effects, flow both up and old spice aqua reef, down between the layers. High cohesion . Well-defined responsibility boundaries for each layer, and ensuring that each layer contains functionality directly related to the tasks of that layer, will help to maximize cohesion within the players layer. Reusable . Lower layers have no dependencies on higher layers, potentially allowing them to be reusable in other scenarios. Loose coupling . Communication between layers is based on old spice aqua antiperspirant, abstraction and events to provide loose coupling between layers. Examples of layered applications include line-of-business (LOB) applications such as accounting and customer-management systems; enterprise Web-based applications and Web sites, and enterprise desktop or smart clients with centralized application servers for business logic. A number of design patterns support the layered architectural style. For example, Separated Presentation patterns encompass a range of patterns that the concord battles handling of the user's interactions from the UI, the presentation and business logic, and the application data with which the reef antiperspirant user works. Christine! Separated Presentation allows graphical designers to create a UI while developers generate the old spice aqua reef antiperspirant code to drive it. Dividing the functionality into separate roles in this way provides increased opportunities to test the to Marry: Civil Sex Couples behavior of individual roles. The following are the key principles of the Separated Presentation patterns:

Separation of concerns . Separated Presentation patterns divide UI processing concerns into old spice aqua reef antiperspirant distinct roles; for act example, MVC has three roles: the Model, the View, and the Controller. The Model represents data (perhaps a domain model that includes business rules); the View represents the UI; and the Controller handles requests, manipulates the model, and performs other operations. Event-based notification . The Observer pattern is commonly used to provide notifications to the View when data managed by the Model changes. Delegated event handling . The controller handles events triggered from the UI controls in the View. Other examples of Separated Presentation patterns are the Passive View pattern and the Supervising Presenter (or Supervising Controller) pattern. The main benefits of the layered architectural style, and old spice aqua antiperspirant, the use of a Separated Presentation pattern, are:

Abstraction . Layers allow changes to be made at the abstract level. You can increase or decrease the to Marry: Unions and Same Sex Couples Essay level of old spice reef abstraction you use in of shell shock each layer of the hierarchical stack. Reef Antiperspirant! Isolation . Allows you to isolate technology upgrades to individual layers in order to reduce risk and minimize impact on the overall system. Manageability . Separation of core concerns helps to identify dependencies, and organizes the code into more manageable sections. The Right To Marry: Civil Unions And Same! Performance . Distributing the layers over multiple physical tiers can improve scalability, fault tolerance, and performance. Reusability . Roles promote reusability. For example, in MVC, the reef antiperspirant Controller can often be reused with other compatible Views in order to provide a role specific or a user-customized view on to the indian same data and functionality. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! Testability . Increased testability arises from having well-defined layer interfaces, as well as the ability to switch between different implementations of the layer interfaces. Separated Presentation patterns allow you to build mock objects that mimic the behavior of concrete objects such as the Model, Controller, or View during testing. Consider the layered architectural style if you have existing layers that are suitable for reuse in other applications, you already have applications that expose suitable business processes through service interfaces, or your application is complex and the high-level design demands separation so that teams can focus on different areas of functionality. The Right Sex Couples Essay! The layered architectural style is also appropriate if your application must support different client types and different devices, or you want to old spice, implement complex and/or configurable business rules and processes.

Consider a Separated Presentation pattern if you want improved testability and simplified maintenance of UI functionality, or you want to separate the task of designing the UI from the development of the logic code that drives it. These patterns are also appropriate when your UI view does not contain any request processing code, and does not implement any business logic. Message bus architecture describes the principle of of shell shock using a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. It is a style for designing applications where interaction between applications is accomplished by passing messages (usually asynchronously) over a common bus. The most common implementations of old spice reef message bus architecture use either a messaging router or a Publish/Subscribe pattern, and The Right to Marry: and Same, are often implemented using a messaging system such as Message Queuing. Many implementations consist of individual applications that communicate using common schemas and a shared infrastructure for sending and receiving messages. A message bus provides the ability to antiperspirant, handle: Message-oriented communications . All communication between applications is based on define, messages that use known schemas.

Complex processing logic . Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! Complex operations can be executed by carter, combining a set of smaller operations, each of reef which supports specific tasks, as part of a multistep itinerary. Modifications to processing logic . Removal Act! Because interaction with the bus is old spice aqua reef antiperspirant based on common schemas and commands, you can insert or remove applications on the bus to change the logic that is used to process messages. Integration with different environments . Concord Battles! By using a message-based communication model based on common standards, you can interact with applications developed for different environments, such as Microsoft .NET and Java. Message bus designs have been used to support complex processing rules for many years. Reef! The design provides a pluggable architecture that allows you to insert applications into the process, or improve scalability by attaching several instances of the same application to concord battles, the bus. Variations on the message bus style include: Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) . Based on message bus designs, an ESB uses services for old spice aqua communication between the bus and components attached to the bus. Effects! An ESB will usually provide services that transform messages from one format to old spice antiperspirant, another, allowing clients that use incompatible message formats to communicate with each other Internet Service Bus (ISB) . This is similar to an enterprise service bus, but with applications hosted in the cloud instead of on an enterprise network. Players! A core concept of ISB is the old spice aqua reef antiperspirant use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and policies to control the routing of logic through applications and services in the cloud. The main benefits of the message-bus architectural style are: Extensibility . Applications can be added to Essay on The Bible:, or removed from the bus without having an impact on the existing applications.

Low complexity . Application complexity is reduced because each application only needs to old spice reef antiperspirant, know how to communicate with the bus. Flexibility . The set of applications that make up a complex process, or the communication patterns between applications, can be changed easily to match changes in business or user requirements, simply through changes to the configuration or parameters that control routing. Loose coupling . Removal! As long as applications expose a suitable interface for old spice reef antiperspirant communication with the message bus, there is watkins no dependency on the application itself, allowing changes, updates, and replacements that expose the same interface. Scalability . Multiple instances of the old spice aqua same application can be attached to the bus in concord battles order to handle multiple requests at the same time. Old Spice Aqua Reef Antiperspirant! Application simplicity . Although a message bus implementation adds complexity to the infrastructure, each application needs to support only a single connection to the message bus instead of concord battles multiple connections to other applications.

Consider the message bus architectural style if you have existing applications that interoperate with each other to perform tasks, or you want to old spice aqua reef, combine multiple tasks into a single operation. This style is also appropriate if you are implementing a task that requires interaction with external applications, or applications hosted in different environments. N-tier and 3-tier are architectural deployment styles that describe the separation of functionality into segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier that can be located on a physically separate computer. They evolved through the to Marry: Civil Unions Sex Couples Essay component-oriented approach, generally using platform specific methods for old spice communication instead of a message-based approach. N-tier application architecture is characterized by of shell shock, the functional decomposition of applications, service components, and their distributed deployment, providing improved scalability, availability, manageability, and resource utilization. Each tier is aqua antiperspirant completely independent from all other tiers, except for those immediately above and below it. The nth tier only has to know how to handle a request from the n+1th tier, how to forward that request on to the n-1th tier (if there is one), and how to handle the results of the request. Communication between tiers is typically asynchronous in Essay on The order to support better scalability. N-tier architectures usually have at least three separate logical parts, each located on a separate physical server. Each part is responsible for specific functionality. When using a layered design approach, a layer is deployed on a tier if more than one service or application is dependent on the functionality exposed by the layer.

An example of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style is a typical financial Web application where security is important. The business layer must be deployed behind a firewall, which forces the deployment of the presentation layer on a separate tier in the perimeter network. Another example is a typical rich client connected application, where the presentation layer is deployed on client machines and the business layer and data access layer are deployed on one or more server tiers. The main benefits of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style are: Maintainability . Because each tier is independent of the other tiers, updates or changes can be carried out without affecting the application as a whole. Scalability . Because tiers are based on antiperspirant, the deployment of layers, scaling out an application is reasonably straightforward. Flexibility . Because each tier can be managed or scaled independently, flexibility is increased.

Availability . Applications can exploit the modular architecture of enabling systems using easily scalable components, which increases availability. Consider either the N-tier or the Essay on The The Word of God 3-tier architectural style if the processing requirements of the layers in the application differ such that processing in one layer could absorb sufficient resources to slow the processing in other layers, or if the security requirements of the aqua reef layers in the application differ. For example, the presentation layer should not store sensitive data, while this may be stored in concord battles the business and old spice reef antiperspirant, data layers. Sex Couples Essay! The N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style is aqua reef antiperspirant also appropriate if you want to be able to share business logic between applications, and you have sufficient hardware to allocate the required number of define indian removal servers to each tier. Consider using just three tiers if you are developing an antiperspirant, intranet application where all servers are located within the private network; or an Internet application where security requirements do not restrict the deployment of business logic on players, the public facing Web or application server. Aqua Antiperspirant! Consider using more than three tiers if security requirements dictate that business logic cannot be deployed to the perimeter network, or the application makes heavy use of resources and to Marry: Sex Couples Essay, you want to offload that functionality to another server. Object-Oriented Architectural Style. Object-oriented architecture is aqua antiperspirant a design paradigm based on coach players, the division of responsibilities for an application or system into old spice reef individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and define indian, the behavior relevant to the object.

An object-oriented design views a system as a series of cooperating objects, instead of a set of routines or procedural instructions. Old Spice Reef! Objects are discrete, independent, and loosely coupled; they communicate through interfaces, by calling methods or accessing properties in other objects, and by sending and receiving messages. The Word Of God! The key principles of the object-oriented architectural style are: Abstraction . This allows you to old spice reef, reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the base characteristics of the carter players operation. For example, an old spice, abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update . Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Composition . Objects can be assembled from other objects, and can choose to hide these internal objects from on The The Word of God other classes or expose them as simple interfaces. Inheritance . Objects can inherit from other objects, and use functionality in the base object or override it to implement new behavior. Moreover, inheritance makes maintenance and updates easier, as changes to old spice aqua antiperspirant, the base object are propagated automatically to the inheriting objects. Encapsulation . Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from christine other objects. This makes it easier to update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and old spice aqua reef antiperspirant, code. Polymorphism . This allows you to override the behavior of a base type that supports operations in your application by implementing new types that are interchangeable with the existing object.

Decoupling . Objects can be decoupled from the consumer by defining an abstract interface that the object implements and the consumer can understand. This allows you to provide alternative implementations without affecting consumers of the interface. Common uses of the object-oriented style include defining an object model that supports complex scientific or financial operations, and defining objects that represent real world artifacts within a business domain (such as a customer or an order). The latter is define act a process commonly implemented using the old spice aqua more specialized domain driven design style, which takes advantage of the Essay Bible: principles of the object-oriented style. Aqua! For more information, see Domain Driven Design Architectural Style earlier in this chapter. The main benefits of the object-oriented architectural style are that it is: Understandable . Carter Players! It maps the application more closely to the real world objects, making it more understandable. Reusable . It provides for reusability through polymorphism and abstraction. Old Spice! Testable . It provides for improved testability through encapsulation. Define! Extensible . Encapsulation, polymorphism, and abstraction ensure that a change in the representation of data does not affect the interfaces that the old spice aqua reef object exposes, which would limit the of God capability to aqua, communicate and interact with other objects. Define Removal Act! Highly Cohesive . By locating only related methods and features in an object, and using different objects for different sets of features, you can achieve a high level of old spice aqua antiperspirant cohesion.

Consider the object-oriented architectural style if you want to model your application based on real world objects and The Right Civil Unions and Same, actions, or you already have suitable objects and classes that match the design and operational requirements. The object-oriented style is also suitable if you must encapsulate logic and data together in reusable components or you have complex business logic that requires abstraction and aqua reef, dynamic behavior. Service-Oriented Architectural Style. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) enables application functionality to be provided as a set of services, and the creation of of shell shock applications that make use of software services. Services are loosely coupled because they use standards-based interfaces that can be invoked, published, and discovered. Services in SOA are focused on providing a schema and message-based interaction with an application through interfaces that are application scoped, and not component or object-based.

An SOA service should not be treated as a component-based service provider. The SOA style can package business processes into interoperable services, using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information. Clients and other services can access local services running on the same tier, or access remote services over old spice aqua reef, a connecting network. The key principles of the SOA architectural style are: Services are autonomous . Coach Carter Players! Each service is maintained, developed, deployed, and versioned independently. Services are distributable . Services can be located anywhere on old spice aqua antiperspirant, a network, locally or remotely, as long as the network supports the required communication protocols. Services are loosely coupled . The Right Civil Unions Essay! Each service is independent of others, and can be replaced or updated without breaking applications that use it as long as the interface is still compatible. Services share schema and contract, not class . Services share contracts and schemas when they communicate, not internal classes. Compatibility is based on policy . Policy in this case means definition of features such as transport, protocol, and security.

Common examples of service-oriented applications include sharing information, handling multistep processes such as reservation systems and old spice reef, online stores, exposing industry specific data or services over define indian act, an extranet, and creating mashups that combine information from multiple sources. The main benefits of the SOA architectural style are: Domain alignment . Reuse of common services with standard interfaces increases business and aqua, technology opportunities and reduces cost. Abstraction . Services are autonomous and accessed through a formal contract, which provides loose coupling and abstraction. Discoverability . Players! Services can expose descriptions that allow other applications and services to locate them and automatically determine the antiperspirant interface. Christine Watkins! Interoperability . Aqua Antiperspirant! Because the protocols and data formats are based on industry standards, the provider and consumer of the concord battles service can be built and deployed on old spice antiperspirant, different platforms. Removal! Rationalization . Services can be granular in order to provide specific functionality, rather than duplicating the old spice aqua antiperspirant functionality in number of applications, which removes duplication. Consider the coach players SOA style if you have access to old spice aqua reef antiperspirant, suitable services that you wish to reuse; can purchase suitable services provided by a hosting company; want to build applications that compose a variety of christine watkins services into a single UI; or you are creating Software plus Services (S+S), Software as a Service (SaaS), or cloud-based applications. The SOA style is aqua reef suitable when you must support message-based communication between segments of the application and The Right Civil Unions and Same Essay, expose functionality in a platform independent way, when you want to old spice aqua, take advantage of federated services such as authentication, or you want to expose services that are discoverable through directories and can be used by clients that have no prior knowledge of the interfaces. Evans, Eric.

Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of coach players Software. Reef! Addison-Wesley, 2004. Nilsson, Jimmy. Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns: With Examples in C# and NET. Addison-Wesley, 2006. For more information about architectural styles, see the following resources: