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By Jack Cashill. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Democrat Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. What Took Of Colonial? Prior to that, he had served four years as a U.S. Coupling? senator from Illinois (2005-2008) and eight years as an Illinois state senator (1996-2004). “In Islam, religion passes from the father to Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay, the child.
Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. Excitation Coupling Definition? [his Kenyan birth father] was a Muslim who named his boy Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Only Muslim children are named ‘Hussein’. [Barack Obama’s] stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, was also a Muslim. In fact, as Obama's half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng explained to Jodi Kantor of the New York Times : ‘My whole family was Muslim, and most of the people I knew were Muslim.’ An Indonesian publication, the Banjarmasin Post reports a former classmate, Rony Amir, recalling that ‘All the the Road relatives of Barry's [Barack’s] father were very devout Muslims.’” * As a child in Indonesia, Obama attended Koranic classes at a Muslim school known as Besuki. At tha same time, he attended the St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School. * In February 2009, Obama said: I was not raised in a particularly religious household. I had a father who was born a Muslim but became an atheist, grandparents who were non-practicing Methodists and Baptists, and a mother who was skeptical of organized religion. I didn't become a Christian until I moved to the South Side of excitation definition Chicago after college.
* In a March 2009 interview, Obama's then-30-year-old half-brother, George Hussein Onyango Obama , said that “on the inside Barack Obama is Gone US Essay, Muslim.” * In September 2010, Obama said: I came to my Christian faith later in life. * Author Edward Klein , while researching his 2012 book The Amateur , once asked the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Obama's longtime pastor at Trinity United Methodisy Church in Chicago: Did you convert Obama from Islam to excitation contraction definition, Christianity? Wright replied enigmatically: That's hard to tell. * Daniel Pipes writes that many pieces of evidence argue for Obama having been born and raised a Muslim Specifically, says Pipes: (1) Islam is a patrilineal religion : In Islam, the father passes his faith to the children; and changes place asia as a of colonial, when a Muslim male has children with a non-Muslim female, Islam considers the children Muslim. Obama's grandfather and father having been Muslims the extent of their piety matters not at all means that, in Muslim eyes, Barack was born a Muslim. (2) Arabic forenames based on the H-S-N trilateral root : All such names (Husayn or Hussein, Hasan, Hassân, Hasanayn, Ahsan, Muhsin, and excitation, others) are exclusively bestowed on changes result, Muslim babies. (The same goes for names based on the H-M-D root.) Obama's middle name, Hussein, explicitly proclaims him a born Muslim. (3) Registered as Muslim at SD Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi : Obama was registered at a Catholic school in Jakarta as Barry Soetoro. Excitation Coupling Definition? A surviving document correctly lists him as born in Honolulu on Aug.
4, 1961; in addition, it lists him having Indonesian nationality and Muslim religion. (4) Registered as Muslim at SD Besuki : Although Besuki (also known as SDN 1 Menteng) is a public school, Obama curiously refers to Salaries Gone Unjustified in the, it in Audacity (p. Contraction? 154) as the Muslim school he attended in Jakarta. Its records have not survived but several journalists (Haroon Siddiqui of the Toronto Star , Paul Watson of the Los Angeles Times , David Maraniss of the Salaries US Essay Washington Post ) have all confirmed that there too, he was registered as a Muslim. (5) Islamic class at SD Besuki : Obama mentions ( Audacity , p. 154) that at Besuki, the teacher wrote to tell my mother that I made faces during Koranic studies. Only Muslim students attended the weekly two-hour Koran class, Watson reports: two of his teachers, former Vice Principal Tine Hahiyari and contraction coupling, third-grade teacher Effendi, said they remember clearly that at this school too, he was registered as a Muslim, which determined what class he attended during weekly religion lessons. Essay Pt3? Muslim students were taught by a Muslim teacher, and Christian students were taught by a Christian teacher, said Effendi. Andrew Higgins of the Washington Post quotes Rully Dasaad, a former classmate, saying that Obama horsed around in class and, during readings of the Koran, got laughed at contraction definition, because of his funny pronunciation. Place In Southeast As A Of Colonial Control? Maraniss learned that the class included not only studying how to contraction coupling, pray and how to read the boa constrictor Koran, but also actually praying in the Friday communal service right on the school grounds.
(6) Mosque attendance : Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's younger half-sister, said her father (namely, Barack's stepfather) attended the mosque for big communal events, Barker found that Obama occasionally followed his stepfather to the mosque for Friday prayers. Contraction Definition? Watson reports: The childhood friends say Obama sometimes went to Friday prayers at speech essay pt3, the local mosque. We prayed but not really seriously, just following actions done by older people in the mosque. But as kids, we loved to meet our friends and went to the mosque together and played, said Zulfin Adi, who describes himself as among Obama's closest childhood friends. Sometimes, when the coupling muezzin sounded the on On to Realism call to prayer, Lolo and Barry would walk to definition, the makeshift mosque together, Adi said.
His mother often went to the church, but Barry was Muslim. He went to the mosque, Adi said. (7) Muslim clothing : Adi recalls about Obama, I remember him wearing a sarong. Likewise,Maraniss found not only that His classmates recalled that Barry wore a sarong but written exchanges indicating that he continued to Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay, wear this garment in the United States. This fact has religious implications because, in excitation, Indonesian culture, only Muslims wear sarongs. (8) Piety : Obama says that in Indonesia, he didn't practice [Islam], an assertion that inadvertently acknowledges his Muslim identity by speech essay, implying he was a non-observant Muslim. But several of those who knew him contradict this recollection. Excitation Contraction Coupling Definition? Rony Amir describes Obama as previously quite religious in Salaries Gone in the, Islam. Coupling? A former teacher, Tine Hahiyary, quoted in the Kaltim Post , says the future president took part in advanced Islamic religious lessons: I remember that he had studied mengaji . In the symmetric context of Southeast Asian Islam, mengaji Quran means to recite the definition Koran in Conditions Essay, Arabic, a difficult task denoting advanced study. In summary, the record points to Obama having been born a Muslim to excitation contraction coupling, a non-practicing Muslim father and having lived for poem, four years in contraction, a fully Muslim milieu under the pt3 auspices of contraction coupling his Muslim Indonesian stepfather.
For these reasons, those who knew Obama in Indonesia considered him a Muslim. * Daniel Pipes has pointed out the significance of the manner in which Obama typically addresses Muslim audiences: “When addressing Muslim audiences, Obama uses specifically Muslim phrases that recall his Muslim identity. He addressed audiences both in Cairo (in June 2009 ) and Jakarta (in Nov. 2010 ) with 'as-salaamu alaykum,' a greeting that he, who went to Koran class, knows is reserved for one Muslim addressing another.” Further, Pipes notes that “In Cairo, he [Obama] also deployed several other pious terms that signal to symmetric encryption, Muslims he is one of excitation contraction coupling definition them: (a) 'the Holy Koran' (a term mentioned five times): an exact translation from the changes took as a result control standard Arabic reference to the Islamic scripture, al-Qur'an al-Karim ; (b) 'the right path': a translation of the Arabic as-sirat al-mustaqim , which Muslims ask God to guide them along each time they pray; (c) 'I have known Islam on definition, three continents before coming to Gone in the US Essay, the region where it was first revealed': non-Muslims do not refer to Islam as revealed ; (d) 'the story of contraction coupling Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed joined in what changes in southeast result of colonial, prayer': this Koranic tale of a night journey establishes the leadership of Muhammad over all other holy figures, including Jesus; (e) 'Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon them': a translation of the Arabic 'alayhim as-salam , which pious Muslims say after mentioning the names of dead prophets other than Muhammad.” * Pipes offers also the following insight about Obama's use of the phrase Peace be upon them: “Obama's saying 'Peace be upon excitation contraction coupling them' has other implications beyond being a purely Islamic turn of phrase never employed by Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians. First, it contradicts what a self-professed Christian believes because it implies that Jesus, like Moses and Muhammad, is dead; Christian theology holds him to Essay on On the Road to Realism, have been resurrected, living, and the immortal Son of God. Second, including Muhammad in this blessing implies reverence for him, something as outlandish as a Jew talking about coupling definition Jesus Christ . Third, a Christian would more naturally seek peace from Jesus rather than wish peace on him.” “[Obama] drastically overestimates both the changes took place asia as a number and contraction coupling definition, the role of Muslims in the United States, announcing in June 2009 that 'if you actually took the number of Muslims Americans, we'd be one of the largest Muslim countries in Unjustified in the, the world.' (Hardly: according to one listing of Muslim populations , the United States, with about 2.5 million Muslims , ranks about 47 th largest.) Three days later , he gave a bloated estimate of 'nearly 7 million American Muslims in our country today' and excitation coupling, bizarrely announced that 'Islam has always been a part of America's story. Boa Constrictor Poem? since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the United States.' Obama also announced the dubious fact, in contraction coupling, Apr. 2009 , that many Americans 'have Muslims in their families or have lived in a Muslim-majority country.' When ordering religious communities in the United States, Obama always gives first place to the Road to Realism, Christians but second place varies between Jews and Muslims, most notably in his Jan. 2009 inaugural speech: 'The United States is a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and non-believers.' Obama so wildly overestimates the Muslim role in American life that they suggest an Islamic supremacist mentality specific to someone coming from a Muslim background.” The 1970s and CPUSA Member Frank Marshall Davis: In 1971, Obama was sent back to Hawaii to be raised largely by his white, middle-class, maternal grandparents, and to attend the contraction definition prestigious Punahou Academy. For only one month of his life, also when he was ten, Obama was visited by his biological father.
To avoid being mistaken for a sellout,I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. Encryption? The foreign students. Excitation Contraction? The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and the structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets.We smoked cigarettes and wore leather jackets. Conditions For A Arrest? At night,in the dorms,we discussed neocolonialism, [the socialist, anti-colonialist revolutionary] Franz Fanon,Eurocentrism,and patriarchy. When we ground out our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the excitation contraction coupling walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints. We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated. John C. Drew's Recollections of Obama as a Student at Occidental College: What’s missing from this story is that the 'social justice' young men and women were, in fact, simply left-wing socialists.
They found a hero in Professor Boesche because he made complex texts easier to understand and because he encouraged them to fight even though they would be inevitably ground up in the gears of history. The outrage that Obama felt when he got a 'B' from Boesche was due to the idea that Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was a revolutionary who shared Boesche’s perspective. Boa Constrictor? Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was one of the student[s] in greatest ideological agreement with what Professor Boesche was teaching at excitation coupling, that time. In February 2010, John C. Drew shared the essay pt3 following recollections he had of Obama: I met Barack Obama face-to-face later that same year in late December 1980. By then, I was in definition, my second year of Gone graduate school at Cornell.
I was doing my first, official teaching. The young Ann Coulter was a student in Theodore J. Lowi’s Introduction to American Government course in 1980 and I was the coupling definition teaching assistant responsible for guiding her small group discussion section. Back on the West Coast for boa constrictor poem, Christmas break, I was visiting a girlfriend who was still attending Occidental College who introduced me to 'Barry' Obama and his housemate Mohammed Hasan Chandoo, a wealthy Pakistani student. From Occidental, Obama transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he graduated in 1983 with a degree in political science. In 1982, Obama's biological father -- Barack Obama, Sr. -- died in a car crash. In Dreams From My Father , Obama reveals that during his student years at contraction definition, Columbia he “went to socialist conferences at the Road to Realism, Cooper Union and excitation contraction, African cultural fairs in Brooklyn.” Specifically, these were Socialist Scholars Conferences (SSC), which featured the elite of socialist academia as well as union activists, political revolutionaries, reformers, and opponents of “corporate greed.” According to the libertarian writer Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the symmetric encryption Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the excitation contraction coupling Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotskyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” Matthew Vadum and Jeremy Lott provide an excellent explanation of what a community organizer does.
They write: “What does a “community organizer” do? Good question. Ever since former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani mocked Senator Barack Obama at the Republican convention in September 2008, for the senator’s community organizing past, and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that her previous experience as mayor was “sort of like a ‘community organizer,’ except that you have actual responsibilities,” [Obama’s] supporters have been furiously spinning this one. They’ve suggested a fanciful interpretation of “community organizer” that includes organizing church picnics and bake sales. Some have even had the Salaries Unjustified in the cheek to suggest that Jesus Christ was a community organizer. Dr. Thomas Sowell, the contraction eminent Stanford University sociologist, offers this assessment of what community organizers do: For 'community organizers' . racial resentments are a stock in trade. What does a community organizer do?
What he does not do is organize a community. What he organizes are the resentments and paranoia within a community, directing those feelings against other communities, from whom either benefits or revenge are to be gotten, using whatever rhetoric or tactics will accomplish that purpose. Political analyst Andrew McCarthy calls community organizing a gussied-up term for systematic rabble-rousing. He adds: The quest for raw power is the gospel according to the seminal organizer, Saul Alinsky. In Obama terminology, 'hope' is the possibility that power may be wrested from society’s 'haves' by to Realism, infiltrating their political system. Just as Willie Sutton robbed banks because that’s where the money is, organizers must target the very system they reject to acquire powermaking themselves attractive to the great mass of society despite having 'contemptuously rejected the values and the way of life of the middle class,' as Alinsky put it. This is the formula for transformational 'change': the exploitation of power, once acquired, to redistribute wealth and excitation contraction coupling, elevate the left’s professionally aggrieved vanguard. The day after the rally, Marty [Jerry Kellman in changes took in southeast asia, Dreams] decided it was time for me to do some real work, and he handed me a long list of people to interview.
Find out their self-interest, he said. That’s why people become involved in excitation contraction definition, organizingbecause they think they’ll get something out of it. Once I found an issue enough people cared about, I could take them into action. With enough actions, I could start to build power. Issues, action, power, self-interest.
I liked these concepts. Poem? They bespoke a certain hardheadedness, a worldly lack of excitation contraction coupling sentiment; politics, not religion. Obama's expenses at DCP were signed and approved by the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, a far-leftist who founded the Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD); who famously credited Mikhail Gorbachev, not Reagan or John Paul II, with having brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union; and who called for a “consistent ethic of life,” in an effort to speech essay, persuade anti-abortion Catholics to likewise embrace pacifism and contraction coupling, wealth redistribution. He pursued manifestly worthy goals; protecting people from asbestos in government housing projects is Conditions Arrest, obviously a good thing and a responsibility of the government that built them. Coupling? But [in every case except one] the proposed solution to every problem on the South Side was a distribution of government funds .  Nor was Obama reluctant to use intimidation as a tactic. In one instance, he personally orchestrated a demonstration in which scores of protestors broke into a private meeting between bank executives and local community leaders, menacing them as they attempted to negotiate a deal vis a vis a controversial landfill issue. In 1987, when Obama was executive director of DCP, he asked Chicago mayor Harold Washington to support a community organizing project whose advisory board would include Obama's pastor Jeremiah Wright, the speech essay pt3 leftist Catholic priest Michael Pfleger, Illinois State Senator Emil Jones, and John Ayers (brother of former Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers). In a followup letter addressed to contraction coupling definition, Washington’s assistant three days later, Obama again laid out his plans and included a list of his advisory council members.
Trained in the Saul Alinsky Method: Three of pt3 Obama's mentors in contraction coupling definition, Chicago were trained at the Saul Alinsky-founded Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in the Windy City. (The Developing Communities Project itself was an affiliate of the Gamaliel Foundation, whose modus operandi for on On the Road, the creation of “a more just and democratic society” is rooted firmly in the Alinsky method.) Alinsky was known for having helped to establish the aggressive political tactics that characterized the 1960s, and which have remained central to all subsequent revolutionary movements in the United States. He was a natural, the undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to admit that they were not living up to their own standards. Definition? As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and confrontational. Symmetric Encryption? With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the source of coupling pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better. For several years, Obama himself taught workshops on the Alinsky method.
“Grass-roots community organizing builds on indigenous leadership and speech pt3, direct action. The debate as to excitation coupling, how black and other dispossessed people can forward their lot in America is not new. What Changes Place As A Result? From W. E. B. DuBois to coupling definition, Booker T. Washington to Marcus Garvey to Arrest Essay, Malcolm X to Martin Luther King, this internal debate has raged between integration and excitation contraction coupling, nationalism, between accommodation and Salaries Gone Unjustified, militancy, between sit-down strikes and contraction definition, boardroom negotiations. The lines between these strategies have never been simply drawn, and the most successful black leadership has recognized the need to bridge these seemingly divergent approaches. Author Andrew McCarthy makes the following observations about Obama's words: Breathtaking. Lawfulness and lawlessness, thuggishness and regular politicswe’re not to divine any moral or ethical differences. They are just different 'approaches' to empowerment.
They only 'seem' to be 'divergent.' It may be important to maintain the veneer of symmetric encryption respect for legal processes, but it is just as legitimate to stretch or break the excitation coupling rules whenever necessary to achieve the desired outcomesocial justice being a higher form of legitimacy than society’s rule of law. Separatism, menacing, and took in southeast asia result, civil disobedience: none of these is beyond the pale; they are simply choices on the hard power menu Obama 'bridges' with soft power (i.e., the system’s mundane legal and political processes). As a young community organizer, Obama had close connections to the Midwest Academy, a radical training ground for activists of his political ilk. Excitation Coupling? Probably the most influential community-organizing-related entity in America at what changes took asia as a result of colonial, that time, the Midwest Academy worked closely with the contraction coupling DSA and synthesized Saul Alinsky’s organizing techniques with the practical considerations of electoral politics. Emphasizing “class consciousness” and “movement history,” the Academy’s training programs exposed students to the efforts and achievements of what took place asia veteran activists from earlier decades. Recurring “socialism sessions,” taught by Heather Booth, encompassed everything from Marx and Engels through Michael Harrington’s democratic socialism and the factional struggles of the excitation contraction coupling Students for Essay on On to Realism, a Democratic Society, a radical organization that aspired to remake America’s government in a Marxist image. Knowing that many Americans would be unreceptive to straightforward, hard-left advocacy, the coupling definition Midwest Academy in its formative years was careful not to explicitly articulate its socialist ideals in its organizing and on On to Realism, training activities. The group’s inner circle was wholly committed to building a socialist mass movement, but stealthily rather than overtly. As Midwest Academy trainer Steve Max and the prominent socialist Harry Boyte agreed in contraction coupling definition, a private correspondence: “Every social proposal that we make must be [deceptively] couched in terms of how it will strengthen capitalism.” This strategy of hiding its own socialist agendas below the proverbial radar, earned the Lawful Essay Academy the designation “crypto-socialist organization” from excitation Stanley Kurtz.
“Nearly every thread of Obama’s career runs directly or indirectly through the Midwest Academy,” says Kurtz, and, as such, it represents “the hidden key to Barack Obama’s political career.” The author elaborates: “Obama’s organizing mentors had ties to [the Midwest Academy]; Obama’s early funding was indirectly controlled by the Road to Realism, it; evidence strongly suggests that Obama himself received training there; both Barack and contraction, Michelle Obama ran a project called ‘Public Allies’ that was effectively an extension of the Midwest Academy; Obama’s first run for public office was sponsored by Academy veteran Alice Palmer; and Obama worked closely at two foundations for years with yet another veteran organizer from the Midwest Academy, Ken Rolling. Perhaps more important, Barack Obama’s approach to politics is clearly inspired by that of the Midwest Academy.” Obama and the Alliance for Better Chicago Schools: In 1988 Obama applied for admission to Harvard Law School. At the time, a Muslim attorney and black nationalist named Khalid Abdullah Tariq al-Mansour asked civil rights activist Percy Sutton to encryption, send a letter of excitation coupling recommendation to took place asia as a result of colonial, his (Sutton's) friends at Harvard on contraction coupling, Obama's behalf. In an interview published by the Daily Herald on March 3, 1990, Barck Obama said: I feel good when I'm engaged in what changes place in southeast asia as a control, what I think are the core issues of the excitation contraction society, and those core issues to me are what's happening to poor folks in this society. There's certainly racism here [at Harvard Law School].
There are certain burdens that are placed [on blacks], more emotionally at this point than concretely. Hopefully, more and more people will begin to feel their story is symmetric, somehow part of this larger story of how we're going to coupling, reshape America in a way that is less mean-spirited and more generous. I mean, I really hope to be part of a transformation of this country. In May 2012, Breitbart News reported that it had obtained a 36-page promotional booklet produced in encryption, 1991 by Barack Obama's then-literary agency, Acton Dystel, which stated that Obama was born in Kenya and raised in excitation, Indonesia and speech pt3, Hawaii. Coupling? The booklet, which was distributed to people in the publishing industry, includes a brief biography of Obama and 89 other authors represented by speech, Acton Dystel. Obama’s biography in the booklet reads as follows:
Barack Obama, the first African-American president of the coupling definition Harvard Law Review , was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. The son of an symmetric encryption, American anthropologist and a Kenyan finance minister, he attended Columbia University and worked as a financial journalist and editor for Business International Corporation. Coupling Definition? He served as project coordinator in Harlem for the New York Public Interest Research Group, and pt3, was Executive Director of the Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side. His commitment to contraction coupling, social and racial issues will be evident in his first book, Journeys in Black and White . The booklet also included biographies of such notable authors as former Speaker of the House Tip O’Neill, sports legends Joe Montana and changes took place asia as a of colonial control, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and excitation coupling definition, a number of speech Hollywood celebrities. Jay Acton (of Acton Dystel) told Breitbart News that the contraction coupling booklet had cost the agency tens of thousands of dollars to produce.
He said that while almost nobody wrote his or her own biography, the Salaries Unjustified non-athletes in the booklet were probably approached to contraction coupling definition, approve the text as presented. His most traditional course was in the due process and equal protection areas of constitutional law. His voting rights class traced the evolution of election law, from the disenfranchisement of blacks to contemporary debates over districting and campaign finance. His most original course, a historical and political seminar as much as a legal one, was on racism and symmetric, law [In] one class on race, he imitated the definition way clueless white people talked. 'Why are your friends at the housing projects shooting each other?' he asked in a mock-innocent voice. Conditions For A Essay? . Mr. Obama was especially eager for his charges to understand the horrors of the past, students say. Coupling Definition? He assigned a 1919 catalog of lynching victims, including some who were first raped or stripped of their ears and fingers, others who were pregnant or lynched with their children, and some whose charred bodies were sold off, bone fragment by bone fragment, to gawkers. 'Are there legal remedies that alleviate not just existing racism, but racism from the Essay past?' Adam Gross, now a public interest lawyer in Chicago, wrote in his class notes in April 1994. Liberals flocked to his classes[.] After all, the professor was a progressive politician[.] . Karen McQuillan writes, in contraction coupling, American Thinker , that Obama was a lecturer, and not a full professor, because he did not have the boa constrictor qualifications to be a professor. Adds McQuillan: Obama never published a single law paper. He was hired by the University of contraction coupling definition Chicago when they learned he had been given a book contract on race and what took place as a result, law directly after graduating from Harvard.
There was no book just the definition contract, which he later reneged on. This is not the normal level of accomplishment for Salaries Unjustified in the US Essay, a University of Chicago professor or even lecturer. Introduction to ACORN and excitation contraction definition, Project Vote: In the early to mid-1990s, Obama worked with ACORN, a grassroots political organization that grew out of George Wiley's National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). In the late 1960s and early 70s, NWRO members had invaded welfare offices across the U.S. -- often violently -- bullying social workers and loudly demanding every penny to which the Salaries Gone Unjustified in the US Essay law “entitled” them.  Litigator for Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C .: In 1993 Barack Obama took a job as a litigator of voting rights and excitation, employment cases with the law firm Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C. (a.k.a. Davis Miner).
That same year, he also became a lecturer at what changes took place asia as a result, the University of Chicago Law School. Obama -- along with such notables as Al Sharpton and excitation coupling definition, Jeremiah Wright -- helped organize the October 1995 Million Man March in Washington, DC, which featured Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Said Obama in Essay, the immediate aftermath of the March: “What I saw was a powerful demonstration of an impulse and need for excitation coupling, African-American men to come together to recognize each other and affirm our rightful place in the society. The Road To Realism? Historically, African-Americans have turned inward and towards black nationalism whenever they have a sense, as we do now, that the mainstream has rebuffed us, and that white Americans couldn’t care less about the profound problems African-Americans are facing.” Obama Smears White Executives in the Suburbs: I worked as a community organizer in Chicago. I was very active in low-income neighborhoods, working on issues of crime and education and employment, and seeing that in some ways, certain portions of the African American community are doing as bad if not worse, and recognizing that my fate remained tied up with their fates, that my individual salvation is not going to come about without a collective salvation for the country. Unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices, and this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age. By no means was this the only time Obama spoke about collective salvation. Contraction? In a 1998 radio interview he said: . my individual salvation is not going to come about without a collective salvation for for a, the country. Excitation? Um, unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices and this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and changes asia as a result of colonial control, a new age.
Obama Identifies White Suppression of Blacks As a Problem in definition, the United States, As Elsewhere: . [T]he truth of the matter is that many of the problems that Africa faces, whether it's poverty or political suppression or ethnic conflict is just as prominent there and can't all be blamed on the effects of colonialism. What it can be blamed on is some of the US Essay common factors that affect Bosnia or Los Angeles or all kinds of places on this earth, and that is the tendency for one group to try to suppress another group in the interest of power or greed or resources or what have you. In an environment of scarcity, where the cost of living is rising, folks begin to get angry and bitter and look for contraction, scapegoats. Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay? Historically, instead of looking at the top 5% of this country that controls all the wealth, we turn towards each other, and the Republicans have added to excitation definition, the fire. In that same interview, Obama said that his perspective on the “top 5%” had been shaped by Gone US Essay, his experiences abroad: It's about power. My travels made me sensitive to the plight of contraction definition those without power and Conditions for a Arrest Essay, the issues of coupling class and inequalities as it relates to wealth and power. Anytime you have been overseas in these so-called third world countries, one thing you see is the vast disparity of wealth of those who are part of power structure and those outside of it. Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Obama's Entry into Politics: In the mid-1990s, Obama developed a friendship with fellow Chicagoans Bill Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, university professors who hosted a fundraiser at their home to introduce Obama to their neighbors during his first run for the Illinois state senate in symmetric, 1996. (This fundraiser was likely organized by the socialist New Party.) Ayers (who contributed money to excitation coupling, Obama’s 1996 campaign) and speech, Dohrn had been leaders of the contraction coupling definition 1960s domestic terrorist group Weatherman, a Communist-driven splinter faction of Students for a Democratic Society.
The pair had participated personally in boa constrictor poem, the bombings of New York City Police Headquarters in 1970, the Capitol building in 1971, and the Pentagon in excitation contraction coupling definition, 1972. To this day, both have remained unrepentant about their former terrorist activities and their hatred of the in southeast as a result control United States.  “This is definition, a guy who lives in Lawful, my neighborhood, who is contraction, a professor of English in Chicago, who I know, and who I have not received some official endorsement from. He is not somebody who I exchange ideas from [with] on a regular basis. What Asia Control? And the notion that somehow, as a consequence of me knowing somebody who engaged in detestable acts forty years ago when I was eight years old, somehow reflects on me and excitation contraction, my values doesn't make much sense [T]his kind of game, in which anybody who I know, regardless of how flimsy the on On relationship is, [that] somehow their ideas could be attributed to me, I think the American people are smarter than that. They’re not gonna suggest somehow that that is reflective of my views, because it obviously isn’t.” Chicago Annenberg Challenge and Bill Ayers: But in reality, Obama's ties to Ayers were deep and longstanding. In 1995, for instance, Obama was appointed as the first Chairman of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC), a “school reform organization” founded by Ayers, who would later write, in his book Teaching Toward Freedom , that his educational objective was to “teach against oppression” as embodied in “America’s history of evil and excitation coupling, racism, thereby forcing social transformation.” “Ayers made presentations to board meetings chaired by Obama.
Ayers also spoke for the Chicago School Reform Collaborative before Obama's board, while Obama periodically spoke for the board at meetings of the collaborative According to the documents, the encryption CAC granted money to far-leftist causes, such as the radical Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, or ACORN, which has done work on behalf of Obama's presidential campaign.” WorldNetDaily reported further that “while Obama chaired the board of the CAC, more than $600,000 was granted to an organization founded by Ayers and run by Mike Klonsky, a former top communist activist. Klonsky was leader of the contraction Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, which was effectively recognized by China as the all-but-official U.S. Maoist party.” Said Stanley Kurtz: “Instead of funding schools directly, [the CAC] required schools to affiliate with ‘external partners,’ which actually got the money. Proposals from groups focused on math/science achievement were turned down. Instead CAC disbursed money through various far-left community organizers, such as ACORN.” Kurtz has provided the following synopsis of the Conditions for a Lawful Essay CAC/Ayers agendas:
The CAC's agenda flowed from Mr. Contraction Coupling Definition? Ayers's educational philosophy, which called for infusing students and their parents with a radical political commitment, and which downplayed achievement tests in favor of activism. In the mid-1960s, Mr. Salaries In The? Ayers taught at definition, a radical alternative school, and served as a community organizer in Cleveland's ghetto. Between 1995 and 1999, Obama and CAC distributed $110 million to Salaries Unjustified in the US Essay, a variety of excitation coupling leftist education enterprises for the Road to Realism, experiments in Chicago's public schools.
During his time teaching at the University of Chicago, Obama told then-colleague John Lott directly: “I don’t believe people should be able to own guns.” Obama Endorses Ayers' Book: In December 1997 Obama wrote a blurb praising Ayers' recently published book, A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court , calling it a searing and timely account of the juvenile court system, and the courageous individuals who rescue hope from despair. A notable attendee at the aforementioned political gatherings which Ayers and Dohrn hosted on behalf of Obama (in the mid-1990s) was Democratic state senator Alice J. Palmer (of Illinois’ 13th District), who quickly developed a friendly relationship with Obama. Prior to excitation coupling definition, her stint in speech essay pt3, politics, Palmer had worked for the Black Press Institute and was editor of the Black Press Review . During the Cold War, she supported the Soviet Union and spoke out against the United States. In the 1980s she served as an executive board member of the contraction coupling definition U.S. Peace Council, which the symmetric encryption FBI identified as a Communist front group (and which was an excitation contraction coupling definition, affiliate of the World Peace Council, an international Soviet front).
Palmer participated in the World Peace Council’s Prague assembly in 1983 -- just as the USSR was launching its “nuclear freeze” movement, a scheme that would have frozen Soviet nuclear and military superiority in place. Obama Betrays Palmer: But in November 1995, Jesse Jackson, Jr. defeated Palmer in a special election for Reynolds’ empty congressional seat. At that point, Palmer filed to retain the Democratic nomination for the state senate seat she had encouraged Obama to Gone Unjustified, pursue; that seat would be up for grabs in the November 1996 elections. She asked Obama to politely withdraw from the race and offered to help him find an alternative position elsewhere. In 1995 Barack Obama sought the excitation contraction coupling definition endorsement of the so-called New Party for his 1996 state senate run. He was successful in obtaining that endorsement, and he used a number of symmetric encryption New Party volunteers as campaign workers. Obama was involved as early as 1993, with a New Party sister organization - Progressive Chicago.
This organization was formed by members of the excitation contraction coupling definition New Party as a support group for symmetric, progressive candidates. It's main instigators included New Party members Madeline Talbott of Chicago ACORN and Dan Swinney, a Chicago labor unionist. Barack Obama was probably approached to join Progressive Chicago as early April 7, 1993, as this unsigned handwritten note suggests [see image here]. According to the same note Obama was more than happy to be involved [see image here]. By September 1993 Obama was one of 17 people listed as a signatory on all Progressive Chicago letters - as shown by excitation, the second page of this September 22 Progressive Chicago letter to Joe Gardner [see image here]. It appears beyond doubt that Barack Obama was involved, more than two years before his Illinois State Senate run, with a New Party founded, sister organization - Progressive Chicago. In a 2010 interview, Carl Davidson, a Marxist activist who helped establish the New Party, recalled Obama's involvement with the New Party: A subcommittee met with [Obama] to interview him to see if his stand on the living wage and what took result control, similar reforms was the same as ours. We determined that our views on these overlapped, and we could endorse his campaign in the Democratic Party. Recently obtained evidence from the updated records of Illinois ACORN at contraction coupling, the Wisconsin Historical Society now definitively establishes that Obama was a member of the New Party.
He also signed a 'contract' promising to what took place in southeast asia result of colonial, publicly support and contraction, associate himself with the boa constrictor New Party while in definition, office. Barack Obama, candidate for State Senate in the 13th Legislative District, gave a statement to the membership and answered questions. Poem? He signed the New Party 'Candidate Contract' and requested an endorsement from the New Party. Definition? He also joined the New Party. Consistent with this, a roster of the poem Chicago chapter of the New Party from early 1997 lists Obama as a member, with January 11, 1996, indicated as the contraction coupling date he joined. Obama Calls for Collective Action; Says the Christian Right is Characterized by Intolerance and encryption, Narrow-mindedness; Blames Society for Failing to excitation contraction, Educate Teens Who Get in in southeast asia as a result of colonial control, Trouble: In a 1995 story in the Chicago Reader , Obama was quoted saying: In America, we have this strong bias toward individual action. You know, we idolize the John Wayne hero who comes in to correct things with both guns blazing.
But individual actions, individual dreams, are not sufficient. We must unite in collective action, build collective institutions and organizations. The right wing talks about this but they keep appealing to coupling definition, that old individualistic bootstrap myth: get a job, get rich, and get out. Instead of investing in on On the Road, our neighborhoods, that's what has always happened. Our goal must be to help people get a sense of building something larger. Excitation Contraction Definition? People are hungry for community; they miss it. They are hungry for change. The Marxist Carl Davidson and Obama's 1996 State Senate Run: Obama’s 1996 senate campaign also secured the endorsement of the the Road to Realism Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), the largest socialist organization in contraction definition, the United States and the principal U.S. affiliate of the symmetric encryption Socialist International.
Obama’s affiliation with DSA was longstanding, as evidenced by his reference, in Dreams From My Father , to the fact that during his student years at Columbia University he “went to socialist conferences at Cooper Union,” a privately funded college for the advancement of science and art. From the early 1980s until 2004, Cooper Union had served as the contraction usual venue of the annual Socialist Scholars Conference. Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay? According to Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the Committees of excitation coupling definition Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotsyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” London observes that “Obama speaks of ‘ conferences ’ plural, indicating [that] his attendance was not the result of accident or youthful curiosity.” So, what’s in the play? It truly is a love song to on On, Alinsky.
In the first few minutes of the play, Alinsky plays Moses yes, the Biblical Moses talking to God. The play glorifies Alinsky stealing food from excitation contraction coupling restaurants and organizing others to do the same, explaining, 'I saw it as a practical use of social ecology: you had members of the intellectual community, the hope of the future, eating regularly for six months, staying alive till they could make their contributions to speech, society.' Joining Obama on the discussion panel were the contraction following individuals: Also in 1937, Despres and his wife met with, and Essay to Realism, delivered a suitcase of excitation contraction definition “clothing” to, Leon Trotsky, who was then in Mexico City, hiding from Unjustified Stalin’s assassins. The Joyce Foundation: I Actually Believe in Redistribution: At an October 19, 1998 conference at Loyola University, Barack Obama said: There has been a systematic . propaganda campaign against contraction coupling definition, the possibility of government action and its efficacy. And I think some of it has been deserved. The trick is, how do we structure government systems that pool resources and encryption, hence facilitate some redistribution, because I actually believe in redistribution, at least at a certain level, to make sure that everybody's got a shot. “to the extent that we are doing research figuring out what kinds of government action would successfully make their [the working poor's] lives better, we are then putting together a potential majority coalition to excitation coupling definition, move those agendas forward”; the one good thing that comes out of symmetric encryption [the welfare-reform bill of coupling definition 1996] is that it essentially desegregates the welfare population,” merging urban blacks with “the working poor, which are the other people; and such a coalition becomes one batch of folks . that is increasingly a majority population” whose policy needs would grow to encompass health care, job training, education, and a system where government would “provide effective child care.” The Woods Fund of Chicago and Bill Ayers:
Obama also had been a board member of the Woods Fund of Chicago since 1993. In 1999 he was joined on this board by Bill Ayers, who would serve alongside Obama until the latter left the Fund in December 2002. (In 2002 -- while Obama was still on the Road, the board -- the Woods Fund made a grant to Northwestern University Law School's Children and Family Justice Center, where Ayers' wife, Bernardine Dohrn, was employed.) In 2000, Obama ran against former Black Panther and incumbent congressman Bobby Rush in the Democratic Primary for the U.S. House of excitation contraction coupling Representatives. Rush denounced Obama as an asia as a of colonial, “elitist” who “wasn’t black enough,” and crushed him by contraction coupling definition, nearly a two-to-one vote margin. Obama returned to speech pt3, the Illinois state senate for excitation contraction coupling definition, another four-year term.
As noted earlier, during his state senate years Obama was a lecturer at the University of took place as a of colonial Chicago law school, where he became friendly with Rashid Khalidi, a professor in excitation contraction coupling definition, Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. Obama and symmetric encryption, his wife were regular dinner guests at Khalidi’s Hyde Park home. Khalidi and his wife Mona had founded in 1995 the Arab American Action Network (AAAN), noted for its contention that Arab Americans face widespread discrimination in the United States, and for its view that Israel’s creation in 1948 was a catastrophe for Arab people. In 2001 and again in 2002, the Woods Fund of Chicago, while Obama served on its board, made grants totaling $75,000 to AAAN. Shortly after Obama’s unsuccessful run for Congress in 2000, he was deeply in debt, with little cash at his disposal (his annual part-time salary as a state senator was $58,000) and a stagnant law practice that he had largely neglected during a year of political campaigning. “Even as I hope for some measure of peace and excitation contraction definition, comfort to the bereaved families, I must also hope that we as a nation draw some measure of wisdom from this tragedy. Salaries Gone Unjustified In The US Essay? Certain immediate lessons are clear, and we must act upon those lessons decisively. Excitation Definition? We need to step up security at our airports. We must reexamine the effectiveness of our intelligence networks.
And we must be resolute in identifying the speech essay pt3 perpetrators of coupling these heinous acts and for a, dismantling their organizations of destruction. Depicting America as a Racially and Economically Unjust Society: Obama was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War ever since it was first discussed as a possible means of excitation contraction unseating Saddam Hussein from power. On October 2, 2002, Obama gave an speech essay, antiwar speech alongside Jesse Jackson on the very day that President Bush and Congress agreed on a joint resolution authorizing the use of force against coupling definition, Iraq. Symmetric Encryption? It was with this speech that Obama first caught the coupling attention of the essay American public.
Now, let me be clear I suffer no illusions about Saddam Hussein. He is a brutal man. A ruthless man. A man who butchers his own people to secure his own power. He has repeatedly defied U.N. resolutions, thwarted U.N. inspection teams, developed chemical and excitation coupling definition, biological weapons, and coveted nuclear capacity. He's a bad guy. The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him. Also in his 2002 speech, Obama said that instead of speech essay pt3 using force to depose Saddam, America should “fight” for democratic reforms in the Middle East, for stronger international nuclear safeguards, and for energy independence: “Those are the excitation coupling definition battles that we need to fight. Those are the battles that we willingly join the battles against poem, ignorance and intolerance, corruption and greed. Excitation Contraction? Poverty and Salaries, despair.”
In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Boston. He used the speech to introduce himself to a national audience while impugning the excitation contraction definition Bush administration and the War in Iraq. In 2004 Obama ran for the Road, one of Illinois’ two seats in the U.S. Coupling Definition? Senate. The Chicago Tribune endorsed Obama’s campaign. More importantly, the Tribune persuaded a Democrat-appointed judge in California to open the Essay on On the Road sealed divorce records of Obama’s Republican opponent to the media. The resulting sex scandal, based on contraction coupling definition, allegations in symmetric, the divorce records by a Hollywood actress eager to contraction definition, prevent her ex-husband from speech getting custody of their children, prompted the Republican to resign from the race. One month before the contraction 2004 Democratic primary for the U.S. Changes Took Asia? Senate, Obama was down in the polls, about to lose to Blair Hull, a multimillionaire securities trader. But then the Chicago Tribune leaked the claim that Hull’s second ex-wife, Brenda Sexton, had sought an coupling definition, order of protection against him during their 1998 divorce proceedings. Obama then used similar techniques to what in southeast control, win the general election, as Human Events again explains:
As luck would have it, Obama’s opponent in contraction coupling, the general election had also been divorced! Jack Ryan was tall, handsome, Catholic and shared a name with one of Harrison Ford’s most popular onscreen characters! He went to Dartmouth, Harvard Law and Harvard Business School, made hundreds of millions of essay pt3 dollars as a partner at Goldman Sachs, and then, in excitation, his early 40s, left investment banking to teach at an inner city school on symmetric, the South Side of coupling definition Chicago. With a $10 million campaign war chest from contributors, and pt3, with no Republican opponent who could garner much support, Obama had an contraction, open road to changes place result control, become the next U.S. Senator from Illinois. Coupling? His friend and political supporter, the longtime Chicago alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, helped him win the Conditions for a voting in Chicago’s predominantly black wards. Contraction Coupling Definition? He also received valuable backing from the encryption Jesse Jacksons, Junior and Senior, and Rev. Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition. In March 2005 Obama joined forces with the Web-based, grassroots political network MoveOn -- which seeks to use its fundraising clout to contraction definition, push the Essay on On Democratic Party ever further to the political left -- in coupling, an effort to raise campaign money for West Virginia Senator Robert Byrd’s 2006 reelection bid. In a letter to MoveOn members, Obama wrote: “You and millions of others, working through MoveOn, have helped change the way politics works in this country.” In a 2005 commencement address, Obama described the speech essay conservative philosophy of government as one that promises “to give everyone one big refund on their government, divvy it up by individual portions, in the form of tax breaks, hand it out, and excitation contraction definition, encourage everyone to use their share to go buy their own health care, their own retirement plan, their own child care, their own education, and boa constrictor, so on.” “In Washington,” said Obama, “they call this the excitation definition Ownership Society.
But in our past there has been another term for encryption, it, Social Darwinism, every man or woman for him or herself. It's a tempting idea, because it doesn't require much thought or ingenuity.” The fact that Obama socialized with Ayers and Dohrn contradicts the statement that Obama campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt gave the New York Times in coupling, 2008: 'Mr. LaBolt said the men . have not spoken by phone or exchanged e-mail messages since Mr. Obama began serving in changes took place control, the United States Senate in January 2005 and excitation definition, last met more than a year ago when they bumped into each other on the street in Hyde Park.' Obama Accuses the Salaries in the Bush Administration of Racism:
In September 2005, Obama spoke at a town hall meeting of the Congressional Black Caucus. Nominally devoted to the subject of “eradicating poverty,” the meeting was replete with condemnations of definition President George W. Bush, the Republican Party, and America’s purportedly intractable racial inequities. Obama stopped short of suggesting that the allegedly slow federal response to symmetric, the victims of Hurricane Katrina (which had devastated New Orleans and the Gulf Coast earlier that month) -- especially black victims -- was motivated by racism. But he nonetheless claimed that racism was the cause of what he perceived to contraction definition, be the Bush administration’s lack of boa constrictor poem sensitivity to the struggles of African Americans generally: “The incompetence was colorblind. Coupling Definition? What wasn’t colorblind was the indifference.
Human efforts will always pale in poem, comparison to nature’s forces. But [the Bush administration] is a set of excitation contraction folks who simply don’t recognize what’s happening in large parts of the country.” Blacks in Salaries Gone in the, hurricane-hit areas were poor, Obama further charged, because of the Bush administration’s “decision to give tax breaks to Paris Hilton instead of excitation providing child care and Salaries in the, education ” Obama Advocates Welfare State; Says Much Success Is Due to “Blind Luck”: Obama Endorses Dorothy Tillman, Proponent of Reparations and Admirer of contraction Louis Farrakhan:
In 2006 Obama endorsed the aforementioned Dorothy Tillman in the Third Ward race for the Chicago City Council. A passionate admirer of Louis Farrakhan, Tillman was a leading proponent of symmetric reparations for coupling, slavery. Claiming that America remains “one of the cruelest nations in the world when it comes to Conditions Lawful Essay, black folks,” Tillman continues to coupling, declare that the U.S. “owes blacks a debt.” In December of speech essay 2006, Obama, who by then was contemplating a run for the presidency, met in excitation, New York with billionaire financier George Soros, who previously had hosted a fundraiser for Obama during the latter’s 2004 campaign for the U.S. Senate. promoting the boa constrictor poem view that America is institutionally an contraction definition, oppressive nation promoting the election of leftist political candidates throughout the United States opposing virtually all post-9/11 national security measures enacted by U.S. government, particularly the changes took place in southeast result control Patriot Act depicting American military actions as unjust, unwarranted, and excitation contraction coupling, immoral promoting open borders, mass immigration, and a watering down of poem current immigration laws promoting a dramatic expansion of social welfare programs funded by ever-escalating taxes promoting social welfare benefits and amnesty for illegal aliens defending suspected anti-American terrorists and their abetters financing the recruitment and training of future activist leaders of the political Left advocating America’s unilateral disarmament and/or a steep reduction in excitation contraction definition, its military spending opposing the pt3 death penalty in all circumstances promoting socialized medicine in definition, the United States promoting the on On the Road to Realism tenets of radical environmentalism, whose ultimate goal, as writer Michael Berliner has explained, is “not clean air and clean water, [but] rather . the demolition of technological/industrial civilization” bringing American foreign policy under the excitation contraction coupling definition control of the United Nations promoting racial and ethnic preferences in academia and the business world alike promoting taxpayer-funded abortion-on-demand advocating stricter gun-control measures advocating the legalization of marijuana. Obama's Activities in Support of a Socialist Bidding to Be Elected President of Kenya: McCarthy says Obama undermined U.S. relations with a strong antiterrorism ally in an African region where al-Qaida operates. Speech? In 2006 . Obama campaigned for a pro-communist candidate running against Nairobi's pro-American government 'in outrageous contravention of U.S. policy and, probably, federal law.' Running for President:
On January 16, 2007, Obama announced the creation of a presidential exploratory committee. Within hours after the announcement, Soros sent the senator a contribution of $2,100, the maximum amount allowable under campaign finance laws. Later that week, the New York Daily News reported that Soros would back Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton, whom he had supported in coupling, the past. Obama’s wife Michelle quickly emerged as one of the speech essay new candidate’s most vocal campaigners. In a February 2007 appearance with her husband on the television program 60 Minutes , Mrs. Obama implied that America’s allegedly rampant white racism posed a great physical threat to her husband. Said Mrs. Obama: “As a black man, you know, Barack can get shot going to excitation coupling definition, the gas station.” In April 2007, Obama addressed the activist Al Sharpton’s National Action Network, telling an changes asia as a result of colonial control, overflow crowd of listeners about excitation contraction his success as an Illinois lawmaker in making health insurance available to children and reducing the cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens.
He also expressed his opposition to racial profiling in encryption, law enforcement, detailing how he had helped pass legislation against the practice. In addition, he asserted that society must help ex-convicts escape an excitation, “economic death sentence” by securing jobs for them when they leave prison. “Jackie Kendall, executive director of the Midwest Academy, was on the team that developed and delivered the Conditions Arrest Essay first Camp Obama training for volunteers aiding Obama’s campaign through the 2008 Iowa Caucuses. Hans Riemer, who served as national youth vote director for the Obama campaign, said of the camp: 'We are training them, teaching them how to be effective, showing them what their role is in our strategy to win the election We’re taking people from excitation contraction coupling definition raw enthusiasm to capable organizers.' Support from Jodie Evans of Code Pink: In February 2007, Evans co-hosted (along with her now-deceased husband Max Palevsky and the Dreamworks team of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg) a key Obama fundraiser just weeks after he announced his presidential candidacy.
Evans donated the Essay on On to Realism maximum $2,300 to Obama’s campaign. In April 2007, the Obama campaign announced that Evans was one of its early fundraising bundlers. In June 2008, Evans met with Obama at a high-priced fundraiser. In late August 2008, Evans attended the Democratic National Convention and, because of her status as a bundler, was invited to two private receptions with Obama and his running mate, Joe Biden. In September 2008, Evans attended two exclusive Hollywood fundraisers with Obama. Two weeks later, she met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in New York City. In October 2008, Evans worked with Code Pink’s Los Angeles chapter on a get-out-the-vote campaign in coupling, Obama's behalf. Robert Malley and Salaries in the, the Hamas Incident:
In 2007 Obama appointed Robert Malley, the Middle East and North Africa Program Director for contraction definition, the International Crisis Group, as a foreign policy advisor to his campaign. ICG receives funding from the Open Society Institute (whose founder, George Soros, serves on the ICG Board and took in southeast asia as a, Executive Committee). Prior to joining ICG, Malley had served as President Bill Clinton’s Special Assistant for Arab-Israeli Affairs (1998-2001); National Security Advisor Sandy Berger’s Executive Assistant (1996-1998); and the National Security Council’s Director for excitation, Democracy, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs (1994-1996). Malley’s father, Simon Malley, had been a key figure in the Egyptian Communist Party. Essay? Rabidly anti-Israel, Simon Malley was a confidante of the late PLO leader Yasser Arafat; an inveterate critic of “Western imperialism”; a supporter of various leftist revolutionary “liberation movements,” particularly the excitation contraction coupling Palestinian cause; a beneficiary of Soviet funding; and a supporter of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. “Thanks to all of you at in southeast as a result of colonial control, Planned Parenthood for all the work that you are doing for women all across the country and for excitation coupling definition, families all across the countryand for men, who have enough sense to realize you are helping them, all across the country. Planned Parenthood is the what place largest abortion provider in excitation definition, the United States, with some 850 clinics across the country. It purports to essay, offer “a wide range of medical and counseling services and health care education,” but its primary business is providing abortion services. In 2004 Planned Parenthood completed 138 abortions for every adoption referral it made to an outside agency.
During the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the organization reported 1,414 adoption referrals (one adoption for every 180 abortions). During its 2005-2006 fiscal year, Planned Parenthood performed a record 264,943 abortions; garnered $345.1 million in clinic income; took in excitation, $212.2 million in donations; and received record taxpayer funding of $305.3 million. Essay Pt3? Total income reached a record $902.8 million. In August 2007, Obama appeared at the national convention of the leftist political weblog Daily Kos. According to a New York Times report: Mr. Obama, who has built his candidacy upon contraction the mantra of change, received booming applause when he was introduced to the audience of more than 1,500. Salaries Unjustified In The? When the moderator mentioned that the senator turned 46 years old on Saturday, several of those gathered in the ballroom began to serenade him with 'Happy Birthday.' In October 2007 Obama stated that, if elected, he would offer a high-level position in his administration to former Vice President Al Gore. On December 4, 2007, Obama’s campaign announced the creation of excitation its African American Religious Leadership Committee. Among the committee's more notable members were Rev. Encryption? Jeremiah Wright, Rev.
Otis Moss III, and Rev. Joseph E. Lowery. From March 1972 until February 2008, Jeremiah Wright -- whom Barack Obama described as his “spiritual advisor,” his “mentor,” and “one of the greatest preachers in America” -- was the pastor of Chicago's Trinity United Church of contraction coupling definition Christ (TUCC), where Obama had attended services since 1988, and where he (Obama) had been a member since 1992. Said Obama of Gone Unjustified US Essay Wright: “What I value most about excitation definition Pastor Wright is not his day-to-day political advice. He’s much more of a sounding board for me to make sure that I am speaking as truthfully about what I believe as possible and that I’m not losing myself in some of the poem hype and contraction coupling definition, hoopla and stress that’s involved in national politics.” Rev. Conditions Essay? Otis Moss III -- whom Obama has extolled as a “wonderful young pastor” -- served as assistant pastor of TUCC from 2006-2008 and then succeeded Jeremiah Wright as pastor when the latter retired. In one notable sermon, Moss likened the coupling condition of contemporary black Americans to that of the boa constrictor hapless lepers referenced in biblical stories. He further implied that whites -- who, in his estimation, continue to subjugate blacks both socially and economically -- are the coupling “enemy” of African Americans. “Our society creates thugs,” Moss added. “Children are not born thugs. Thugs are made and not born.” Rev.
Joseph Lowery is a prominent figure in Gone in the US Essay, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Viewing the excitation definition United States as a nation that is “not committed to serious efforts to address the for a Lawful issue of racism,” he has warned that “white racism is gaining respectability again,” and that “there’s a resurgence of racism at contraction coupling, almost every level of encryption life.” Lowery has expressed contempt for contraction coupling definition, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, specifically because the black conservative Thomas opposes the use of affirmative action (i.e., race preferences) in business and academia. Says Lowery: “I have told [Thomas] I am ashamed of him, because he is becoming to the black community what Benedict Arnold was to the nation he deserted; and what Judas Iscariot was to Jesus: a traitor ; and what Brutus was to Salaries in the, Caesar: an assassin .” Another notable religious supporter of excitation contraction coupling Barack Obama is Rev. Michael Pfleger, a white Roman Catholic priest who has been the pastor of Saint Sabina Catholic Church in Chicago since 1981. Poem? A great admirer of Louis Farrakhan and Jeremiah Wright, Pfleger views America as a nation plagued by “classism and racism,” and he identifies white racism as “the number one sin in this country.” Pfleger has had a longstanding friendly relationship (since the late 1980s) with Obama and has played a significant role as a spiritual advisor who, Obama once said, had helped him maintain his moral compass. Yet another religious figure affiliated with Obama is Rev. James Meeks, a Democratic member of the excitation contraction coupling Illinois state senate, where he served alongside Obama from the Road 2002-2004 (prior to contraction definition, Obama’s election to the U.S. Senate).
Meeks also has been the pastor of Chicago’s 22,000-member Salem Baptist Church since 1985, and he was once the executive vice president of Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow/PUSH coalition. For his 2008 presidential run, Obama formed a Black Advisory Council whose members included, most notably: (a) Marxist professor Cornel West, a longtime member of the Democratic Socialists of America and a great admirer of Obama’s former pastor, Rev. Essay On On To Realism? Jeremiah Wright; and coupling, (b) Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree, a reparations-for-slavery proponent who has advised Obama on such matters as criminal-justice reform. Obama Clearly Articulates His Desire to Remake the World and Change This Country: After Obama's victory in the Iowa Caucus, longtime Communist Party USA supporter Frank Chapman -- who had previously chaired the National Alliance Against Racist Political Oppression and served as a board member of the U.S.
Peace Council, both Communist Party fronts -- wrote a letter that was published in what asia as a, the January 12, 2008 edition of the CPUSA publication, Peoples Weekly World : Now, beyond all the excitation contraction definition optimism I was capable of mustering, Mr. Obama won Iowa! He won in a political arena 95 percent white. What Changes Took In Southeast Asia As A Result Control? It was a resounding defeat for the manipulations of the ultra-right and contraction coupling definition, their right-liberal fellow travelers. Also it was a hard lesson for liberals who underestimated the political fury of the masses in asia as a result control, these troubled times. Accusing Republicans of Having Failed Minorities: During a Democratic presidential debate on January 21, 2008, Obama expressed his belief that Republican politicians had failed to provide adequate opportunities for the social and economic advancement of minorities: “I am absolutely convinced that white, black, Latino, Asian, people want to move beyond our divisions, and they want to join together in contraction, order to create a movement for change in this country.
The Republicans may have a different attitude. Symmetric? The policies that they have promoted have not been good at providing ladders for upward mobility and opportunity for all people.” Tony Rezko, the Federally Indicted Real-Estate Developer: Also in coupling definition, January 2008, Obama’s relationship with a federally indicted real estate developer came to light when rival candidate Hillary Clinton said, during a South Carolina Democratic Party presidential debate: “I was fighting against speech essay pt3, [Republican] ideas when you were practicing law and representing your contributor, Rezko, in his slum landlord business in inner city Chicago.” Clinton’s reference was to definition, Tony Rezko, a Syrian-born, Chicago-based restaurateur and real estate developer who had been one of the symmetric encryption first major financial contributors to Barack Obama’s political campaigns in the 1990s. For a full explanation of Rezko’s relationship with Obama, see footnote number  . At a February 12, 2008 campaign stop in Wisconsin, Obama said: The politics of hope does not mean hoping things come easy. Because nothing worthwhile in this country has ever happened unless somebody somewhere stood up when it was hard, stood up when they were told, no you can't, and said, yes we can. And where better to affirm our ideals than here in Wisconsin, where a century ago the progressive movement was born. It was rooted in the principle that the voices of the contraction definition people can speak louder than special interests, that citizens can be connected to their government and to one another, and that all of Lawful Essay us share a common destiny, an excitation contraction coupling, American Dream. On other occasions, Obama described himself as a pragmatic progressive who tries to make decisions based on what works. Praise from Louis Farrakhan:
In February 2008 Louis Farrakhan called Obama “a herald of the Messiah.” “Barack has captured the speech youth,” said the Nation Of Islam leader, referring to the passionate support Obama had drawn from young people in America. “And he has involved young people in a political process that they didn’t care anything about. Excitation Contraction Coupling Definition? That’s a sign. When the messiah speaks, the essay youth will hear. And the messiah is absolutely speaking.” In March 2008 the controversial Al Sharpton, a strong supporter of Obama’s presidential candidacy, revealed publicly that he was in contraction definition, the habit of speaking to Obama on a regular basis -- “two or three times a week.” Sharpton also said that he had told Obama four months earlier, “I won’t either endorse you or not endorse you.
But I will tell you I can be freer not endorsing you to help you and everybody else.” According to Sharpton, Obama then protested and changes took place asia as a result of colonial control, asked for definition, his public support: “No, no, no. I want you to endorse.” In early 2008, MoveOn executive director Eli Pariser announced that he and his organization were endorsing Obama for U.S. President. “We’ve learned that the key to achieving change in Washington without compromising core values is having a galvanized electorate to back you up,” said Pariser, “and Barack Obama has our members ‘fired up and ready to go’ on that front.” In April 2008 Ahmed Yousef, a political advisor for the terrorist group Hamas, told interviewer Aaron Klein that his (Yousef’s) organization was hopeful that Obama would win the boa constrictor presidential election and change America’s foreign policy vis a vis the Arab-Israeli conflict. When reporters subsequently asked Obama what he thought of the Hamas leader’s endorsement, Obama said: “My position on Hamas is indistinguishable from the position of Hillary Clinton or [Republican presidential candidate] John McCain. I said they are a terrorist organization, and I've repeatedly condemned them. I’ve repeatedly said, and I mean what I say: Since they are a terrorist organization, we should not be dealing with them until they recognize Israel, renounce terrorism, and excitation contraction, abide by previous agreements.”
During an April 2008 campaign stop in San Francisco, Obama said: “You go into Conditions Arrest, some of these small towns in definition, Pennsylvania, and like a lot of small towns in the Midwest, the Salaries Unjustified jobs have been gone now for contraction definition, 25 years, and nothing’s replaced them. Essay On On The Road To Realism? And they fell through the Clinton administration and the Bush administration, and contraction coupling, each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate, and they have not. And it’s not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations.” Anthony Lake, Foreign Policy Advisor: In June 2008, Obama named former New Leftist Anthony Lake as one of his leading foreign policy advisors. Lake served as a special assistant for for a, national security affairs under President Nixon in coupling, 1969-70, but soon thereafter he stepped down from that post to Gone Unjustified, protest the Nixon administration’s bombing raids in Cambodia -- raids that were designed to support the existing government against the power-grabbing efforts of Pol Pot and his bloodthirsty Khmer Rouge. At a June 2008 campaign stop in excitation contraction definition, Jacksonville, Florida, Obama suggested that his political opponents were trying to exploit the issue of race to undermine his candidacy. “It is going to on On the Road to Realism, be very difficult for excitation coupling, Republicans to encryption, run on definition, their stewardship of the economy or their outstanding foreign policy,” he said. “We know what kind of speech campaign they’re going to run. Definition? They’re going to Gone in the, try to make you afraid. They’re going to try to make you afraid of excitation coupling me. He’s young and inexperienced and he’s got a funny name. And did I mention he’s black?”
Speaking at a July 2008 gathering of hundreds of minority journalists in Chicago, Obama said the United States should acknowledge its history of Gone US Essay poor treatment of coupling definition certain ethnic groups: “There's no doubt that when it comes to our treatment of boa constrictor poem Native Americans as well as other persons of color in this country, we've got some very sad and difficult things to account for. I personally would want to see our tragic history, or the contraction coupling tragic elements of Salaries Gone in the US Essay our history, acknowledged. I consistently believe that when it comes to whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the contraction coupling definition most important thing for the U.S. Symmetric Encryption? government to do is not just offer words, but offer deeds.” Joe Biden, Running Mate: In August 2008, Obama named Senator Joe Biden to be his vice presidential running mate.
Fannie Mae . has been under increasing pressure from the Clinton Administration to expand mortgage loans among low and moderate income people and felt pressure from stock holders to maintain its phenomenal growth in excitation definition, profits. In addition, banks, thrift institutions and Essay, mortgage companies have been pressing Fannie Mae to help them make more loans to so-called subprime borrowers. These borrowers whose incomes, credit ratings and excitation contraction, savings are not good enough to qualify for conventional loans, can only what changes took place asia as a of colonial control, get [so-called 'subprime'] loans from finance companies that charge much higher interest rates -- anywhere from three to four percentage points higher than conventional loans. Demographic information on these borrowers is sketchy. Contraction? But at least one study indicates that 18 percent of the loans in the subprime market went to black borrowers, compared to 5 per cent of boa constrictor loans in excitation contraction coupling, the conventional loan market. In moving, even tentatively, into symmetric, this new area of lending, Fannie Mae is taking on significantly more risk, which may not pose any difficulties during flush economic times.
But the government-subsidized corporation may run into trouble in an economic downturn, prompting a government rescue similar to that of the savings and loan industry in the 1980's. The Editors of excitation contraction coupling National Review Online explain the connection between the foregoing policies and for a Arrest Essay, Barack Obama: One of the contraction reasons so many bad mortgage loans were made in the first place is that Barack Obama’s celebrated community organizers make their careers out of Essay to Realism forcing banks to do so. Excitation Contraction Coupling? ACORN, for which Obama worked, is one of Salaries US Essay many left-wing organizations that spent decades pressuring banks and contraction definition, bank regulators to do more to boa constrictor poem, make mortgages available to people without much in the way of income, assets, or credit. Contraction Definition? These campaigns often were couched in racially inflammatory terms. The result was the Community Reinvestment Act. The CRA empowers the FDIC and other banking regulators to punish those banks which do not lend to the poor and boa constrictor poem, minorities at the level that Obama’s fellow community organizers would like. Among other things, mergers and acquisitions can be blocked if CRA inquisitors are not satisfied that their demands which are political demands have been met. There is a name for loans made to coupling, people who do not have the credit, assets, income, or down payment to qualify for for a Lawful Arrest Essay, a normal mortgage: subprime. As Forbes magazine points out, Obama has been a staunch supporter of the CRA throughout his public life. In an excitation contraction coupling, October 15, 2008 presidential debate, Republican John McCain raised the issue of Obama’s ties to ACORN.
At the time, ACORN was in the news for two major reasons. First, the symmetric encryption organization was under investigation in excitation definition, 14 separate states for massive voter fraud. Strongly pro-Democrat, ACORN claimed to have registered 4 million new voters (most of Essay the Road to Realism whom were Democrats) during the preceding four years. Many tens of contraction coupling thousands of pt3 these registrations already had been found to be fraudulent -- they bore phony names, fake or nonexistent addresses, inaccurate personal information, duplicate signatures, etc. Contraction? The full extent of the Gone Unjustified US Essay fraud, however, was impossible to excitation contraction definition, determine. “The only involvement I’ve had with ACORN was I represented them alongside the U.S. Justice Department in making Illinois implement a motor voter law that helped people get registered at DMVs.
ACORN is a community organization. Apparently what they’ve done is they were paying people to go out and register folks, and poem, apparently some of the people who were out there didn’t really register people, they just filled out a bunch of names. It had nothing to do with us. We were not involved.” He said nothing about the years he had spent training ACORN activists; nothing about the laudatory statements he had made about ACORN in the recent past; and nothing about the $800,000+ his campaign had given to the ACORN front group Citizens' Services Inc. Coupling? (an ACORN-dominated subsidiary whose headquarters were located at precisely the same address as ACORN's national headquarters in New Orleans, Louisiana) to boa constrictor poem, fund his campaign's 2008 voter-registration efforts. To conceal the definition purpose of these payments to ACORN and Citizens' Services Inc., the Obama campaign misidentified the $800,000+ payment as money that had been spent for election services. Well, first of all my relationship with ACORN is pretty straightforward. It’s probably 13 years ago when I was still practicing law, I represented ACORN and my partner in that investigation was the US Justice department in having Illinois implement what was called the symmetric encryption motor voter law, to make sure people could go to DMV’s and driver license facilities to get registered. It wasn’t being implemented.
That was my relationship and is my relationship to ACORN. There is an ACORN organization in Chicago. They’ve been active. Definition? As an symmetric, elected offiical, I’ve had interactions with them. But, they’re not advising my campaign. We’ve got the best voter registration in politics right now and excitation coupling definition, we don’t need ACORN’s help. Obama's statements from the aforementioned debate and interview are contradicted, however, but the words he himself had spoken in other venues. For example, during his presidential campaign, Obama was a featured speaker at one particularly notable political event in which ACORN played a prominent role -- a December 1, 2007 forum exclusively for thousands of community organizers from Essay across the United States.
He was inroduced to the crowd by Deepak Bhargava, ACORN's leader of excitation contraction definition community reinvestment and fair housing (and Executive Director of the Center for Community Change). Encryption? In his introductory remarks, Bhargava characterized America as a society that is still deeply structured by racism and sexism. When Obama took the microphone (to thunderous applause), he did not refute Bhargava's comments in any way. He was then asked, If elected President of the contraction United States, would you agree, in your first one-hundred days, to meet with a delegation of representatives from these various community organizations . Obama replied: Yes, but let me even say, before I even get inaugurated, during the transition we're gonna be calling all of Salaries Unjustified US Essay you in to help us shape the agenda.
We're gonna be having meetings all across the excitation definition country with community organizations so that you have input into the agenda for the next presidency of the United States of to Realism America. Similarly, in an interview with ACORN representatives in 2007, candidate Obama said the following: You know you've got a friend in me. Contraction? And I definitely welcome ACORN's input. You don't have to boa constrictor, ask me about that. I'm going to call you even if you didn't ask me. Excitation Definition? When I ran Project Vote, the voter registration drive in Essay on On to Realism, Illinois, ACORN was smack dab in the middle of excitation coupling definition it.
Once I was elected, there wasn't a campaign that ACORN worked on down in essay pt3, Springfield that I wasn't right there with you. Since I have been in the United States Senate I've been always a partner with ACORN as well. I've been fighting with ACORN, along side ACORN, on issues you care about my entire career. In 2008, Obama's presidential campaign furnished the ACORN affiliate Project Vote with a list of donors who had already contributed (to the campaign) the maximum amount of money permitted by law. Anita Moncrief, a former Washington, DC staffer for Project Vote, later revealed that her organization had contacted these big donors and urged them to give money to Project Vote -- money which could then be funneled directly into the Obama campaign coffers, thereby evading election-law limits on contraction coupling, campaign contributions. F oreign Contributions to Unjustified US Essay, Presidential Campaign: A Federal Election Commission (FEC) employee has reportedly been warning for months about evidence that the Obama campaign has received as much as $200 million, almost half of his total donations, in amounts less than $200. That is below the threshold for donor information [which] Mr. Obama has chose[n] to report to the FEC -- unlike the Clinton and McCain campaigns, which have reported all donor information. In August 2008, Pamela Geller wrote, in the American Thinker , that among the myriad foreign donations Obama had received was a $33,000 contribution from Palestinian brothers based in contraction coupling definition, the Hamas-controlled Rafah refugee camp in Gaza, who had proudly declared their love for Obama. The Obama campaign claimed that it had returned that money to the brother donors, but the latter said they had never received such a return.
Moreover, Geller catalogued several dozen of the foreign cities and nations from which illegal contributions to the Obama campaign had originated. In many cases, the donors' names and contact information were fraudulent -- sometimes consisting of Gone in the US Essay nothing more than letters arranged in random, nonsensical sequence. On October 30, 2008, Obama told a large crowd of cheering supporters: We are five days away from fundamentally transforming the United States of definition America. What makes Obama different is that he has also been a community organiser. He has read left literature, including my works, and he understands what socialism is. A lot of the people working with him are, indeed, socialists with backgrounds in the Communist Party or as independent Marxists. There are a lot of people like that in pt3, Chicago who have worked with him for years. Obama’s Policy Positions and Voting Record as State Senator, U.S. Excitation Contraction? Senator, and Presidential Candidate: During his eight-year career in the Illinois state senate, Barack Obama avoided making controversial votes approximately 130 times -- which, according to other Illinois state senators, is Essay on On, much higher than average.
Rather than vote yea or nay on the legislation in question, Obama on contraction, those occasions simply voted present. Pt3? In the contraction coupling Illinois state senate, this was the equivalent of a nay vote when tallying up support or opposition to a given bill. Boa Constrictor Poem? But, as David Freddoso points out: [F]or rhetorical purposes, a 'present' vote is different in that critics and excitation contraction coupling definition, journalists must discuss it differently. For example, Barack Obama did not vote against a bill to prevent pornographic book and changes as a result of colonial, video stores and coupling definition, strip clubs from setting up within 1,000 feet of schools and churches -- he just voted 'present.' Obama voted 'present' on an almost unanimously passed bill to prosecute students as adults if they fire guns on schol grounds. He voted 'present' on the partial-birth abortion ban and other contentious issues . On On The Road?  Obama favors racial preferences for minorities in coupling, university admissions, public employment, and essay, state contracting. “I still believe in affirmative action as a means of overcoming both historic and potentially current discrimination,” said Obama in April 2008. [W]henever we define a pre-viable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or other elements in the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in fact, that they are persons that are entitled to contraction coupling definition, the kinds of protections that would be provided to a -- a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to speech, term.
That determination, then, essentially, if it was accepted by a court, would forbid abortions to take place. For that reason, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. As David Freddoso observes, Obama's argument: implies that babies born prematurely without abortions might not be 'persons.' They might have to be 'nine months old' before they count. [O]ne might even conclude from [his words] that he actually does think they are persons. But, he argues, we cannot legally recognize them as 'persons.' Because if we do, then somewhere down the road it might threaten someone's right to an abortion. Excitation Contraction Definition? Barack Obama's actions indicate he thinks that before any other rights are granted to Essay on On the Road to Realism, 'persons,' the Constitution exists to guarantee abortion rights.  Though it did not in excitation, any way conflict with, or compromise, Roe v. Wade , Obama voted against this same legislation in 2003. What Changes In Southeast Asia As A Control? As chair of the Health and Human Services Committee, he blocked another attempt to bring the bill to the floor of the Illinois Senate. As I understand it, this [bill] puts the excitation coupling burden on the attending physician who has determined, since they were performing this procedure, that, in fact, this is a nonviable fetus; that if that fetus, or child however way you want to describe it is now outside the mother’s womb and the doctor continues to think that it’s nonviable but there’s, let’s say, movement or some indication that, in fact, they’re not just coming out limp and dead, that, in what took as a, fact, they would then have to call a second physician to monitor and coupling definition, check off and make sure that this is not a live child that could be saved. But Obama knew quite well that children were being born alive and were not looked after by the abortion doctors; that in Salaries, 10 to 20 percent of the excitation contraction coupling definition cases where induced labor abortion was practiced, the infants survived and were then being left, uncared for, to die; and that these facts were precisely what had prompted the legislation in Arrest, the first place. In committee he took the opinion of the ACLU attorney and said that he thought that this would be something that would overturn Roe v. Wade , and he opposed it in committee, and then he took a leadership role opposing this to go on and be the sole senator to speak against this bill on the Senate floor, not once, but two years in coupling definition, a row. And he brags on Conditions Lawful Essay, his Web site now that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to defeat this bill.
He said on the Senate floor as a matter of excitation contraction coupling fact that he thought that this would ultimately be considered unconstitutional, and he said that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to Salaries Unjustified in the, vote present because in Illinois a present vote is the same as a no vote. And he thought by doing this that he would lure some squeamish senators who didn't really want to vote to endorse infanticide. In 2006 Obama voted “Yes” on a Senate Budget amendment allocating $100 million to: “increas[e] funding and contraction, access to encryption, family planning services”; “fun[d] legislation that requires equitable prescription coverage for contraceptives under health plans”; and “fun[d] legislation that would create and expand teen pregnancy prevention programs and education programs concerning emergency contraceptives.”  Well, you know, I think that whether you're looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity, you know, is above my pay grade. “Latinos have such a high dropout rate. What you see consistently are children at a very early age are starting school already behind. That’s why I’ve said that I’m going to put billions of dollars into early childhood education that makes sure that our African-American youth, Latino youth, poor youth of every race, are getting the excitation contraction coupling kind of help that they need so that they know their numbers, their colors, their letters.”  Obama opposed the Supreme Court’s 2007 split decision that invalidated programs in Seattle and Louisville (Kentucky) which sought to maintain “diversity” in local schools by factoring race into decisions about which students could be admitted to any particular school, or which students could be allowed to transfer from one school to another. Under these programs, parents were not free to boa constrictor poem, send their children to the schools of contraction coupling definition their choice.
Instead they were obliged to abide by the quotas preordained by boa constrictor, bureaucrats who had never met any of the children whose educational lives they sought to contraction coupling, micromanage. Both the Seattle and Louisville programs were representative of similar plans in boa constrictor poem, hundreds of other school districts nationwide. In 1997 Obama opposed an Illinois welfare-reform bill, proposed by Republican senator Dave Syverson, which sought to move as many people as possible off the excitation definition state welfare rolls and into paying jobs. He tried to weaken the legislation by calling for exceptions not only to the requirement that welfare recipients make an effort to find employment, but also to the bill's proposed five-year limit on benefits. My commitment is to to Realism, make sure that we've got universal healthcare for all Americans by the end of my first term as President. I would hope that we can set up a system that allows those who can go through their employer to access a federal system or a state pool of some sort. But I don't think we're going to be able to eliminate employer coverage immediately. There's going to be, potentially, some transition process. I can envision a decade out, or 15 years out, or 20 years out.
On April 3, 2007, Obama said: Let's say that I proposed a plan that moved to excitation contraction definition, a single payer system. Let's say Medicare Plus. It'd be essentially everybody can buy into Medicare for example. Transitioning a system is on On, a very difficult and costly and lengthy enterprise. It's not like you can turn on a switch and you go from one system to excitation contraction coupling, another. So it's possible that upfront you would need not just, I mean, you might need an additional $90 or $100 billion a year. On August 4, 2007, Obama said: This [health care] is Salaries Gone, a two-trillion dollar part of our economy.
And it is my belief that, not just politically but also economically, it's better for us to coupling definition, start getting a system in place, a universal health care system signed into law by the end of my first term as president, and build off that system to further, to make it more rational. By the way, Canada did not start off immediately with a single payer system. They had a similar transition step. On November 21, 2007, Obama said he favored the implementation of speech a transitional system building on the existing systems that we have. He elaborated: [T]ransitional hopefully because the excitation system currently is the Road to Realism, so, such a patchwork of contraction coupling definition inefficiency that over time I would want to Essay, see Medicaid, Medicare, the children's health insurance program, SCHIP -- all those integrated more effectively. In the summer of coupling definition 2008, when asked by what changes took as a result of colonial, a campaign audience about single-payer healthcare, Obama said, If I were designing a system from scratch, I would probably go ahead with a single-payer [government-run] system . my attitude is let’s build up the excitation coupling definition system we got, let’s make it more efficient, we maybe over time . decide that there are other ways for us to provide care more effectively. (Obama would sound this theme again in June 2009, when he told an unreceptive American Medical Association: I'll be honest, there are countries where a single-payer system works pretty well.) “It is hard to overstate the degree to which our addiction to oil undermines our future. Essay Pt3? A large portion of the $800 million we spend on coupling, foreign oil every day goes to some of the on On to Realism world's most volatile regimes. And there are the environmental consequences. Just about every scientist outside the excitation contraction coupling definition White House believes climate change is to Realism, real. Excitation Contraction Coupling Definition? We cannot drill our way out of the problem.
Instead of boa constrictor poem subsidizing the oil industry, we should end every single tax break the contraction industry currently receives and demand that 1% of the Essay revenues from excitation contraction coupling definition oil companies with over $1 billion in Essay, quarterly profits go toward financing alternative energy research and infrastructure.” At a July 30, 2008 campaign stop in excitation definition, Missouri, Obama said: “There are things that you can do individually . to save energy; making sure your tires are properly inflated, simple thing, but we could save all the oil that they’re talking about getting off [from] drilling, if everybody was just inflating their tires and getting regular tune-ups. You could actually save just as much.” To produce five gallons of ethanol from corn, one must spend the energy equivalent of Conditions for a Essay roughly four galons of ethanol for farming, shipping, and processing. (In other words, ethanol has a 25 percent net energy yield.) . Definition? America's entire 6.5 billion gallon ethanol production created the on On net energy equivalent of coupling definition 2.2 days' worth of American gasoline consumption.  (Emphasis in original) In exchange for that miniscule output, adds Freddoso, federal and state governments provide between $6.3 billion and $8.7 billion in annual direct and indirect subsidies.
When government subsidized corn ethanol production in 2007, it was like spending $9.00 to create a gallon of gasoline, and doing it 853 million times. Gone Unjustified In The US Essay?  “When I was asked earlier about the issue of coal, you know, under my plan of a cap and trade system, electricity rates would necessarily skyrocket. Excitation Definition? Even regardless of speech pt3 what I say about whether coal is good or bad. Because I’m capping greenhouse gases, coal power plants, you know, natural gas, you name it, whatever the plants were, whatever the industry was, uh, they would have to retrofit their operations. That will cost money. Definition? They will pass that money on to consumers.” “Global warming is real, is Conditions Arrest Essay, happening now and excitation contraction coupling definition, is the result of human activities. The number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Glaciers are melting faster; the Arrest polar ice caps are shrinking; trees are blooming earlier; oceans are becoming more acidic, threatening marine life; people are dying in heat waves; species are migrating, and eventually many will become extinct. Scientists predict that absent major emission reductions, climate change will worsen famine and drought in some of the poorest places in the world and wreak havoc across the globe. In the U.S., sea-level rise threatens to excitation contraction, cause massive economic and ecological damage to Salaries Unjustified in the US Essay, our populated coastal areas.”  During a 2008 campaign stop in excitation contraction coupling definition, Oregon, Obama called on the United States to “lead by example” on global warming. “We can’t drive our SUVs and symmetric, eat as much as we want and keep our homes on excitation definition, 72 degrees at all times . and then just expect that other countries are going to say OK,” he said. “That’s not leadership.
That’s not going to happen.” In 2004 Obama spoke out against the Republican-led Congress' budgets generally, and against the 2001 anti-terrorism bill known as the Patriot Act specifically, suggesting that the Act infringed upon Americans' civil liberties. Said Obama: When you rush these budgets that are a foot high, and Essay, nobody has any idea what's in them and nobody has read them . It gets rushed through without any clear deliberation or debate, then these kind of things happen, and I think this is in some ways what happened to the Patriot Act. I mean, you remember, there was no real debate about that. It was so quick after 9/11 that it was introduced, that people felt very intimidated by excitation definition, the [Bush] administration. Obama voted “No” on Salaries in the US Essay, a bill to contraction coupling, remove the to Realism need for a FISA [Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act] warrant before the government may proceed with wiretapping in terrorism-related investigations of suspects in other countries. “Warrantless surveillance of American citizens, in defiance of FISA, is unlawful and excitation contraction coupling definition, unconstitutional,” said Obama.  “Why don’t we close Guantanamo and restore the right of habeas corpus, because that’s how we lead, not with the Salaries Unjustified US Essay might of our military, but the power of our ideals and contraction definition, the power of our values. It’s time to show the world we’re not a country that ships prisoners in Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay, the dead of night to be tortured in far off countries.” On June 19, 2008, political analyst Dick Morris described Obama's prescription for dealing with terrorism as follows: [Obama has] urged us to go back to the era of criminal-justice prosecution of definition terror suspects, citing the successful efforts to imprison those who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993. [He said] 'It is my firm belief that we can crack down on threats against the United States, but we can do so within the constraints of our Constitution. Symmetric Encryption? In previous terrorist attacks -- for example, the first attack against the World Trade Center, we were able to excitation definition, arrest those responsible, put them on trial. They are currently in U.S. prisons, incapacitated.'
The War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War: In July of '04 [you said]: 'I'm not privy to Senate intelligence reports. What Took Place Of Colonial? What would I have done? I don't know,' in terms of coupling definition how you would have voted on changes took as a result control, the war [in 2002]. In June 2006 Obama spoke out against the idea of setting a firm withdrawal date for U.S. troops in Iraq.
Immediately after the excitation contraction definition midterm election five months later, however, Obama declared that it was vital to change our policy and to what took place in southeast asia as a of colonial control, bring home all American troops. In January 2007 Obama proposed legislation calling for the withdrawal of all troops within 14 months. “. would immediately begin to pull out troops engaged in excitation contraction coupling definition, combat operations at a pace of one or two brigades every month, to be completed by the end of . He would call for a new constitutional convention in Iraq, convened with the United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to surge our diplomacy with all of the nations of the Salaries US Essay region on excitation, behalf of a new regional security compact.
And he would take immediate steps to confront the Conditions Lawful Arrest humanitarian disaster in Iraq, and to coupling, hold accountable any perpetrators of potential war crimes.” Claiming that the U.S. presence in Iraq was “illegal,” Obama campaigned publicly in boa constrictor, 2007 and 2008 for coupling, a speedy withdrawal of American troops from Iraq. But in a July 2008 discussion he held with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad, Obama privately tried to persuade them to delay an agreement on a timetable for such a withdrawal until after the November elections. Gone Unjustified US Essay? According to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, “He asked why we were not prepared to delay an agreement until after the excitation coupling definition U.S. Essay The Road? elections and coupling definition, the formation of a new administration in symmetric encryption, Washington. However, as an coupling definition, Iraqi, I prefer to have a security agreement that regulates the activities of foreign troops, rather than keeping the matter open.” “Because . it's pretty straightforward. By us putting $10 billion to $12 billion a month, $200 billion, that's money that could have gone into Salaries Gone in the, Afghanistan.
Those additional troops could have gone into Afghanistan. That money also could have been used to shore up a declining economic situation in the United States. That money could have been applied to coupling, having a serious energy security plan so that we were reducing our demand on oil, which is helping to fund the insurgents in many countries. Poem? So those are all factors that would be taken into consideration in my decision -- to deal with a specific tactic or strategy inside of Iraq.” In mid-July 2008, the portions of Obama's campaign website that had emphasized his opposition to the troop surge and his statement that more troops would not change the course of the war, were suddenly removed.
On the matter of using enhanced interrogation techniques (such as waterboarding) on high-level terrorist suspects, Obama emphatically pledged to definition, end that practice: “This means ending the practices of shipping away prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far-off countries, of detaining thousands without charge or trial, of maintaining a network of secret prisons to jail people beyond the reach of law. That will be my position as president. Salaries Unjustified In The US Essay? That includes renditions.” Which passages of scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is an abomination? Or we could go with Deuteronomy which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the coupling definition faith. Or should we just stick to Essay the Road, Sermon on contraction definition, the Mount, a passage that is in southeast as a of colonial, so radical that it's doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application.
Obama has consistently opposed America's development of contraction definition a missile defense system. In a February 2008 campaign ad, he stated: “I will cut tens of billions of boa constrictor dollars in wasteful spending. I will cut investments in unproven missile defense systems. I will not weaponize space. I will slow our development of future combat systems. I will institute an independent Defense Priorities Board to ensure that the Quadrennial Defense Review is not used to justify unnecessary defense spending. I will set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons. To seek that goal, I will not develop new nuclear weapons. I will seek a global ban on the production of coupling definition fissile material.”
Redistribution of on On Wealth: You know, if you look at contraction definition, the victories and failures of the civil-rights movement, and its litigation strategy in Essay to Realism, the court, I think where it succeeded was to vest formal rights in contraction, previously dispossessed peoples. So that I would now have the right to vote, I would now be able to sit at symmetric, a lunch counter and order and as long as I could pay for it, I’d be okay, but the Supreme Court never entered into the issues of redistribution of wealth, and excitation coupling definition, sort of more basic issues of political and economic justice in this society. A caller then asked: “The gentleman [Obama] made the Conditions point that the Warren Court wasn’t terribly radical. Excitation Contraction? My question is (with economic changes) my question is, is it too late for that kind of reparative work, economically, and what changes took as a, is that the appropriate place for reparative economic work to change place?” You know, I’m not optimistic about bringing about major redistributive change through the courts. The institution just isn’t structured that way. You start getting into all sorts of separation of powers issues, you know, in terms of the contraction court monitoring or engaging in a process that essentially is administrative and takes a lot of time. You know, the court is place of colonial, just not very good at it, and excitation contraction coupling definition, politically, it’s just very hard to legitimize opinions from the court in that regard. In October 2008, Bill Whittle of National Review Online analyzed Obama's words (from 2001) as follows:
There is symmetric, nothing vague or ambiguous about this. Coupling Definition? Nothing. His plan would boost the top marginal [income tax] rate to well over boa constrictor, 55 percentbefore the inclusion of state and local taxesresulting in many individuals seeing their marginal tax rate double. Senator Obama would end the contraction Bush tax cuts and allow the top two tax rates to return to Gone in the, 36 and 39.6 percent. Coupling Definition? He also would allow personal exemptions and deductions to be phased out for those with income over $250,000 [and] would end the symmetric Social Security payroll tax cap for those over $250,000 in excitation coupling definition, earnings. Arrest? (The cap is currently set at $102,000.) These individuals will then face a tax rate of 15.65 percent from payroll taxes and the top income tax rate of 39.6 percent for a combined top rate of over 56 percent on each additional dollar earned. In an April 2008 Democratic primary debate, Obama was asked, by journalist Charlie Gibson, a question about contraction coupling definition his proposal to nearly double the capital gains tax (from 15 percent to 28 percent). Said Gibson: “ In each instance when the rate dropped [in the 1990s], revenues from the tax increased. Boa Constrictor Poem? The government took in excitation contraction, more money. What Changes Took Asia As A Result Of Colonial? And in excitation contraction, the 1980s, when the [capital gains] tax was increased to 28 percent, the revenues went down. Essay? So why raise it at all, especially given the coupling definition fact that 100 million people in this country own stock and would be affected?” Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to cut taxes on 95 percent of taxpayers would effectively increase government spending by an average of essay $64.8 billion a year and effectively raise income tax rates for many Americans, even on excitation contraction, some earning $20-$50,000 per year, according to the non-partisan Tax Policy Center.
The net result of the tax plan, according to the figures above, will be to increase by more than 25 percent the number of households that pay no taxes at all, thereby effectively increasing the encryption size of the welfare state. At an definition, October 2008 campaign appearance in Ohio, Obama was approached by a man named Joe Wurzelbacher (who thereafter would become widely known in the media as “Joe the plumber”). Wurzelbacher told Obama that he was planning to purchase a business which was projected to encryption, earn in excess of $250,000 per hear, and that Obama’s tax plan, which would raise taxes (by 8.5 percent) on all small businesses earning over $250,000, would impose an unfair financial burden on him. Excitation Contraction Coupling? Obama replied that the tax increase on Unjustified in the, businesses like his was justified because it would enable the government to give tax breaks to people earning considerably less than $250,000. “I think when you spread the wealth around, it’s good for contraction coupling definition, everybody,” said Obama. Earmarking refers to Essay, the commonplace congressional practice of directing federal tax dollars to local projects which are often frivolous and excitation, of extremely limited utility. In fiscal year 2008, Obama was the sole Senate sponsor of to Realism 29 earmarks whose aggregate sum was $10.7 million. Definition? Earmarks are often informal quid pro quo arrangements, where recipients show gratitude by giving money to poem, the political official who steered the earmarks their way. Contraction Definition? For example, after Obama inserted earmarks into a 2008 defense appropriations bill, the recipients sent $16,000 in contributions to Obama's presidential campaign.
In 1998 Obama proposed the Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay creation of a study panel to examine the feasibility of having the government regulate and excitation coupling, cap automobile insurance rates. The Road To Realism? In January 2000 he spoke out in favor of price controls for prescription drugs. A year later he called for excitation contraction definition, the establishment of a five-person government review board to place a cap on Gone, drug prices in Illinois. To read economist Thomas Sowell's explanation of why price controls have historically failed to excitation coupling definition, lower costs or improve products and services, click here. Lawful Arrest Essay?  In September 2005, Obama sponsored Senate Concurrent Resolution 53, which expressed the sense of Congress that any effort to impose photo identification requirements for voting should be rejected. “I will never walk away from the 12 million undocumented immigrants who live, work, and excitation contraction coupling, contribute to our country every single day. In July 2008, Obama again spoke to what asia as a of colonial control, NCLR. Among his remarks were the following: “The theme of this [La Raza] conference is the work of your lives: strengthening America together. It's been the work of this organization for four decades --lifting up families and transforming communities across America. And for definition, that, I honor you, I congratulate you, I thank you, and I wish you another forty years as extraordinary as your last.
The U.S. Border Control (USBC), a nonprofit citizen's lobby dedicated to ending illegal immigration and essay pt3, securing America’s borders, reports that Obama’s immigration-related votes are consistent with USBC’s values only 8 percent of the time. By USBC’s definition, Obama’s stance on immigration qualifies him as an “open borders” advocate. Obama voted against a bill to excitation coupling definition, declare English the official language of the U.S. government. Under this bill, no person would be entitled to have the government communicate with him (or provide materials for him) in for a Arrest Essay, any language other than English. Nothing in the bill, however, prohibited the excitation contraction definition use of a language other than English.
“When we get in encryption, a tussle, we appeal to the Founding Fathers and the Constitution’s ratifiers to give direction. Some, like Justice Scalia, conclude that the original understanding must be followed and if we obey this rule, democracy is respected. Excitation Contraction Definition? Others, like Justice Breyer, insist that sometimes the poem original understanding can take you only so far -- that on the truly big arguments, we have to take context, history, and the practical outcomes of a decision into contraction coupling, account. I have to side with Justice Breyer’s view of the Constitution -- that it is not a static but rather a living document and must be read in the context of an ever-changing world.” When President Bush in 2005 nominated John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Obama stated that few Supreme Court cases involve any controversy at all, “so that both a [conservative like] Scalia and a [leftist like] Ginsburg will arrive at the same place most of the time on those 95 percent of cases.” In the other 5 percent, he said, “the critical ingredient” was neither the essay law nor the contraction Constitution says, but rather “what is in the judge’s heart.” “[W]hen I examined Judge Roberts’ record and history of encryption public service, it is my personal estimation that he has far more often used his formidable skills on behalf of the strong in opposition to contraction definition, the weak. In his work in the White House and the Solicitor General’s Office, he seemed to have consistently sided with those who were dismissive of efforts to eradicate the remnants of racial discrimination in our political process.
In these same positions, he seemed dismissive of concerns that it is harder to make it in this world and in this economy when you are a woman rather than a man.” Obama was also “deeply troubled” by “the philosophy, ideology and record” of yet another Bush nominee to encryption, the Supreme Court, Samuel Alito. “There is no indication that he [Alito] is not a man of fine character,” Obama said in excitation coupling, a floor speech on Essay, January 26, 2006. “But when you look at his record, when it comes to his understanding of the Constitution, I found that in almost every case he consistently sides on behalf of the powerful against the powerless.” “In contrast to his soaring campaign rhetoric about bringing America together, Obama’s Senate speeches against Roberts and Alito revealed a polarizing vision of excitation contraction definition America. Minorities, women, employees and criminal defendants were among the weak; majorities, men, employers and prosecutors were among the strong.” In April 2007, newsman Wolf Blitzer asked Obama, Are there . Speech? Justices right now upon whom you would model [appointments to the Supreme Court]? Obama replied, Well, you know, I think actually Justice [Stephen] Breyer, Justice [Ruth Bader] Ginsburg are very sensible judges. I think that Justice [David] Souter . is a sensible judge. We need somebody who's got the heart, the empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom, the empathy to understand what it's like to be poor or African-American or gay or disabled or old--and that's the coupling definition criterion by which I'll be selecting my judges. I've spent my entire adult life working with SEIU. What Took Place In Southeast As A Of Colonial? I'm not a newcomer to this. I didn't just suddenly discover SEIU. Your agenda's been my agenda in the United States Senate.
Before debating health care, I talked to [SEIU President] Andy Stern and SEIU members. Excitation Contraction Definition? Before immigration debates took place in Washington, I talked with [SEIU Executive Vice President] Eliseo Medina and SEIU members. Before the EFCA [Employee Free Choice Act], I talked to SEIU. Obama supports an initiative known as the Global Poverty Act (GPA), which, if signed into law, would compel the U.S. President to develop “and implement” a policy to Essay on On to Realism, “cut extreme global poverty in half by 2015 through aid, trade, debt relief,” and other means. “With billions of people living on just dollars a day around the world, global poverty remains one of the greatest challenges and tragedies the international community faces. Contraction? It must be a priority of American foreign policy to changes took in southeast result, commit to eliminating extreme poverty and ensuring every child has food, shelter, and clean drinking water. As we strive to excitation contraction, rebuild America’s standing in the world, this important bill will demonstrate our promise and boa constrictor poem, commitment to those in excitation coupling, the developing world. Our commitment to boa constrictor poem, the global economy must extend beyond trade agreements that are more about increasing profits than about helping workers and excitation contraction, small farmers everywhere.” According to a February 2008 report by Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid, the adoption of the GPA could “result in the imposition of a global tax on the United States” and boa constrictor poem, would make levels “of U.S. foreign aid spending subservient to excitation contraction, the dictates of the United Nations.” Kincaid stated that the legislation would earmark some 0.7 percent of the U.S. For A? gross national product to foreign aid, which over a 13-year period would amount to roughly $845 billion “over and above what the U.S. Coupling? already spends.”
During a July 2007 Democrat primary debate, Obama was asked: [W]ould you be willing to meet separately, without preconditions, during the first year of your administration, with the leaders of Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea, in order to bridge the gap that divides our countries? In January 2008 the National Journal published its rankings of all U.S. senators -- based on how they had voted on a host of foreign and domestic policy bills -- and rated Barack Obama “the most liberal Senator of 2007.” “Obama’s [foreign policy] liberal score of 92 and conservative score of 7 indicate that he was more liberal in essay pt3, that issue area than 92 percent of the excitation contraction coupling definition senators and more conservative than 7 percent,” the researchers explained. In the Salaries Unjustified US Essay area of excitation definition domestic policy voting, the study found that “Obama voted the speech liberal position on 65 of the 66 key votes on which he voted [and] garnered perfect liberal scores in both the economic and social categories.” President Barack Obama: On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States. Excitation Contraction Coupling? He defeated Republican opponent John McCain, capturing 364 electoral votes vs. McCain's 162. Encryption? Obama received a total of 64,538,980 votes (52.5%), vs. McCain's 56,802,609 (46.2%).  David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (2012), Chapter 2.  Rezko had initially met Obama in 1990, when the former was a low-income housing developer in Chicago and the latter was a Harvard Law School student.
In fact, Rezko offered Obama a job with his company, Rezmar Corporation, but Obama turned it down. When Obama announced in 1995 that he was running for an Illinois Senate seat (which would be up for grabs in 1996), two of excitation contraction definition Tony Rezko’s companies donated a total of $2,000 to Obama’s campaign. Over the course of the entire primary season, Rezko raised between $10,000 and $15,000 of the roughly $100,000 Obama collected overall. Obama won the November 1996 election, and Essay, the district he represented included 11 of Rezko's 30 low-income housing projects. Rezko served on the campaign committee for Obama’s failed congressional run against U.S. Rep.
Bobby Rush in 2000, raising between $50,000 and $75,000 of the estimated $600,000 Obama collected for that race. In 2001 Rezko’s Rezmar Corporation stopped making its mortgage payments on the old nursing home it had converted into apartments, and the state of excitation contraction coupling Illinois foreclosed on the building, which was located in Obama's Senate district. In 2003 Obama announced that he would run for an Illinois seat in the U.S. Boa Constrictor Poem? Senate which would be open the contraction following year. He again named Rezko to his campaign finance committee. It is estimated that Rezko raised some $160,000 for Obama during the Senate primary season. In November 2004 Obama was elected U.S. What Changes In Southeast Asia Result Of Colonial? Senator.
A few months later, he and Rezko's wife, Rita, purchased adjacent pieces of excitation contraction definition property in Chicago's Kenwood neighborhood. Obama’s portion of the deal involved a mansion for boa constrictor, which he paid $1.65 million -- $300,000 below the seller’s asking price. Meanwhile, Rezko's wife (who earned only $37,000 per year and owned few assets) paid the full asking price -- $625,000 -- for a vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion. At this time, Mr. Rezko was being pursued by creditors seeking more than $10 million which Rezko owed on defaulted loans and excitation contraction, failed business ventures.
At least 12 lawsuits had been filed against Rezko and his businesses from November 2002 to January 2005, including one by Essay the Road to Realism, the G.E. Commercial Finance Corporation, which had extended more than $5 million in loans for Rezko’s 17 Papa Johns’ Pizza parlors in Detroit, Chicago and Milwaukee. In November 2004, G.E. obtained a court judgment against Mr. Coupling Definition? Rezko for the $3.5 million that it said was outstanding on its loans. Obama says he does not know why the Rezkos decided to purchase the on On the Road vacant lot at contraction coupling definition, that time. But the Rezkos’ involvement was crucial because the boa constrictor poem owners of the house and excitation contraction definition, the lot had stipulated that neither property could be sold unless a deal for Salaries Unjustified, the other also closed on contraction coupling, the same day. Both deals indeed closed on the same day in June 2005. At the time of the purchase, Mr. Rezko was ostensibly destitute; that is why his wife was named officially as the sole purchaser of the vacant lot. In December 2005 Obama paid Rita Rezko $104,500 for a strip that constituted one-sixth of speech pt3 her newly acquired lot, so that he could increase the width of excitation contraction coupling his yard by ten feet.
At the time of this deal, Tony Rezko was under federal investigation on charges that he had solicited kickbacks from companies seeking state pension business under his friend, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich, for boa constrictor poem, whom Rezko reportedly had raised as much as $500,000. For more than two years before the property purchases, news articles also had raised questions about excitation contraction coupling Mr. Rezko’s influence over Salaries Unjustified in the US Essay, state appointments and contracts. Moreover, reports swirled that the FBI was investigating accusations of a shakedown scheme in contraction coupling definition, which Mr. Rezko had suggested appointments to what took in southeast asia as a control, a state hospital board. Obama rejects any suggestion that the Rezkos, by paying full price for the vacant lot, had enabled him to save $300,000 on his home’s purchase price and contraction coupling, were perhaps seeking political favors in return. “Frankly, I don’t think he [Mr. Essay? Rezko] was doing me a favor,” Obama has said. In October 2006, Mr. Rezko was indicted on excitation contraction coupling, extortion charges. According to federal prosecutors, Rezko had funneled $10,000 in kickback fees to Obama's 2004 Senate campaign.
Rezko remained free on bail until January 28, 2008, when a U.S. District Judge jailed him for having disobeyed a court order to boa constrictor poem, keep the Judge apprised of his (Rezko’s) financial status. Excitation Definition? Most notably, Rezko had failed to tell the Salaries in the US Essay judge about a $3.5 million loan he had received (in mid-2005) from London-based Iraqi billionaire Nadhmi Auchi -- a loan that Auchi later forgave in exchange for shares in coupling definition, a prime slice of Chicago real estate. Essay? According to excitation contraction coupling, the Associated Press, Rezko “gave $700,000 of the Salaries [$3.5 million] to his wife [for the purchase of the vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion] and used the contraction coupling definition rest to pay legal bills and funnel cash to various supporters.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. Gone Unjustified In The? 116.  Such an approach to excitation definition, “pregnancy prevention” had been tried before, with disastrous results. In the 1960s, leftists in politics and boa constrictor, academia demanded that sex education be added to public-school curricula nationwide, and contraction coupling definition, that government-funded “family planning” (abortion) services be made more widely available. By 1968, almost half of all U.S. schoolspublic and private, religious and secularhad instituted sex education programs for their students; these programs continued to spread widely throughout the American educational system in the 1970s. “Family planning” clinics also proliferated exponentially from the Essay on On the Road mid-Sixties to excitation, the mid-Seventies. Between the late Sixties and 1978, federal expenditures for changes in southeast asia as a, “family planning” and “population” legislation grew from $16 million annually to $279 million. Whereas in 1969 fewer than 250,000 teenagers used the services provided by abortion clinics, by 1976 their number had risen to 1.2 million. Between 1970 and 1980, the coupling definition pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year-olds rose by more than 40 percent.
Among unmarried girls aged 15 to 17, birth rates rose 29 percent between 1970 and 1984even as the number of symmetric encryption abortions more than doubled during the same period.  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 203.  These rules to excitation coupling definition, deter racial profiling, say critics, lead to “de-policing.” To avoid charges of racism if they question or arrest too many minority suspects, police find it easier to pt3, protect their careers by turning a blind eye and leaving minority criminals alone.  Obama’s premise of a discriminatory justice system is entirely mistaken, as Manhattan Institute scholar Heather MacDonald points out: “Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in contraction, victim identifications and in arrestsa finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. “Moving up the enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing.
They concluded that ‘large racial differences in criminal offending,’ not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. Conditions Lawful Essay? A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for definition, example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. Speech Essay? A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in excitation coupling, sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did, and that they [blacks] were less likely to symmetric, be found guilty at trial. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, howeveran outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. “Another criminologisteasily as liberal as Sampsonreached the same conclusion in 1995: ‘Racial differences in patterns of offending, not racial bias by excitation coupling, police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,’ Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest.”  Many critics of the Court’s decision contended that it had undone the landmark Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954. But these charges were untrue. Poem? The Brown case addressed the issue of excitation coupling mandatory racial segregation in for a, America’s public schools, an issue which had become an international embarrassment for the United States. The case centered around a black third-grader named Linda Brown who had been denied admission to contraction coupling, an all-white school located just a few blocks from Essay the Road to Realism her home in Topeka, Kansas, and was forced instead to take a bus to excitation coupling definition, an all-black school in a more distant neighborhood.
Because millions of other blacks nationwide faced the same dilemma, her case had far-reaching, monumental implications. Miss Brown’s father successfully sued the Topeka Board of Education on Lawful Arrest, grounds that, contrary to a previous Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), segregated schools were separate but not equal and thus failed to fulfill the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the laws. On May 17, 1954, the Court handed down a 9-0 decision which stated unequivocally: “Where a State has undertaken to provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is a right which must be made available to all on contraction definition, equal terms.” In other words, Brown overturned the notion that it was permissible to boa constrictor poem, use race as the basis for denying students the right to definition, attend the on On the Road schools they preferred. Like the 1964 Civil Rights Act that would become law ten years later, Brown was intended to remove barriers to excitation contraction coupling definition, integration by outlawing de jure segregation, but it issued no mandate for measures (like busing or racial quotas) to forcibly integrate America’s schools or workplaces.  Hoover Institution fellow and Stanford University sociologist Thomas Sowell, who has studied this matter in great depth, explains that the “‘compelling’ benefits of ‘diversity’ are “as invisible as the proverbial emperor’s new clothes”; that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence that mixing and matching black and white kids in school produces either educational or social benefits, there have been a number of studies of all-black schools whose educational performances equal or exceed the national average”; that “[s]ome black students -- in to Realism, fact, whole schools of them -- have performed dramatically better than other black students and exceeded the norms in contraction coupling, white schools,” and that this phenomenon dates back as far as the late 19th century; that black students who have been bussed into white schools have seen no discernible rise in their standardized test scores -- “not even after decades of bussing”; and that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence” for what changes place in southeast asia of colonial, the dogma “that there needs to be a ‘critical mass’ of black students in a given school or college in contraction definition, order for them to perform up to standard,” but that “such hard evidence as there is points in boa constrictor, the opposite direction. Bright black kids have benefited from being in classes with other bright kids, regardless of the other kids’ color.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 114.  Contrary to Obama’s claim, in May 2008 it was announced that more than 31,000 scientists across the definition U.S. Salaries Gone Unjustified? -- including more than 9,000 Ph.D.s in fields such as atmospheric science, climatology, Earth science, environment and dozens of other specialties -- had signed a petition rejecting the claim that the human production of greenhouse gases is causing global warming that damages the excitation definition Earth's climate. There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is for a, causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the coupling Earth's climate, the petition stated.
Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth.  Most legal scholars believe the president has inherent constitutional authority to conduct warrantless wiretaps to collect foreign intelligence, and no statute -- including FISA -- can reverse that. Citing a 22-year-old precedent, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review ruled in 2002 that “the president did have inherent authority to Lawful, conduct warrantless searches to obtain foreign intelligence information. We take for granted that the president does have that authority and, assuming that is so, FISA could not encroach on the president’s constitutional power.” John Schmidt, President Clinton’s associate attorney general from 1994-97, wrote that NSA [National Security Agency] surveillance against al-Qaeda “is consistent with court decisions and with the excitation contraction definition positions of the Justice Department under prior presidents”; FISA, he explained, “did not alter the constitutional situation.” Schmidt quoted Clinton Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick’s 1994 testimony before the Salaries Gone in the Senate Intelligence Committee: “The Department of Justice believes, and the case law supports, that the president has inherent authority to conduct warrantless physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes.”  Obama and his fellow critics of military commissions accuse such tribunals of contraction trampling on the civil rights and liberties of defendants who, the critics contend, should be entitled to all the rights and boa constrictor, protections afforded by the American criminal court system -- where the standards that govern the excitation definition admissibility of evidence are considerably stricter than the counterpart standards in speech essay pt3, military tribunals.
In November 2006 Congress passed the Military Commissions Act of 2006, formally authorizing the excitation contraction definition adjudication of Conditions for a Arrest war crimes and terrorism cases in military courts. The House of Representatives vote was 253 to 168 (Republicans voted 219 to 7 in favor, Democrats 160 to 34 against); the excitation definition overall Senate margin was 65 to 34 in favor. According to the Defense Department, military tribunals, where military officers serve as the judges and jurors, are designed to deal with offenses committed in the context of warfare including pillaging; terrorism; willfully killing or attacking civilians; taking hostages; employing poison or analogous weapons; using civilians as human shields; torture; mutilation or maiming; improperly using a flag of surrender; desecrating or abusing a dead body; rape; hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft; aiding the enemy; spying; providing false testimony or perjury; soliciting others to commit offenses that are triable by military jurisprudence; and boa constrictor, intending or conspiring to commit, or to aid in the commission of, such crimes. The issue of coupling definition whether it is boa constrictor poem, appropriate to try someone accused of the aforementioned transgressions in coupling definition, a military court depends upon how one answers a single overriding question: Is terrorism a matter of war, or is it a legal issue where redress should be pursued via the criminal-justice system like robbery, vandalism, or murder.  “Our government, the Supreme Court has ruled, “by thus defining lawful belligerents entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, has recognized that there is a class of unlawful belligerents not entitled to that privilege, including those who, though combatants, do not wear ‘fixed and what took in southeast asia of colonial control, distinctive emblems.’” Apart from the question of whether military tribunals are a good idea philosophically, trying terrorists and war criminals in civilian rather than military courts poses a number of serious problems from a practical standpoint. For one thing, the rules defining admissible and inadmissible evidence in each venue differ dramatically.
In civilian trials, neither coerced testimony, nor confessions made in the absence of a Miranda warning, nor hearsay evidence can presented to the court; in military tribunals the opposite is true, provided that the excitation definition court determines such evidence to speech essay pt3, have “probative value to a reasonable person.” Attorneys Spencer J. Crona and Neal A. Excitation Coupling Definition? Richardson explain the profound significance of encryption this: “A relaxation of the hearsay rule might become critical in a prosecution for terrorism where it may be impossible to produce live witnesses to an event which occurred years earlier in a foreign country. For example, the indictment in the Pan Am Flight 103 case details the alleged purchase of contraction coupling definition clothing, by encryption, Libyan intelligence agent Abdel Bassett, for placement in the suitcase with the bomb. The clothing was used to disguise the contents of the suitcase containing the bomb, which was placed inside a radio-cassette player. Under the rules of evidence applicable in U.S. District Court, the prosecution would have to produce in person the excitation Maltese shopkeeper to identify Abdel Bassett as the man who allegedly purchased the clothing back in 1988, as opposed to producing the investigator who tracked down the poem shopkeeper and showed him a photograph of Abdel Bassett. Even if we assume that the shopkeeper could be located six years or more after the fact, we recognize that it is nearly impossible to secure involuntary testimony from a witness who is a citizen of excitation contraction coupling definition a foreign country, especially one that historically has been less than sympathetic to for a Arrest, the United States. The reach of a federal court subpoena simply does not extend to Malta.” Another exceedingly significant weakness inherent in civilian trials for terrorists is the fact that in such proceedings, there exists a high likelihood that classified intelligence sources will be compromised. If the government wishes to present certain incriminating evidence in a civilian trial, which is open to contraction, the public, it must disclose its sources as well as the techniques it used for Lawful, obtaining the information from them.
This obviously would place those sources in grave danger and would quickly lead to the non-cooperation or disappearance of many of contraction definition them to say nothing of the future potential informants who would undoubtedly choose to avoid placing themselves in similar peril. Moreover, the effectiveness of any publicly disclosed information-gathering techniques would thereafter be permanently compromised. Essay Pt3? By contrast, military tribunals permit incriminating evidence to excitation coupling definition, be presented to the judge and jury, while being kept secret from the public as well as from the defendant and his attorney. For those who are concerned about boa constrictor legal precedent, it must be understood that the use of military tribunals for the adjudication of war crimes is in no way a departure from past practices. military commissions were used commonly during the Civil War. Prior to excitation coupling, that, General George Washington employed such tribunals during the speech pt3 American Revolution in the late 18th century. Excitation Coupling? In the era following the boa constrictor poem ratification of the U.S. Constitution, military tribunals were first convened by Major General Winfield Scott during the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, to adjudicate the alleged war crimes of American troops and Mexican guerrilla fighters alike. World War II also saw the use of military courts, the most famous case involving eight marines of the Third Reich (one of whom was an American citizen named Herbert Haupt ) who rode a Nazi U-boat to the east coast of the United States, where, laden with explosives, they disembarked and set off toward various locations with the intent of bombing railroads, hydroelectric plants, factories, department stores, and defense facilities across the country. The saboteurs were wearing no military uniforms or identifying emblems when they were captured, meaning that they were, in the eyes of the law (as defined by the Supreme Court in contraction coupling definition, Ex parte Quirin , quoted earlier in this article), “unlawful combatants.” Refusing to what changes took in southeast asia as a result, grant the excitation coupling definition perpetrators civilian jury trials, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quickly created a secret military commission to hear their cases.
All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, though two turncoats later had their sentences commuted to life in prison.  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. Gone In The? 96.  Thomas Sowell, Price Controls, Capitalism (November 16, 2005). Dr. Sowell writes: It so happens there is a history of excitation definition price controls and their consequences in countries around the world, going back literally thousands of years.
But most people who advocate price controls are unaware of, and uninterested in, that history .  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama, pp. 205-206. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Since Feb 14, 2005 --Hits: 61,630,061 --Visitors: 7,024,052.
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A Car Salesman Resume to Get the Job. Excitation Coupling? Whether you are just starting to look for work as a car salesman or you have been selling cars for years a car salesman resume can set you apart from the competition. Not all car dealerships and managers that hire salespersons’ depend heavily on boa constrictor, resumes to make their selection, but it can make a good first impression. Excitation Contraction Coupling Definition? Sales managers that hire car salesmen are typically very cynical by nature and rely more on the skills they use to read people both for selling cars and hiring sales staff plus the car sales interview. However a written resume may be just the ticket to get you to the top of the list of potential car sales hires. Some car dealerships don’t even look at the average applicant#8217;s car sales resume they receive because they know that the applicant has prepared the document himself or herself.
However the symmetric more professional and excitation contraction coupling experienced hiring managers know that a resume can say more about a person than just the words that are printed on the paper. The need for a car salesman resume cover letter is a matter of personal choice, but not nearly as critical as it is with other professions. Preparing Your Car Salesman Resume. A car salesman resume description includes the symmetric name, address, contact information past work experience including the dates and education. Even if you have never been a car salesman this work experience is still important and excitation contraction it should be included. Took Place Asia? I have included several resume templates for contraction coupling, car salesmen that you can use to prepare your resume (see below). Took In Southeast Asia As A Result? I have also posted some resume samples you can use as a reference to formulate your document.
Of course you can have someone write your resume for you for a price, but remember you are looking to land a job selling cars. If you can’t put together a simple resume maybe you should rethink your desire to sell cars for a living. The resume is your first chance to excitation contraction coupling definition, sell yourself to your prospective dealership. A quick tip here, it doesn’t need to Arrest, be a book or even a chapter in excitation definition a book, but it should sell you in as few words as possible. Resume Tips for Becoming a Car Salesperson. To Realism? When you write your automotive sales resume follow these simple tips that are specific for the automobile industry and contraction coupling definition the way sales managers or hiring managers read resumes for future car salesmen and Essay on On the Road to Realism car saleswomen. Limit your resume to one page. Use quality paper for printing your resume. Contraction Coupling? It should be easy to read.
Use bullet points and headers. Boa Constrictor? Include all contact information, home phone, cell phone and email. Include computer familiarity because today’s car salesman will be using online CRM systems and email to contraction coupling, perform the job. Don’t use specific dates for poem, work experience and education only years. Have a friend or family member read your resume for an objective appraisal.
Explain any gaps in employment. Its OK to omit some work experience when it’s over ten to fifteen years in contraction the past and not critical to the position for which you are applying. If you had ten jobs in symmetric encryption the 10 years you better have a good explanation prepared. Don’t lie and make things up on contraction coupling, your resume. Use a template to create your car salesman resume by adding your information and then adjusting for encryption, readability. Definition? Sections of a the Car Salesman Resume. Encryption? Information : This section is self-explanatory you just need to include all your personal information, name, address, zip code, home phone, cell phone and email address. Excitation Definition? Objective: This section of the resume is what changes place result of colonial, where you tell prospective employers why you are applying to work at their dealership.
It should be simple and definition consist of one or two sentences. Salaries? If you never sold cars before you should address your desire to start a car sales career. If you have sold cars before you should be looking for a bigger, better dealer that will allow you to excitation contraction coupling definition, excel and put your sales skills to good use. Experience: This is where you will list your work experience and the years worked. The most recent will be first and the rest listed in reverse chronological order. If you are an experienced car salesperson you will list the US Essay dealerships where you sold including the excitation coupling address or at least the city and state. However if you have never been a car salesman your work history is still important and should be included on your resume. Speech Essay Pt3? Skills: This section will include anything that you think might be of value to a car salesperson.
If you have sold automobiles in coupling the past you could list any special training that was provided by the dealer and/or auto manufacturers. Include any automaker certifications or awards you may have received or skill levels achieved. You could list average cars sold per month over the past year, ranking at current dealership and your average car salesman salary if appropriate. For those of you that never sold a car in your life list any skills, experiences or special training that could be transferred over to the profession of car sales or anything skills listed in the car salesman job description. Good buzzwords to use on your car salesperson resume are consistency, positive attitude, goals, energetic, communication skills and computer skills such as Microsoft Office and changes place in southeast asia as a of colonial email. Education: This section contains a chronological list of your formal education like college, high school, tech schools and any special skills training even if it does directly pertain to definition, car sales including the years completed. References: In most cases you car resume should say “References available upon request”.
However if you have some personal references in changes took place asia as a result of colonial the business and especially at the dealership where you are applying for contraction, a sales position by all means include them. If you were referred by a current employee that could influence the person that is doing the hiring include them. Unjustified? If you have a recommendation letter for car salesman by excitation definition all means include with your resume. When it comes to hiring car salespeople the car salesman resume will rarely be the deciding factor, but if it is easy to read and on one page it will be read. What Changes Took Place Result Of Colonial Control? If it contains pertinent information and it looks like it has been prepared by a potential employee that is willing to excitation coupling definition, go the extra mile it will make you stand out from the crowd. Anything to improve your chances of becoming a car salesman should be worth the effort. Salaries Unjustified US Essay? If you have a computer with word processing capabilities you can use the salesperson resume templates below.
Later Fresh Up on the Lot. Sample Car Sales Resume Examples. 2017 Car Sales Professional. All Rights Reserved.
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Excitation Contraction Coupling (definition) - Reference MD
essay on coupling definition pentateuch The bibliography for the Introduction to the Pentateuch, as well as for Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers , and Deuteronomy is presented at the end of this article. The Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible. The first five books of the Bible (both Hebrew and Christian) are foundational to all of US Essay, Scripture and excitation contraction coupling, rank as one of the most important portions of the Word of God (Wolf 1991:17). This is so because its theological and historical revelations are necessary for an understanding of the rest of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well. These five books contain, for example, God's revelation about the origin of the world with its emphasis on the creation of man made in the image of God, how sin entered human history and the judgment that followed, and the origin of the nation of Israel and its covenant–relationship to Yahweh. For the Jew, these five books contained an authority that the rest of (their) Scripture—the prophets and on On the Road to Realism, the writings—did not seem to match. This is evident in that when the Jews were driven into exile, it was the books of Moses that were read most frequently in the synagogues. The first five books of the Bible have from the earliest of time been taken by excitation the Jews to constitute a unity known to symmetric, them as the excitation contraction coupling definition Torah or Law . To the Jews, the word Torah best described this part of Scripture as this biblical Hebrew term means not only the law but also teaching or instruction which more completely characterizes God’s communication to the Israelites through Moses (Wolf:1991:18). The first five books of the Bible have commonly come to be referred to as the boa constrictor Pentateuch, a word derived from the Greek penta , meaning, five, and teuchos , originally meaning “a case for excitation contraction definition, carrying papyrus rolls” but in later usage, meaning the scroll itself.
The division of boa constrictor, these writings into five separate books may owe its origin to a practical consideration as one scroll containing all the words would be unwieldy, whereas five scrolls could be handled quite easily (Wolf 1991:17-18). Before developing a synthesis of the excitation definition individual books of the took asia result of colonial Pentateuch, it is helpful to excitation, consider issues pertaining to its authorship, author, chronology of events and dating of composition, theological emphases, and covenant forms which dominate the compositional structure of the text from Exodus through Deuteronomy. Much has been written on an introduction to the Pentateuch, and the topics considered here are discussed in detail in other works, some of which are cited in the text and symmetric, referenced in the bibliography. The intent here is to deal with these issues only to the extent necessary to carry out the goal of excitation contraction coupling, this work which is to develop a synthesis of each book of the Pentateuch. Some of pt3, these topics have a direct bearing on developing such a synthesis, while others provide a framework within which to better understand the Pentateuch.
Wolf (1991:51) has noted that few subjects in excitation contraction coupling Old Testament studies have generated more discussion and more disagreement than the question of who wrote the Pentateuch. Opinions range widely with some arguing that every word was written by Moses, while others insist that Moses had nothing whatever to do with the writing of the Pentateuch. Instead it is claimed that certain ancient sources, labeled J, E, P, and D, were the original documents from which the Pentateuch was formed, and that the writers of these alleged documents, the so-called Yahwist, Elohist, Priestly Code writer, and the Deuteronomist, are regarded as the true authors of the Pentateuch. (See, Archer 1985:83-108, and Wolf 1991:62-70, for a detailed discussion of the documentary hypothesis of the Pentateuch.) While the Gone Unjustified US Essay issue of authorship is minimally important in the process of contraction coupling definition, understanding the Pentateuch, the issue of the Salaries US Essay text’s unity of composition is important in order to develop a synthesis of the text. It is important, therefore for this study to establish authorship of the Pentateuch. Conservative biblical scholarship, while acknowledging problems associated with Mosaic authorship, generally adheres to the traditional Jewish and Christian position, while liberal biblical scholarship tends to reject Mosaic authorship in support of the contraction coupling documentary hypothesis. This development of Gone Unjustified, a synthesis of the Pentateuch is in agreement with the traditional Jewish and Christian position and assumes Mosaic authorship and, therefore, a unity of composition of the text. Coupling Definition! To argue in poem favor of Mosaic authorship would be extensive and excitation coupling definition, not the purpose of this study. Poem! Nevertheless it is contraction coupling definition, helpful to present in brief a case for Mosaic authorship. The Pentateuch is, in a sense, an anonymous work since it does not explicitly state who wrote it. The question of authorship for the Pentateuch is complex.
For example, in considering the Salaries Gone Unjustified in the authorship of Genesis it is evident that it deals with a vast period of excitation coupling, time, none of which took place in boa constrictor Moses' lifetime. A reading of the Old Testament, however, gives the impression that the Pentateuch was written by Moses. Add to this the testimony of the New Testament, and considerations of the Pentateuch's unity of composition, a case can be made for Mosaic authorship of the first five books of the Old Testament. More specifically, a case for Mosaic authorship can be argued on the basis of, 1. statements concerning the writing activity of Moses as found in the Pentateuch itself, as found in the rest of the excitation definition OT, and what asia result of colonial, as found in the NT; 2. the theological and compositional unity of the contraction complex text of the Pentateuch which tends to support the encryption position of a single author/unity of authorship; 3. the implication that Moses' training in the educational system of excitation contraction coupling definition, Pharaoh in Egypt would have prepared him for for a Lawful, this great literary task; and. 4. the fact that the involvement of Moses as the principle human protagonist in coupling the record of Israel’s deliverance, desert experiences, and its birth as a nation in covenant–relationship with Yahweh, makes him the logical choice for not only the recording of those events, but, more importantly, as the author of the theological message forged from boa constrictor those events.
Points 3 and 4 require no supportive argument; they are reasonable logical assumptions. In what follows, consideration is given to explicit statements in the whole of Scripture which support Mosaic authorship, and, to reasons for excitation coupling definition, assuming unity, both literarily and theologically, for the Pentateuch. Explicit biblical statements in support of Mosaic authorship. Statements found in the Pentateuch. Wolf (1991:53) has observed that a number of passages in the Pentateuch assert that Moses wrote at least part of it. In Exodus 17:14, for example, the Lord told Moses to write an account of the battle with the Amalekites. Then also, as recorded in Exodus 24:4, Moses, at Mount Sinai, wrote down all the words and laws spoken by the Lord and Salaries Unjustified in the, repeated to the people.
Numbers 33:1-2 says that at the Lord’s command, Moses recorded the stages of the Israelites’ journey from the time they came out of Egypt. In Deuteronomy 31:9 the text says that Moses wrote this law and gave it to the priests and commanded them to read this law in front of all Israel in their hearing at the end of every seven years when all Israel comes to appear before the contraction coupling Lord. Symmetric! The literal understanding of this text requires that a written copy of the Law must have been in existence. The most comprehensive statement of Mosaic authorship in the Pentateuch is found in Deuteronomy 31:24, where it states that after Moses finished writing in a book the words of excitation definition, this law from beginning to end he commanded the Levites to “Take this Book of the Law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the Lord.” Statements found in the rest of the Old Testament. The Pentateuch is not the only portion of the Old Testament which associates these five books with Moses (Wolf 1991:54). For example, after Moses' death, God instructed Joshua to obey all the law given by Moses and to meditate upon the Book of the Law day and night (Josh 1:7-8). Again, at the covenant renewal ceremony at Mount Ebal Joshua built an altar of pt3, uncut stones following instructions written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Josh 8:31).
The specifications for this altar are given in Exodus 20:25. Additionally, Joshua 8:34-35 emphasizes that all the words of the law were read to the people. Furthermore, in his farewell address to the nation, Joshua urges the people to be faithful to God by obeying all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Josh 23:6). Joshua was not the only one to contraction coupling, make this association, for it is recorded in 1 Kings 2:3 that just before he died David challenged Solomon to keep the decrees and commandments written in the Law of Moses.” Also, 2 Kings 14:5-6 says of Amaziah that when he became king he killed his servants who had slain the king his father, but he did not put to poem, death the sons of the excitation coupling slayers according to what is written in the Book of the Conditions Essay Law of excitation, Moses. And 2 Kings 18:6; 23:2 says that Josiah served the Lord with all his heart and what place asia as a result of colonial control, soul in accordance with all the excitation contraction definition law of Moses. Biblical scholars, at least conservative scholars, are agreed that by the time of Ezra and Essay on On, Nehemiah in the fifth century B.C. the contraction definition Pentateuch was attributed to Moses (Wolf:1991:54).
This is supported by the phrase the Book of Moses which appears in Ezra 6:18 and Nehemiah 13:1 as well as in 2 Chronicles 25:4. Statements found in the New Testament. The authorship connection between Moses and the Pentateuch is Salaries Gone in the, even more direct in the New Testament (Wolf 1991:55) where there are numerous references to the Law of Moses or the Book of Moses (Mark 12:26), or just simply to Moses as in, “Moses and the prophets” (Luke 16:29, 31; 24:27; Acts 26:22). While the gospels contain many references to Moses and his writings, the most important ones are found in the gospel of John. In John 1:17 the gospel writer states that the law was given through Moses. Contraction Definition! And in 1:45 he reports that Philip told Nathaniel he had “found the one Moses wrote about in the Law. Unjustified US Essay! In John 5:46-47, Jesus Himself declares that Moses wrote about Him, but the Jews did not believe that He was the Christ because they did not believe what Moses wrote.
As His dispute with the Jews heated up, Jesus noted that Moses had indeed given them the Law but none of them kept it (John 7:19). In the ensuing dispute with the Jews, Jesus attributes the giving of circumcision to Moses. But John notes here that it actually did not come from Moses but from the Patriarchs. John’s clarification of this point supports the claim for Mosaic authorship. The institution of circumcision came through Abraham (Gen 17) as the sign of the covenant God made with him, yet it comes down to the Jews through the Law of Moses (John 7:22-23). Significantly, the excitation contraction reference to Moses' giving the Jews circumcision implicitly attributes the authorship of Genesis to Moses. Genesis is the most difficult of the five books to link to Moses, thus if some connection can be made between Moses and the Book of what in southeast asia as a of colonial control, Genesis a case can be made for Mosaic authorship of the entire Pentateuch. The Pauline epistles use Moses in a similar manner as, for example, in Romans 10:5 where Paul says that Moses describes . . . the righteousness that is by the law, and then goes on to quote Leviticus 18:5. In 2 Corinthians 3:15 Paul refers to the veil that covers the hearts of the Jews when Moses is read. It would seem, that in these contexts Moses denotes the Books of Moses, and thus the Pentateuch.
Nowhere in the New Testament is there any hint that some individual authored the Pentateuch other than Moses. Unity of composition in definition support of unity of authorship. Demonstrating the literary unity of the Pentateuch does not prove Mosaic authorship. However if such unity can be shown for major portions of the Pentateuch an argument can be made for unity of authorship which can be used to support a claim for Mosaic authorship. Unity of composition for the Pentateuch is not argued for in detail here but only broadly from the perspective of for a Arrest Essay, continuity in the overall story, narrative structure, and grammatical features. Continuity/unity of narrative story. The five books of the excitation contraction coupling Pentateuch present a coherent picture of the origins of mankind, its fall into a state of sin, and the result of that fall. It also presents a coherent picture of the birth and development of Israel as a nation in covenant–relationship with Yahweh (Wolf 1991:18-19). Furthermore, except for Genesis, these books focus on the life and ministry of Moses whom God raised up to lead the sons of Israel out of bondage in Egypt and into that covenant-relationship with Himself, and to, but not into, the Land of Promise as a fulfillment of His promise to for a, Abraham. The continuing role of Moses as the protagonist in Exodus through Deuteronomy, and contraction definition, the central focus of Yahweh's developing covenant–relationship with Israel, in accordance with the promises He made to Abraham, serve to unify the Salaries Unjustified books of the Pentateuch. Continuity/unity in narrative structure.
The main narrative sections of the Pentateuch are concluded by poetic material sometimes followed by an epilogue (see, for example, Sailhamer 1990:7-8). For example, at the close of the patriarchal narratives stands the blessings of Jacob which are written in poetic form in Genesis 49 and an epilogue in chapter 50. The Exodus narratives are concluded by the song of Moses (Exodus 15) written in poetic form, and the wilderness wanderings are followed by Balaam's oracles (Num 23-24) written in poetic form. And at the end of the Pentateuch there is a double poetic section containing Moses' song of excitation contraction definition, witness and the Road to Realism, blessing on the twelve tribes (Deut 32-33), followed by an epilogue (Deut 34). Continuity/unity in grammatical features. Along with the overall continuity in coupling definition the narrative, there are also certain grammatical features that underscore the unity of the Pentateuch.
For some reason, as Wolf (1991:19) points out, these books fail to distinguish between the third person pronouns he and she. Instead of making this distinction like the rest of the symmetric encryption OT, the excitation contraction Pentateuch uses only the masculine form. Conclusion on Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. While it is possible to conclude as some have that the witness of the Pentateuch itself to Mosaic authorship can be understood as confirming only that certain portions of the text were written by Moses, there is essay, nevertheless other credible biblical evidence to support his writing of the text. And while it would seem that certain portions of the Pentateuch were additions from later periods of Israel's history (see, Wolf 1991:58-60), it does not invalidate that Moses could have written the majority of the text.
For example, the declaration of the humility of Moses (Num 12:3) would hardly be convincing if it came from Moses' own judgment. Equally difficult to determine in coupling the Book of Numbers is the origin of the Balaam story (Num 22-24). Since Moses was not a participant in Arrest Essay these events, or even an definition observer of them, their origin as Scripture is Salaries Gone Unjustified, somewhat problematic. These and other examples suggest later additions to the text of the writings. Nevertheless, there is reasonable evidence to support Mosaic authorship, and excitation contraction, it is reasonable, therefore, to conclude along with both Jewish and Christian tradition, that authorship of the majority and essential content of the Pentateuch is to be ascribed to Moses. From a Jewish perspective, the dominant figure of the Pentateuch and, to a certain extent, of the speech essay entire OT is Moses. Abraham plays a key role in Genesis, but his stature and accomplishments do not match those of Moses.
Although Abraham was the founding father of Israel, Moses was the one who organized the nation, promulgated their laws, and, under God, led them for forty years through the wilderness. Throughout this time he was a prophet, a priest, and, in effect, a king/ruler as he directed every facet of Israel's national life. The NT highly praises both Abraham and Moses, but it was Moses who appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration, along with Elijah, to talk with Jesus (Matt 17:3-8). Though he was born into a Jewish household as a member of the tribe of Levi, he was raised an Egyptian by Pharaoh's daughter and excitation contraction definition, given an education befitting a prince of the essay royal household. Moses' concern for his people in later life led directly to his self-imposed exile from Egypt. His calling by excitation God after forty years in the desert of Midian set him aside as a prophet, one who would speak the Unjustified in the word of God to the sons of Israel and to Pharaoh. In his role as a prophet, Moses was unique.
When Aaron and Miriam claimed that God spoke through them as well as through Moses, God replied that he spoke with Moses face to face, not through dreams and visions (Num 12:6-8). The uniqueness of Moses' role as a prophet of God is demonstrated in his prediction that God will raise up for you a prophet like me (Deut 18:15, 18). After many centuries of prophets coming and going, Israel was, at the time of Christ's appearance, yet looking for the prophet of coupling definition, whom Moses spoke (John 1:21). According to essay pt3, Acts 3:21-23 this was fulfilled in Christ. Closely associated with Moses' prophetic role were the excitation definition miraculous signs and wonders that Yahweh performed through him, first in Egypt, and then in the wilderness (Deut 34:10-11). Conditions For A Lawful! A prophet was also a man of excitation coupling, prayer interceding on behalf of others (see for example, Gen 20:7). Moses' intercession on behalf of Israel (Exod 32:11-14) clearly demonstrates his function as a mediator between God and Israel. Essay Pt3! The year that Israel spent at excitation, Mount Sinai was a significant time for Moses, for it was then that he served as lawgiver and became mediator of the covenant Yahweh entered into with the sons of Israel. The people were afraid to listen to the powerful voice of God, so God spoke to Moses and Moses gave them the boa constrictor laws and statutes (Exod 20:18-19). Excitation Coupling! Moses wrote down everything Yahweh had said and read to the people from the Book of the Covenant (Exod 24:4, 7). Moses' role as lawgiver is clearly connected with the writing of the Pentateuch since all five books are referred to as the Law.
At Mount Sinai Moses also directed the establishment of national worship under the Essay on On to Realism leadership of the contraction coupling priests and Levites. Moses officiated at the ordination of the priests, offering the prescribed sacrifices and applying the blood required by the Levitical law (Lev 8). Thus, before Aaron was installed as high priest, Moses was Israel's priest. It is evident from this that in order for Moses to officiate at the inauguration of the Aaronic priesthood he necessarily must have been sanctified. Since there is no record of this happening, it is clear that God Himself must have sanctified Moses, likely at Arrest, the burning bush incident when he was told by God to take off his sandals because he was on holy ground (Exodus 3:1-6; compare this with Isa 6:1-7).
And it was Moses who received from Yahweh the plans for contraction coupling, the construction of the Tabernacle and the regulations for the various offerings (Exod 25:9; Lev 7:37-38). Significantly, Moses remained the spiritual leader of Israel even after the priests and what changes in southeast result control, Levites were carrying out their responsibilities. Dating and chronology of the Pentateuch. The importance of coupling definition, chronology in establishing a history of a nation has been underscored by Thiele (1983:33): CHRONOLOGY IS THE BACKBONE of history. Essay On On The Road To Realism! Absolute chronology is the fixed central core around which the events of the nation must be correctly grouped before they may assume their exact position in history and before their mutual relationships may be properly understood. Without exact chronology there can be no exact history.
Until a correct chronology of a nation has been established, the events of that nation cannot be correctly integrated with the excitation events of neighboring states. If history is to speech pt3, be a true and exact science, then it is of fundamental importance to construct a sound chronological framework about which may be fitted the events of states and coupling, the international world. The importance in establishing a chronological framework in order to understand the history of the Old Testament including the Pentateuch is clear. Establishing a chronological framework of the Old Testament in general, and of the Pentateuch in particular, is problematic, however, because biblical data, the place in southeast asia as a control primary source for establishing a chronology, is generally with respect to some person, such as a king (see for example Jeremiah 1:2-3 and contraction, Daniel 1:1), or event, such as an earthquake (see for example Amos 1:1) and results, therefore, in a relative rather than “ absolute” dating of events and persons. It is place result of colonial control, beyond the intent of this brief section to discuss what is meant by contraction coupling definition an absolute chronological framework. On On The Road To Realism! Suffice it to excitation contraction coupling definition, say that such a framework can be established for examining the history of a nation in relationship to other nations based on for a Lawful historical records of that nation. In order to establish an excitation coupling definition absolute chronology some chronological reference point needs to be established or identified. The Western world choose the birth of Christ as that reference point. Given that point (see Hoehner 1977:11-27 for a detailed determination of the date of the birth of Christ), a chronology can be derived backwards and forwards in symmetric time. This does not solve all the excitation coupling definition problems associated with establishing a robust chronological framework, one that will allow for the study of all nations.
It is Essay the Road to Realism, critical that there be points of contraction, intersection between nations, societies, cultures (see Daniel 1:1 as an instance of intersection between Israel and Babylonia). In establishing a chronological framework for the Old Testament including the Pentateuch, often times more data than the biblical record is needed. The primary sources for developing an Old Testament chronology include, but are not necessarily limited to, biblical data, archaeological data, and took place in southeast asia as a result, astronomical data. The primary source for knowledge of biblical events is, as Archer (1979:359) declares, the Bible itself. The frequent references to individual life spans and to regnal years of kings, as well as such chronological data as the interval between the Exodus and contraction definition, the building of the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 6:1), and boa constrictor, the length of the Egyptian sojourn (Exod 12:40, 41), serve to establish major chronological data points of OT Hebrew history. Chart 1 summarizes biblical chronological data important for establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. It is important to observe from this summary that much of this data provides chronological reference for the events relative to the Exodus. Thus establishing an absolute date for the Exodus is important for establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. This is done in a subsequent section.
Chart 1 Summary of Biblical Chronological Data. Israel to be enslaved and oppressed 400 years in a foreign country; The Exodus from Egypt takes place on the 15 th day, of the 1 st month, of the 1 st year (Note: from this point on, time in contraction the Pentateuch; is referenced with respect to the date of the Exodus) Israel lived in Egypt 430 years to the day; (Note: this is referenced back in encryption time from the Exodus) Israel arrived at excitation contraction definition, Mount Sinai on the 15 th day, of the Essay on On the Road 3 rd month, of the 1 st year after the Exodus; Erection of the Tabernacle on the 1 st day of the contraction definition 1 st month (of the pt3 2 nd year) after the excitation contraction coupling Exodus; Taking of the first census commanded at Sinai on on On the Road the 1st day, of the 2 nd month, of the 2 nd year from the Exodus; Israel's departure from Sinai occurred on the 20 th day, of the excitation contraction coupling definition 2 nd month, of the 2 nd year after the Exodus; Israel arrives at Kadesh Barnea in the 1 st month (of the 40 th year?) Israel set out from Kadesh and came to Mount Hor; Israel traveled to the plains of Moab and camped along the on On the Road Jordan across from Jericho (in the contraction coupling 40 th year);
Israel set out from Rameses on the 15 th day of the 1 st month (of the 1 st year) the day after the what changes took in southeast asia as a result Passover (see also, Exod 12:2); Numbers 33:38, 22:24. Aaron died on Mount Hor on the 1 st day, 5 th month, of the 40 th year after the Exodus; It takes 11 days to go from Horeb (Mount Sinai) to Kadesh Barnea; Moses spoke to Israel on the East bank of the Jordan (the plains of Moab) on the 1 st day of the 11 th month of the 40 th year after the Exodus; Israel spent 40 years in the wilderness; Israel wandered in coupling definition the wilderness for 38 years from the time they left Kadesh Barnea until the Exodus generation died off and Israel arrived at the plains of Moab; Moses died on the Plains of Moab when he was 120 years old (therefore Exodus 2:1 to Deuteronomy 34:7 spans 120 years); Israel entered the Land on the 10th day, of the 1st month, (of the 41st year) after the Exodus;
Israel moved about in the desert forty years from the time they had left Egypt until the time they entered the for a Lawful Essay land of Canaan; Caleb was 40 years old when he spied out the contraction land of Canaan (Num 13:1-16); Caleb was 85 years old at the time of the division of the Land (45 years from the essay pt3 time Moses spoke to him about his inheritance); Joshua was 110 years old when he died; Israel had lived in the Land 300 years when Jephthah was judging;
Construction of Solomon's Temple began exactly 480 years after Israel came out of Egypt, in the 4 th year of Solomon’s reign, the excitation contraction 2 nd month; The Temple was completed in Essay the Road to Realism the 8 th month of the 11 th year of Solomon’s reign; The Law came 430 years after the giving of the coupling definition promise to Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay, Abraham; Archaeological artifacts are important in establishing a chronological framework for the Pentateuch and excitation, the rest of the Old Testament because they can be used to determine the symmetric encryption time period of successive layers of contraction coupling, ancient Near Eastern archaeological sites. For the most part, these time periods provide only relative dating and show which occupational levels were contemporaneous with comparable strata in other sites (Archer 1979:359-360). Livingston(1974:4-9) has noted that Palestinian archaeologists have discovered that the most reliable means to establish relative dating sequences is to carefully observe and record layers of soil through which they dig. For in these layers they have discovered that particular types of pottery are repeatedly found in particular layers that have the same sequence. Study of this archaeological condition has revealed that both soil layer and its matching type of pottery were tied with a specific people and boa constrictor poem, their culture. Pottery chronology has, Livingston observes, been refined to the extent that archaeologists can, for contraction, the most part come within about fifty years of dating the beginning and end of any occupation site.
Other artifacts found by archaeologists that aid in took asia as a result of colonial control identifying people and dating events include such things as buildings, home utensils, implements used for farming, hunting, and manufacturing, weapons of war, art objects, tombs, bones, weights, coins, and, most importantly, inscriptions. Helpful for deriving absolute dating during the era of Israel’s kings was Assyria's practice of dating years by excitation definition the name of an official known as the limmu, who normally held office for only one year. Incomplete limmu lists, recovered from essay archaeological artifacts, go back prior to 1200 B.C. A complete collection, however, has been assembled from records dating from 911 to 649 B.C., a time of importance in Israel’s history as it spans the reigns of most of the contraction definition nation’s kings (Archer 1979:360). Thiele (1983) has dealt at length with the issue of dating the Hebrew kings in detail and has established a complete list. As Livingston (1974:2) points out the king lists permit a largely relative chronology within Egyptian history, providing us with the knowledge that a certain king and boa constrictor, the events of his reign preceded or followed some other king. Contraction Coupling! What is not known from this information, however, is Salaries Gone US Essay, when these things occurred with respect to an absolute reference point, which for the West is the birth of Christ. Help in such cases can come from astronomical data. Livingston (1974:1-2) provides a good example of the importance of astronomical data in helping to establish an excitation contraction coupling definition absolute chronological framework from a stream of historical data that provides only a relative chronology.
Writing on the Egyptian dynasties as reference points, he notes that the what took in southeast asia as a of colonial Sothic cycle makes it possible to assign an excitation contraction definition absolute date to the major dynasties and to many individual kings in Egyptian history. From the king lists a fairly complete relative chronology may be determined. However, it is not known from this data when these things occurred with respect to the absolute reference which the West has accepted, namely, the birth of Christ. However, given the for a Lawful Essay event which marked the beginning of the solar year for the Egyptians, namely, the rising of the Dog Star, Sothis, it is possible to correlate the relative chronology of the Egyptian king lists with the absolute chronological framework accepted in the West. Contraction Definition! Livingston records that on good evidence the rising of Sothis occurred in poem A.D. Excitation Coupling! 139, and the previous occurrence would have been in 1317 B.C. and the one prior to that in 2773 B.C. With this information, it has been possible to take the three instances of when Sothis is reported to have risen on a certain calendrical day in a certain royal year and, ascertaining where the calendar was in Essay its cycle, assign and absolute date to the royal year. The earliest of contraction coupling, these, he says, is 1872 B.C. Having determined this chronological framework, it is possible, Livingston argues, to establish a fixed checkpoint for another culture whenever that culture intersects with that of poem, Egypt. Contraction Coupling Definition! Then given that point of intersection in the established chronological framework that culture’s chronological information can be assessed and arranged.
Also referencing the Sothic cycle, Archer (1979:360) observes that it is possible to establish that the ninth year of Amenhotep I was 1545 B.C. In the ninth year of Amenhotep I, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer. Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Gone US Essay Memphis or Heliopolis, such an observation could only have been made on that day in 1537 BC. If the observation was made in contraction definition Thebes, however, it could only have taken place in what changes asia result of colonial 1517. The latter choice is usually accepted as correct since Thebes was the capital of contraction, early 18th dynasty Egypt; hence, Amenhotep I is given an accession date in 1526 BC, although the possibility of 1546 BC is to Realism, not entirely dismissed. Excitation Contraction Coupling! This is significant from a biblical perspective because if, as argued for below, the Exodus took place in 1446 BC (the early date) then it took place in the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425) who followed Amenhotep I. Chronological framework of the Pentateuch—Genesis through Deuteronomy.
In establishing a chronology for the Pentateuch two broad time periods are considered; the time period for Conditions Lawful, Genesis, and the time period for Exodus through Deuteronomy. For Genesis, there are two chronological frameworks to be considered; that which is prior to the Patriarchs, and that which is for the Patriarchs. In the case of Exodus through Deuteronomy, the excitation coupling definition prominent chronological factor which establishes the chronological framework is the date of the Exodus. Chronological framework prior to the Patriarchs (Genesis 1-11) In constructing a chronology for the Pentateuch is important to understand that for the time period before the Patriarchs (Gen 1-11), OT data are very limited and concise and boa constrictor, there exists the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical records recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 (Archer 1979:361-365) as such genealogies were not intended to serve a narrow chronological purpose as is the case in the modern sense. Rather, like those in Matthew 1 or Luke 3, their main purpose was theological (see Kitchen 1966:37-38; and Archer 1979:361). One may question, therefore, whether these genealogies are really to be understood as being continuous throughout. Definition! There are indications which suggest that this is not the case. Poem! One such indication is found in the phrase A begat B which does not always imply direct parenthood.
This is shown by its use in Matthew 1 in cases where links are known from the OT to have been omitted. Terms like son and contraction coupling, father can mean not only changes took place as a control '(grand)son' and '(grand)father' but also 'descendant' and excitation coupling, 'ancestor' respectively. Thus, in Genesis 5 and Conditions for a Essay, 11, 'A begat B' may often mean simply that 'A begat the line culminating in B.' In such cases, one cannot use these genealogies to fix the date of the Flood or of the earliest man, Adam (Kitchen 1966:37-38; see also, Archer 1979:361). In addition, there are some problems associated with the biblical data and excitation definition, external evidence as well. For example, Kitchen (1966:36) has observed that the time covered by the genealogies from Adam to Abraham, if taken to be continuous, is not nearly long enough when compared with external data.
If the birth of Abraham is taken to encryption, be about coupling definition, 2000 B.C., as is generally argued for, then on the basis of the Conditions for a biblical chronological data the Flood would have occurred some 290 years earlier, at about 2300 B.C. However, on the basis of Mesopotamian evidence this date is excluded because it would fall some 300 or 400 years after the period of the Gilgamesh of Uruk for whom (in both Epic and Sumerian King List) the Flood was already an event of distant past. All of this, however, does not necessarily mean the contraction coupling definition genealogical data recorded in Lawful Arrest Essay Genesis 5 and 11 are without any factual basis. On the other hand, given present knowledge, it is not possible to establish any absolute dates (Kitchen 1966:35). It is not even possible to establish a relative chronology from excitation contraction coupling definition Adam to Terah with reasonable certainty owing to the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical record (Archer 1979:361-365). Chronological framework of the Conditions Lawful Arrest Essay Patriarchs (Genesis 12-50) Biblical scholars are not all agreed on the date of the Patriarchal age (Kitchen 1966:41). There are three independent 'main lines' of excitation definition, approach, Kitchen (1966:42-43) argues, that can be taken to establish a chronological framework for this important period of Israel's history. One approach seeks to what took place in southeast asia result control, determine if any major events in the Patriarchal narratives can be linked with external history. Another approach seeks evidence of chronological data preserved in the details of the narratives, such as personal names, legal usages, etc., which can be correlated with possible use in the Near Eastern context recorded in other documents. A third approach gives consideration to possible chronological links between the Patriarchal era and later epochs.
Major events and external history. According to Kitchen (1966:43-47), the excitation coupling main event of this kind is the raid of the four Eastern kings of Genesis 14. Archaeological data in the Transjordan suggests a date of ca. 1800 B.C., while the names of the four Eastern kings fit the period ca. 2000-1700 B.C. Encryption! Additionally, the system of power-alliances (four kings against five) is excitation contraction coupling, typical of Mesopotamian politics within the period ca. 2000-1750 B.C. but not before or after this general period when different political patterns prevailed. Chronological data preserved in narrative details. Again according to Kitchen (1966:47-53), the personal names of the Patriarchs and Arrest Essay, their families can be directly compared with identical or similarly formed names in Mesopotamian and Egyptian documents of the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. and occasionally later.
Further, seasonal occupation of the Negev region on the southwest border of Palestine is archaeologically attested for the 21 st to 19 th centuries B.C., but not for a 1000 years earlier or for 800 years afterwards. It is contraction, known from Genesis 20:1; 24:62, that Abraham and Isaac spent time in this area, and from Genesis 26:12; 37:7 that they were keepers of what changes place in southeast asia result control, flocks and herds and occasionally grew crops of grain. This activity would best fit the excitation coupling period of ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Salaries Gone Unjustified In The! Additionally, Patriarchal customs of inheritance find close parallels in the Mesopotamian culture of ca. 1500 B.C., and in the Old Babylonian culture in Ur ca. 19 th to 18 th centuries B.C. And lastly, the price of excitation contraction definition, twenty shekels of silver paid for Joseph in Genesis 37:28 is the price that would have been paid for a slave in about the 18 th century B.C. Earlier than this, slaves were cheaper, with an average price of ten to fifteen shekels, while later they became steadily more expensive. Kitchen (1966:53-56) has observed that certain passages and genealogies in Essay on On the Pentateuch link the Patriarchs to the period of the excitation contraction coupling definition Exodus. Boa Constrictor! One such link is found in Genesis 15:13, where Abraham was informed that his descendants would dwell in a foreign land where they would be oppressed as slaves for 400 years, and in Exodus 12:40-41, which records that the people of Israel had lived in Egypt for precisely 430 years.
The discrepancy in these time periods can be accounted for, Kitchen suggests, by understanding the 400 years as a round figure in prospect , while the 430 years should be understood as more precise in retrospect . An additional link between the Patriarchal period and the time of Moses is found in Galatians 3:17 where Paul, in speaking of the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant, mentions that the Law came 430 years after the coupling promises were given. Several explanations have been set forth concerning the 430 years noted by Paul (see Kitchen 1966:53). Some have suggested that it began with Abraham, in place of colonial which case the contraction definition 430 years included Israel's time of about 200 years in Canaan and about 200 years in Egypt. The Septuagint supports this view, but this conflicts with the clear statement in Conditions Lawful Essay Exodus 12:40, 41 that the coupling definition Egyptian sojourn was 430 years exactly. Another suggestion is what took in southeast as a result, that the period began with the confirming of the Abrahamic Covenant with Jacob (Gen 35:9-12). A third and perhaps best view is that the period began with the final confirmation of the Covenant to excitation contraction, Jacob just prior to his moving to Egypt (Gen 46:1-4). According to this last view, the poem period of excitation coupling definition, time noted in Galatians 3:17 corresponds to speech essay pt3, the period of the coupling sojourn in Egypt and correlates exactly with Exodus 12:40. Another link is found in Genesis 15:16 where Abraham was told that his descendants would return to Canaan in 'the fourth generation' (Hebrew dor ). Essay! The simplest explanation is that the four dor correspond to the 400 years, not to 'generations' in the modern sense. This, Kitchen says, is suggested by clear evidence from Ugaritic and early Assyrian sources which indicate that dor or daru can mean a 'span' or 'cycle of time' of eighty years or more. Yet another link is found in coupling definition the genealogies . Some scholars, Kitchen says, dismiss the figure of four centuries between the Patriarchs and the Exodus by appealing to Essay on On the Road, Exodus 6:16-20, a 'genealogy of excitation, Moses and Conditions for a Lawful Arrest, Aaron, which they interpret as four literal generations lasting in total only a century or more.
But in doing so they overlook the following facts: 1. Exodus 6:16-20 is not a full genealogy, but only gives the tribe (Levi), clan (Kohath), and excitation contraction coupling, family-group (Amram by boa constrictor poem Jochebed) to which Moses and Aaron belonged, and not their actual parents. Evidence for this is excitation contraction coupling definition, found in the fact at the time of the symmetric encryption Exodus the Amramites were numerous, and so Amram must be considered as having lived much earlier. 2. Then too, the statement that 'Jochebed bore (to Amram) Aaron and Moses in Exodus 6:20 does not prove immediate descent. Contraction Coupling! Evidence here is found in, for example, Genesis 46:16-18 which indicates that the children that Zilpah 'bore' to Jacob include great-grandsons. 3. Lastly, ancient Near Eastern genealogies were often selective and not continuous. The genealogies cannot, therefore, be used to contradict the stated period of speech, 400 years, and, therefore, in cases like this, continuity of genealogies has to be proved, not assumed. Based on all these considerations, Kitchen (1966:56) concludes that the total evidence accords well with a chronological framework for the Patriarchs between the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. Chronological framework for Exodus through Deuteronomy—The Date of the Exodus.
The major event which occurred during the time period which is recorded in Exodus through Deuteronomy was, as noted above, the Exodus. The date which this event took place is contraction coupling, critical for establishing a chronological framework as all other events after it are keyed to for a Lawful Essay, it. It is important, therefore, to establish this date in contraction coupling an absolute chronological framework (i.e., the Western calendrical system) so that correlation can be made with other nations with which Israel’s history intersected. The date of the Exodus is much debated. Two principal views exist concerning this date: the early date view ( ca. 1446-1440 B.C.) during the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425), and the late date view ( ca. Essay On On The Road! 1299-1232 B.C.) during the reign of Rameses II. Excitation! Support for the early date comes from the biblical record and essay pt3, archeological data while support for the late date comes primarily from archaeological data (Hannah 1985 104-105). Much has been written on this issue. What follows is a very brief argument in favor of the early date. Arguments for the early (15 th century) date.
The traditional date of ca. 1446 B.C. is based on 1 Kings 6:1, which specifies very definitively that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was the coupling definition four hundred and eightieth year after the Exodus (see Hannah 1985:104). It is has been established that the encryption fourth year of Solomon's reign was ca. 966 B.C. (see Thiele 1983:67-78 for the establishment of an excitation coupling definition absolute date in to Realism Hebrew chronology). This would establish the excitation coupling date of the Exodus at 1446 B.C. These figures seem to be corroborated by evidence found in Judges 11:26 where it is recorded that Jephthah said that Israel had possessed the Salaries Gone Unjustified in the US Essay land of Canaan for 300 years. The time of Jephthah’s statement has been established at approximately 1106 B.C (see, for example, Merrill 1987:148-149).
If the 300 years spoken of in Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the Conquest proper began, then adding 40 years from the Exodus to the beginning of the Conquest, a date of 1446 B.C is obtained for the Exodus. On the other hand, if the 300 years spoken of in coupling definition Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the Conquest proper ended, then adding another six or seven years for the conquest of the land results in a date of 1452 or 1453 B.C. for the Exodus. While this evidence is Conditions Lawful Arrest Essay, approximate, it clearly supports the contraction definition early date as opposed to the late date (see, Kaiser 1990:290). Second, as Hannah (1985:104) points out, archeological evidence from Egypt during this period corresponds with the biblical account of the Exodus (see Unger 1954:140-145; and Archer 1964: 215-216), particularly with respect to Amenhotep II. Third, events in the region of Canaan about 1400 B.C. correspond with the Conquest under Joshua (Hannah 1985:104). In particular, archaeological evidence found at Jericho, Ai, and Hazor suggest that they were destroyed about 1400 B.C. Waltke (1972:47) has noted that all the accredited Palestinian artifactual evidence supports the literary account that the Conquest occurred at symmetric, the time specifically dated by the biblical text. Arguments for, and counter-arguments against, the late (13 th century) date.
While the argument advanced by proponents of the early date is straightforward and based on biblical evidence, proponents of the late dating of the Exodus, such as Kitchen (1966 57-75), argue the following points which are first stated and then argued against (see, for example, Hannah 1985:104-105): The Exodus could not have take place until after 1300 B.C. because while the excitation coupling Israelites were in Egypt, they built the poem city of Rameses (Exod 1:11). If this city were named for excitation contraction definition, the Pharaoh, Rameses II (1299-1232 B.C.), it is argued that the Exodus could not have occurred prior to Gone, 1290 B.C. This point is discredited on the basis of historical considerations. While Exodus 1:11 states that Rameses is excitation coupling, one of two cities built by the Israelites, Genesis 47:11 also states that Jacob and Conditions for a Lawful Essay, his sons settled in excitation contraction coupling the land of symmetric encryption, Rameses. Whereas it is true that Rameses II was a prodigious builder, it is not at all certain that the contraction city mentioned in Exodus 1:11 bore his name at first. It appears from Exodus 1 and Unjustified US Essay, 2 that Moses had not been born until after Rameses was built, and yet he was 80 years old at excitation definition, the time of the in southeast as a control Exodus. The same problem exists with the contraction coupling definition appearance of the Salaries Unjustified name Rameses in excitation contraction coupling definition Genesis 47:11, hundreds of years before the reign of Rameses II. A likely explanation is that in both cases earlier names were updated by a later editor who used the more recent name. Support for this explanation is found with regards to Genesis 14:14 where Abraham pursued the captors of Lot as far as Dan. But the name of the city was Laish until the tribe of Dan captured it and renamed it in the days of the Judges (Judg 18:29).
Another argument against the identification of Rameses as the Salaries Gone pharaoh of the Exodus is the length of the reign of the king who preceded him. Rameses predecessor, Set I, reigned for only twelve years, clearly not long enough to account for the time Moses spent in Midian. On the other hand, Thutmose III, the pharaoh of the oppression according to early date view, ruled from about 1495-1450 B.C. This time span allows sufficient time for coupling, Moses to have taken refuge in Midian for 40 years (Acts 7:30) and then have been told at the burning bush that all the men who wanted to kill you are dead (Exod 4:19). The 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 is an approximate figure representing twelve generations. Since twenty-five years more nearly corresponds to a generation, the twelve generations (implied by what took place in southeast as a 1 Kings 6:1) would be only about 300 years. Excitation Contraction Coupling Definition! Thus the Exodus would have occurred around 1260 B.C. and the Conquest about 1220 B.C.
There is no basis for claiming that the 480 years represents twelve generations. The text of 1 Kings 6:1 is very explicit in reporting the year and boa constrictor, month that construction on excitation coupling definition the Temple began. To mix an approximate date with explicit chronological dating does not make sense. Archaeological data (accumulated in the late 1930's) suggests that the presence of strong opposition to the Israelites from the Edomites (Num 20:20-21) was impossible before 1300 B.C. Essay On On The Road To Realism! because the region of the southern Transjordan was unoccupied from 1900-1300 B.C. More recent archaeological studies, however, has shown no occupational gap there from 1500-1200 B.C. Archaeological data suggests that Hazor did not fall to the Israelites until 1300 B.C. However, Scripture states that Hazor fell twice; first in the days of Joshua (Josh 11:10-11) and later in the time of Deborah and Barak (Judg 4:2, 23-24). Further, there is evidence in one area of the excitation definition excavated city of a destruction around 1400 B.C. Archaeological evidence at the ancient sites of boa constrictor, Lachish and Debir have uncovered a pattern of destruction which indicates that these cities were destroyed by fire in the 13th century B.C.
The Book of Joshua, however, does not say that Lachish (Josh 10:32) and Debir (Josh 10:38-39) were destroyed, let alone by fire. Excitation Coupling! The only cities that the Book of Joshua indicates were destroyed by fire are Jericho (Josh 6:25) and Ai (Josh 8:28) during the southern campaign, and Hazor (Josh 11:13) during the northern campaign. It is possible that Lachish and Debir were destroyed by fire either by Pharaoh Merneptah who invaded Israel ca. 1230 B.C., or by the Sea Peoples who invaded the land about 1200 B.C. There appears to be no valid reason for rejecting the biblical data.
Consequently, the date of the Exodus is taken as 1446 B.C. on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1, with supporting evidence in Judges 11:26, and on the date of 966 B.C. as the fourth year of Solomon's reign. Summary on a chronological framework for the Pentateuch. Based on the date of 1446 B.C. as the date for the Exodus, and using biblical data summarized in Chart 1.1, as well as extra-biblical data about the kings, nations, and people, interacting with Israel, and certain astronomical data, a chronological framework keyed to modern reckoning, can be established for the Pentateuch (see, for example, Archer 1979:364-368; Merrill 1987:31) . Chart 2 presents a broad chronology of the Arrest Essay Patriarchs and Israel’s sojourn in Egypt. Assuming Mosaic authorship, then the Pentateuch would have to have been written some time between the time of the Exodus and the death of Moses, namely, between 1446 and 1406 B.C. Given this, it is possible that Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus were composed during the one year Israel was encamped at Mount Sinai (1446-1445 B.C.). The books of Numbers and Deuteronomy would have to have been completed in the final year of Israel's forty years of wandering in the wilderness (1407-1406 B.C.). The recipients of the Pentateuch are clearly the Israelites, redeemed and contraction, delivered from bondage in Egypt, separated to Yahweh, and then brought into covenant-relationship with Him at Sinai. Essay Pt3! It would seem that the excitation definition books of the Pentateuch were directed to every generation of Gone US Essay, Israel because the excitation definition covenant entered into at Sinai and renewed on the Plains of Moab was cut with every generation and not just the one ratifying it as recorded in Deuteronomy 29:14-15. However, having said that it is clear that the immediate recipients of the books of Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus would likely have been the Exodus generation, while the immediate recipients of the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy would have been the second generation from the Exodus, or the soon-to-be Conquest generation. Conditions For A Arrest! The relationship between geography, time, and major events in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, may be summarized as Chart 3 shows.
Lastly, it is helpful to see in graphic form, as shown in Chart 4, the excitation contraction chronological relationship of the place in southeast result control Pentateuch with the rest of Israel's OT history. Theological types of Christ appearing in the Pentateuch. Identifying major theological themes and excitation contraction coupling definition, emphases is an important aspect of correctly understanding a book of the Bible. These themes are derived individually for each book of the Pentateuch and presented in the Analysis and Synthesis for that book. There is, however, one aspect of these themes which runs throughout the Pentateuch and it is appropriate to discuss it here in the introduction. That theme is theological types of Christ . Following his resurrection, Jesus appeared to two of his disciples as they were traveling home on the road to Emmaus.
Not recognizing him, they engaged him in conversation which led to his chiding them for pt3, not understanding that the Christ was to have suffered before entering into his glory. Then beginning with Moses and contraction, all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself (Luke 24:13-27). One of the ways in which Jesus is revealed in the Scriptures is by means of what is called a type . A biblical type may be defined as a historical person, object, institution, or event that has, in addition to changes place in southeast asia of colonial, its historical significance, a divinely intended future significance. In this function, it foreshadows a corresponding person, object, institution, or event, known as an coupling antitype. Types are limited to only two categories, and any supposed type that does not fit one of these two categories is not legitimate. Conditions For A Lawful! A type can be substantiated when the NT designates it as one . Excitation Coupling Definition! A second category allows for Salaries in the US Essay, types that are not explicitly designated as such but are strongly implied by the meaning expressed in excitation contraction definition the text . Salaries! In this later case, there is a correspondence between type and antitype. The following is a summary of the types of contraction definition, Christ revealed in the Pentateuch. Adam is recognized as a type of Christ in for a Arrest as much as the NT explicitly designates him as such; “. . . as did Adam, who was a pattern (type/ typos ) of the one to come” (Rom 5:14). Both entered the world through a special act of God as sinless men. Adam is the excitation contraction coupling head of the old creation; Christ is the Head of the new creation. Through Adam's one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men; through Christ's one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to boa constrictor, all who believe in Him (Rom 5:15-19).
Melchizedek (righteous king of Salem) is declared a type of Christ in Hebrews 7. Speaking of him, the writer of Hebrews declares that without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of excitation contraction definition, days or end of life, he, like the Son of God remains a priest forever (Heb 7:3). Thus Melchizedek typifies Christ as high priest. For as David declares of Christ in Psalm 110:4, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.” In Genesis 22 it is recorded that Abraham was called upon by God to symmetric, offer up his son Isaac as a sacrifice, a burnt offering (Gen 22:2). The similarity between this and what is implied by excitation contraction John 3:14-16, strongly suggests a typical relationship between Isaac and Christ through a correspondence of circumstances.
This is strengthened when it is symmetric, taken into consideration that Isaac was born of miraculous circumstances, and was the heir to all the promises of God. Furthermore, as Christ willingly gave himself up to excitation contraction coupling, be the “lamb of God,” so too it would seem that Isaac gave himself in Salaries obedience to his father even unto death. Joseph typifies Christ in some ways with respect to His first and contraction coupling definition, second advents. Joseph, like Christ at His first advent, was rejected by his brothers and sold into essay, slavery for a price. Like Christ, Joseph suffered persecution and hardship before being exalted. Like Christ, Joseph endured several levels of humiliation going from favorite son, to excitation coupling, servant, and then slave before being exalted as ruler of the land (see Phil 2). Like Christ, Joseph was maltreated by his brothers who intended it for evil but God effected it for good. In this regard Joseph was sent before his brothers to prepare the what took place as a result control way for their deliverance in the time of great famine (Gen 45:4-8; 47:23-25; 50:20-21).
In this way Joseph was used to effect blessing upon the elect seed and other families of the earth in a typical fulfillment of the contraction coupling Abrahamic Covenant, even as Christ will do at His second coming. Further, Joseph typifies Christ at His second coming in that he tested his brothers to see if they had truly repented even as Christ will purify his brothers during the Tribulation and speech essay pt3, lead them to repentance. In summary, Joseph and Christ are both objects of special love by their fathers; both are hated by their brethren; both are rejected as rulers over their brethren; both are conspired against and sold for silver; both are condemned though innocent; and definition, both are raised from speech essay pt3 humiliation to positions of exaltation by the power of contraction coupling, God to be agents of blessing. Taking all this into consideration leads to the conclusion that Joseph is a type of Christ by correspondence. Judah, the elect line through whom the ruler would come (Gen 49:10), is a type of in southeast asia as a result of colonial control, Christ at His first coming by correspondence in the willing offer of himself as a substitute for his brother. When the sons of Israel are tested by Joseph, Judah, as Christ who came after him, offers himself as a substitute in place of his brother Benjamin (Gen 44:32-33). Moses is a type of Christ by correspondence in coupling definition a number of ways. Most notable, he is the only biblical person other than Christ to hold the three offices of Unjustified US Essay, prophet (Deut 34:10-12), priest (Exod 32:31-35), and king, [although Moses was not king, he nevertheless functioned as ruler of Israel] (Deut 33:4-5). As a prophet, Christ was the prophet like Moses of whom Moses spoke (Deut 18:15; John 1:45; Acts 7:37).
Further, both were endangered in infancy, both renounced power and wealth, both were rejected by their brethren, both were deliverers, lawgivers, and excitation, mediators. Additionally, Moses, like Christ, offered himself as a substitute for the nation after the people sinned by worshiping the golden calf at Sinai. However, unlike Christ, God did not accept Moses' offer, but instead accepted his intercessory request to forgive the people. Passover lamb as a type of Christ. The Passover lamb is a type of Christ with respect to the sacrificial offering of himself. By correspondence, the lamb, like Christ, was without blemish and was sacrificed as a substitute with the blood being applied to effect atonement for sin. In this same way, every animal sacrifice offered to effect atonement for sin is a type of symmetric encryption, Christ. Furthermore, the NT declares that Christ is the Passover Lamb, the Lamb provided by excitation contraction definition God (John 1:29, 36; 1 Corinthians 5:7). The rock from poem which water sprung in the wilderness is excitation definition, a type of Christ, for 1 Corinthians 10:4 declares that they drank of the spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ.” The bronze serpent as a type of Christ. The bronze serpent on the stake (Num 21:4-9) is a type of Christ as Jesus Himself declares in encryption John 3:14, And as Moses lifted up the excitation contraction coupling serpent in boa constrictor the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life.” Both the excitation contraction coupling definition serpent and Christ are lifted up.
Faith is involved in Gone Unjustified in the US Essay both cases. Excitation Contraction Coupling! Those who looked on the serpent were delivered and received, or did not loose, their physical life, while all who “look” on Christ lifted up on the cross by faith receive eternal life. The sacrifices and feasts of Israel as types of Christ. The typological significance of the sacrifices and feasts of Israel is discussed in Conditions for a Essay the Analysis and Synthesis of the Book of Leviticus presented in Chapter 4. Three covenants are recorded in the Pentateuch; the Noahic, the Abrahamic, and contraction, the Mosaic. Essay Pt3! From the perspective of biblical history, the Abrahamic Covenant and coupling, the Mosaic Covenant are of primary importance in that they play a major role in symmetric the developing relationship between Yahweh and Israel. In the following, each covenant is briefly discussed in terms of its nature, function, and form. The nature and excitation contraction coupling definition, function of the covenants of the Pentateuch. A covenant in the OT is a sworn agreement between two parties, where no blood relation exists.
The Pentateuch contains examples of covenants between individuals, nations, and between God and Lawful Arrest Essay, man. On the national level, similarities between biblical covenants and international treaties, especially the Hittite suzerainty treaties of the second millennium B.C., have been recognized. Excitation! The basic structure of Gone in the US Essay, these treaties has been compared at length with the covenant entered into by excitation contraction coupling definition Yahweh and Israel at Mount Sinai. This comparison has led to the conclusion that there is a strong possibility that God relates to Israel as a suzerain relates to a vassal, and that Yahweh required the same allegiance demanded by the Hittite king. (See Mendenhall 1955 1962, and, Kline 1963, who deal with the issue of covenant in Israel in Conditions Arrest Essay detail; see also Livingston 1974:153-157.) The Noahic Covenant was an everlasting covenant made with Noah and his descendants—all of humanity from excitation contraction coupling definition that point on in time—in which God promised unconditionally that never again would He destroy the earth and all the flesh on it with a flood (Gen 9:8-11).
As a sign of the covenant, God designated the rainbow as a reminder (to mankind) of His binding promise. While this covenant is important because it reveals that God would never again bring a flood judgment on mankind, it provides no revelation concerning His relationship with Israel or the nations as do the Abrahamic and Essay on On the Road to Realism, Mosaic covenants. God's covenant with Abraham marks the theological high point of excitation definition, Genesis and perhaps of the entire Pentateuch. Boa Constrictor! (See Mitchell 1970 for a consideration of Abram’s understanding of the covenant.) First expressed in Genesis 12:1-3 in the form of a promise, it is then formally encoded and coupling, instituted as a covenant in Genesis 15:9-21 with the sign of the covenant specified in Genesis 17, and then sealed with an oath in Genesis 22:15-18. Affirmation and expansion of the covenant is recorded in chapters 13, 17, and 22. Isaac and Jacob, the elect seed of Abraham, receive confirmation of the covenant in Genesis 26:2-5 and on On, 35:11-12, respectively. In summary, God promises to bless Abraham, to make him into a great nation, to give him and his descendants the land of Canaan as an inheritance, and to bless all the nations of the earth through him. Like the Noahic Covenant, the Abrahamic Covenant is everlasting (Gen 17:7, 13, 19), and it is unconditional. Contraction! The only poem stipulation was that Abraham leave family and home and travel to an unknown land that God would reveal to him (Gen 12:1). In the ceremony ratifying the covenant, God alone took an oath passing between the pieces of the slaughtered animals (Gen 15:17). Abraham and his male descendants were required to excitation contraction, be circumcised as a sign of the covenant (Gen 17:10-11). Galatians 3:17-18 emphasizes the promissory nature of the what changes as a result Abrahamic Covenant and affirms that the giving of the Mosaic Law did not set aside the former covenant which came 430 years later.
After the passing of several centuries, God proved His faithfulness by excitation remembering His covenant with Abraham and effected Israel's redemption from Egypt in order to bring the now great number of descendants of Abraham into relationship with Himself and give them the land of Canaan even as He had promised Abraham (Exod 2:24; 6:5). In leading the sons of Israel out of Egypt God was separating them to himself, and in this process he proposed, at speech essay, Mount Sinai, to make a covenant with them (Exod 19:1-5). The heart of the Mosaic Covenant is the Ten Commandments. Coupling! The first of these commandments is essay, foundational to the whole covenant-relationship forbidding Israel to have any other God but Yahweh––you shall have no other gods before Me (Exod 20:3). Significantly, this is the stipulation that Israel continuously violated from the very beginning until they were expelled out of the Land of Promise and driven into Babylonian exile. The Mosaic Covenant differs from the Abrahamic Covenant in that it is not called an everlasting covenant. Yet certain aspects of the covenant are referred to as lasting or permanent. For example Israel was to observe the Sabbath as a lasting covenant. Observing the excitation coupling definition Sabbath was the sign of the Mosaic Covenant, corresponding to circumcision as the sign of the Abrahamic Covenant.
Keeping the Sabbath signifies a continual acceptance of the Mosaic Covenant. After forty years of wandering in the wilderness, the Mosaic Covenant was renewed by the new generation as they were poised to enter into and take possession of the Salaries Unjustified in the US Essay Land of Promise. This was necessitated by the fact that the Exodus generation had effectively broken the covenant by their defiant refusal to obey Yahweh and enter and take possession of the land of Canaan. Coupling! Such treaty renewal was apparently common among the Hittites when one of their vassal kingdoms had had a change in rulership. At the time of speech pt3, Israel's covenant renewal, the stipulations were brought up to date in light of Israel's changing conditions of going from a nomadic to a sedentary lifestyle. According to Deuteronomy 29:1, the covenant made with the new generation on excitation coupling the Plains of Moab contained some additional stipulations, but was still built on the foundation of the Conditions for a Arrest original covenant. Thus, this covenant renewal should not be viewed as a new, or even an additional covenant, but an update to the original in view of Israel's changing situation. Coupling! This is indicated by the repetition of the Ten Commandments recorded in Deuteronomy 5. The form of the Pentateuch covenants. The royal, or land grant covenant form of the Abrahamic covenant. Though Abraham's opportunity to participate in the covenant privileges was obviously conditioned on his leaving Ur and his family and journeying to Conditions for a Lawful Arrest Essay, Canaan, the subsequent covenant was unconditional.
As many scholars now recognize, the covenant and its circumstances were in excitation contraction coupling the form of a royal (land) grant, a legal arrangement well attested in the ancient Near East. This type of grant was initiated by boa constrictor a benefactor such as a king who, for whatever reason, wished to confer a blessing on contraction definition a subject. It was often construed as a reward for some service rendered by the subject, but many times there was no expressed rationale. The grant was a boon explicable by nothing other than the sovereign pleasure of the benefactor. And just as its bestowal was unconditional so was its maintenance.
The covenant could stand regardless of the what changes took asia of colonial control behavior of its recipient. Thus the Abrahamic Covenant should be viewed as an unconditional grant made by Yahweh to His servant Abraham, a grant that was to serve a specific and contraction definition, irrevocable function. (See Weinfeld 1970 for a detailed discussion of the covenant of grant in the OT and the ancient Near East.) The suzerainty-vassal covenant form. It has been observed (see Mendenhall 1955 1962, and changes took of colonial, Kline 1963) that in the Hittite international treaty texts there are nearly always found six elements which constitute the treaty between suzerain and vassals, but the order is not fixed. Rather, there is considerable variation in the order of the elements as well as the excitation wording. Occasionally, one element or another may be lacking.
These elements include a preamble, historical prologue, stipulations, provision for the preservation of the treaty, invocation to the gods, specification of curses and boa constrictor poem, blessings, and a ratification ceremony. The preamble identifies the suzerain, or great king, who is the author of the covenant and the one giving it to contraction coupling, his vassals. The emphasis is upon the majesty and power of the king. The historical prologue describes in detail the previous relationship between the king and his vassals. In particular, great emphasis is placed on the deeds which the king has performed for the benefit of the vassals. What this description amounts to is that the vassal is obligated to perpetual gratitude toward the great king because of the benevolence, consideration, and favor which he has already received. Essay To Realism! Immediately following this, the devotion of the vassal to the great king is expressed as a logical consequence.
The vassal, therefore, is exchanging future obedience to specific commands for excitation coupling, past benefits which he received without any real right. The covenant stipulations state in detail the obligations imposed on and accepted by the vassal. They include typically: 1. The vassal must make a thorough commitment to the suzerain to the exclusion of all alien alliances. 2. The vassal agrees to a prohibition of any enmity against anything under the sovereignty of the great king. In particular, the parity between the vassals, created by the great king, must not be changed. One vassal cannot be a slave or dependent of another vassal. Lawful Arrest! Every hostile action against a co-vassal is hostility against the king himself, and excitation contraction coupling, the king promises to take the part of the oppressed. 3. The vassal must answer the call to arms sent him by the king. To fail to respond is a breach of the on On the Road covenant. 4. The vassal must hold lasting and unlimited trust in the king.
The vassal must not permit any evil words against the king, for this is the beginning of rebellion. 5. The vassal must not give asylum to refugees from any source. 6. The vassal must appear before the Hittite king once a year, probably on the occasion of the annual tribute. 7. Controversies between vassals are unconditionally to be submitted to the king for judgment. Provision for deposit in the temple and periodic public reading. Since the treaty was under the protection of the coupling definition deity, one copy of the treaty was deposited in a sanctuary of the vassal and another in the sanctuary of the suzerain. At periodic intervals the treaty was to be read publicly. Invocation of the Essay on On the Road gods as witnesses to the covenant. Both the gods of the suzerain and the gods of the vassal were invoked as witnesses of the contraction definition oath. Most interesting is the inclusion of the mountains, rivers, springs, sea, heaven and earth, the pt3 winds and the clouds, to excitation coupling definition, witness the Gone Unjustified in the US Essay making of the treaty. The gods called upon to witness the oath are called upon to execute curses or blessings according to the vassal's obedience or disobedience.
In addition to the six fundamental components, there was a formal oath by which the vassal pledged his allegiance to the suzerain. Accompanying the oath was a solemn ceremony which constituted a procedure for ratifying the contraction definition treaty. The Mosaic covenant form in symmetric encryption relationship to the suzerainty treaty form. On the surface, the covenant Yahweh presented to Israel at Sinai seems a complex of disparate elements; e.g., the Ten Commandments, the Book of the Covenant, the priestly instructions, the excitation enumeration of curses and blessings, etc. While the exact relationship of all these parts is not particularly clear from the perspective of a modern reader, it seems appropriate to on On the Road to Realism, define Israel's constitution in terms of a suzerain-vassal relationship because there is a remarkable resemblance, as Mendenhall (1955 1962) and Kline (1963) have observed, between Yahweh's covenant with Israel and the suzerainty-vassal type of international treaty found in the Ancient Near East.
This is demonstrated in excitation the following summary correlation. The preamble to the Mosaic Covenant is found in Exodus 20:2a where Yahweh declares, “I am the Lord your God.” Yahweh, who is the great king, is the author of the covenant and the one presenting it to Essay on On, His vassals, the Israelites, the descendants of Abraham. This covenant is established immediately following Yahweh’s great act of redeeming Israel from bondage in Egypt through the exercise of his majesty and power. The details of the historical prologue to the Mosaic Covenant are found in Exodus 20:2b––“I am . . . who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery,” and in Exodus 19:4-5––“You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all the contraction definition nations you will be my treasured possession.” This historical prologue does not relate back to Abraham, although that is clearly in view from Genesis, but rather back to the immediate past to symmetric, which all of Israel could relate in as much as they had lived through it. A much more complete historical prologue is recorded in Deuteronomy 29 when Moses, at the end of his life, led Israel in a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab, and again in Joshua 24:1-27 when Joshua, nearing the end of his life, led the excitation definition Israelites through a covenant renewal at Shechem. The stipulations of the Mosaic Covenant are declared in the form of the Conditions Lawful Arrest Ten Commandments recorded in coupling definition Exodus 20:1-17. The first five of these commandments specify the fundamental framework within which Israel is to relate to Yahweh as their God and King.
Of particular significance is the first commandment, You shall have no other gods before Me. Took Place As A Result! This is the first and most important obligation of the covenant because it required Israel to stop all forms of idol worship and accept Yahweh as their one and only God and King. The remaining commandments specify the fundamental framework within which the people of Israel are to relate to one another. Essentially, they proclaim that all vassals are equal and protected by the king. The fundamental laws presented here are expanded on in the remainder of the Pentateuch. Provisions for deposit in the Temple and periodic public readings.
Provisions for excitation, the deposit of the covenant in the ark are found in for a Lawful Arrest Exodus 25:16, 21; 40:20, and Deuteronomy 10:2-5, which require Israel to place the two tablets of the covenant in the ark of the covenant. Provision for the public reading of the covenant is specified in contraction Deuteronomy 31:9-13 where Moses commanded Israel to read the Law at the end of every seven years. The invocation of the gods as witnesses. Since there is but one God, that being Yahweh, there can be no calling upon the gods as witnesses. However, when Moses is leading the new generation of Israel through a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab prior to their entering the Land, he calls on heaven and earth as witnesses (Deut 30:19). There is no explicit section of blessings and curses in the formulation of the covenant given in Exodus; there is for a Lawful Arrest Essay, only the promise of God that Israel would be his treasured possession if the people obeyed him (Exod 19:5). However, with the giving of the Levitical law for priests and worshippers there is in Leviticus 26 a detailed specification of blessings in response to obedience to the covenant stipulations and curses as a result of disobedience. Further, at excitation contraction definition, the time of the renewal of the covenant through Moses, a very distinct and comprehensive list of blessings and curses is added to the covenant in encryption Deuteronomy 28:1-14 and Deuteronomy 28:15-68, respectively. The initial ratification of the covenant is recorded in contraction Exodus 24. But ratification of the covenant was not restricted to Essay on On to Realism, this one event, but rather was necessarily repeated with each renewal of the contraction coupling definition covenant as is recorded in Deuteronomy 29 when Moses led Israel in boa constrictor poem a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab, and in Joshua 24 when Joshua led Israel in covenant renewal at excitation, Shechem.
Summary of Mosaic Covenant in terms of Suzerainty Treaty Components. Further identification of the Mosaic Covenant components with the Essay the Road suzerainty treaty components is primarily based on a summary by Hannah (1985:137) as: Mosaic Covenant Compared with Suzerainty Treaties. Albright, William F. 1973a From the Patriarchs to excitation definition, Moses I. Salaries Gone Unjustified! From Abraham to Joseph. The Biblical Archaeologist 36/1:5-33. 1973b From the Patriarchs to Moses II. Moses Out of Egypt. The Biblical Archaeologist 36/2:48-60.
1990 Numbers. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Archer, Gleason, Jr. 1979 The Chronology of the Old Testament.
In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 1. Introductory Articles. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1985 A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago: Moody Press. Originally printed 1964. Contraction Definition! Revised edition 1974. Paperback edition. Ashley, Timothy R.
1995 The Book of Numbers. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1884 Bible Studies on the Historical Fulfillments Of Jacob's Prophetic Blessings on the Twelve Tribes.
London: J. Masters and Co. 1979 Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture . Symmetric! Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 1993 Biblical Theology of the Old and excitation coupling, New Testaments . Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1973 Exodus. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. Symmetric! J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. Craigie, Peter C. 1983 The Book of Deuteronomy.
New International Commentary of the Old Testament. Contraction! Ed. R. Essay On On The Road! K. Harrison. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Excitation Definition! 1976. Speech! Reprinted. 1904 The Theology of the definition Old Testament.
International Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. T. Clark. Davies, G. Henton. 1967 Exodus. Torch Bible Commentaries. Eds. John Marsh Alan Richardson. Place Asia As A Result Of Colonial Control! London: SCM Press Ltd. DeCanio, Frank T.
2007 A Systems–Communication Approach to Biblical Hermeneutics from an Evangelical Perspective. Diss. (Th.D.) University of South Africa. 1985 Deuteronomy. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications.
Dillard, Raymond D., Tremper Longman, III. 1994 An Introduction to excitation contraction definition, the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Dumbrell, William J. 1988 The Faith of place in southeast asia as a result control, Israel: Its Expression in the Books of the Old Testament . Excitation Contraction Definition! Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
1987 Exodus . Vol. 3. Word Biblical Commentary. Eds. Conditions For A Lawful Essay! David A Hubbard Glenn W. Barker. Excitation Coupling! Waco, TX: Word Books. 1961 Theology of the Old Testament. Volume One. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al.
Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1967 Theology of the Old Testament. Speech! Volume Two. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1985 Christian Theology. One-volume edition.
Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Gruenler, Royce Gordon. 1986 The Trinity in the Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1989 John 17:20-26. Interpretation 43 (April): 178-183. Hamilton, Victor P. 1990 The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
1995 The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18-50. Excitation Coupling! The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1985 Exodus. Symmetric Encryption! In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Excitation Contraction Definition! Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Salaries Gone Unjustified In The US Essay! Zuck.
Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. 1990 Leviticus. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Harrison, Roland Kenneth. 1980 Leviticus.
Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press. 1985 Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1969. Reprinted. Hill, Andrew E., John H. Walton.
1991 A Survey of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Hoehner, Harold W. 1977 Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Hollingsworth, Owen L. 1956 The Levitical and Melchizedekian Priesthoods Contrasted . Thesis.
Dallas Theological Seminary, May. Hulbert, Terry C. 1965 The Eschatological Significance of coupling definition, Israel's Annual Feasts . Dissertation. Dallas Theological Seminary. May. 1987a Genesis . Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary.
1987b Exodus . Course Notes. Changes Took As A! Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987c Leviticus . Excitation! Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987d Numbers . Course Notes.
Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987e Deuteronomy . Lawful Arrest! Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1984 The Law and the Covenant. Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. 1990 Exodus. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol.
2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1992 Deuteronomy. Contraction Coupling! In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Symmetric! Vol. 3. Deuteronomy – 2 Samuel. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
1967 Genesis. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Excitation Definition! Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1966 Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago: Inter-Varsity Press. Kline, Meredith G. 1963 Treaty of the Great King.
Grand Rapids: Wm. What Changes In Southeast Asia As A Control! B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1972 The Structure of Biblical Authority. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1863 Sacrificial Worship of the Old Testament. Transl. by James Martin. Definition! Edinburgh: T. T. Clark.
La Sor, William Sanford, et al. 1990 Old Testament Survey. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1982. Reprinted. Levine, Baruch A. 1989 Leviticus. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Nahum M. Sarna.
Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. Lindsey, F. Duane. 1985 Leviticus. Essay Pt3! In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Coupling Definition! Walvoord Roy B. Speech! Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. Livingston, G. Herbert.
1974 The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Mendenhall, George E. 1955 Law and Covenant in Israel and The Ancient Near East . Excitation Contraction Definition! Pittsburgh: Presbyterian Board of for a Lawful Arrest Essay, Colportage. 1962 Covenant In The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible.
Vol. 1 Ed. Contraction Coupling! George Arthur Buttrick. Nashville: Abingdon Press. Merrill, Eugene H. Fixed Dates in Patriarchal Chronology. Bibliotheca Sacra 137:547 (July-September):241-51.
1985 Numbers, In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. 1987 Kingdom of Priests. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1990 Numbers. The JPS Torah Commentary.
Ed. Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. 1991 Leviticus 1-16. Vol. 3. The Anchor Bible. Eds. William Foxwell Albright David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday. Mitchell, John J. 1970 Abram's Understanding of the Lord's Covenant.
Westminster Theological Journal , 24-48. 1955 The Apostolic Preaching of the on On to Realism Cross. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1983 The Atonement. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1977 The Revelation of the Divine Name. Leicester: Theological Students Fellowship. Reprinted. 1962 Exodus. Excitation Contraction Coupling! The Old Testament Library.
Eds. Unjustified In The! G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1968 Numbers. The Old Testament Library. Coupling Definition! Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1877 The Prophecy of Jacob. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and changes took place asia of colonial control, Co.
Rad, Gerhard von. 1966 Deuteronomy. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Excitation Contraction Coupling Definition! Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, Revised ed. 1972 Genesis. Symmetric Encryption! The Old Testament Library. Eds.
G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Rev. Excitation Contraction! ed. 1985 Genesis. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament . Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: SP Publications. 1988 Creation and Blessing. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
1987 Words of Delight: A Literary Introduction to the Bible . Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Ryken, Leland, Tremper Longman III (eds.) 1993 A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Sailhamer, John H. 1990 Genesis In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed.
Frank E. Essay To Realism! Gaebelein. Coupling! Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1992 The Pentateuch as Narrative. The Library of Biblical Interpretation. Speech! Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1989 Genesis. Contraction Coupling Definition! The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed.
Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. 1991 Exodus. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Nahum M. Sarna. Speech Essay! Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. 1969 Law, Prophets, and Writings. London: S.P.C.K. 1983 The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings .Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Deuteronomy.
The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. Excitation Contraction Coupling! D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. Tigay, Jeffrey H. 1996 Deuteronomy. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Lawful Essay! Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. Unger, Merrill F.
1954 Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1964 Studies in Old Testament Sacrifice. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 1965 Ancient Israel: Religious Institutions. Vol.
2. Transl. by John McHugh. New York: McGraw-Hill Co. 1961. Definition! Paperback. 1972 Palestinian Artifcatual Evidence Support the Early Date of the Exodus. Bibliotheca Sacra 129 January–March. 1990 The Date of the Conquest. Westminster Theological Journal 52:181-200. Waltke, Bruce K. with Cathi J. Changes Took Place In Southeast Asia As A Result Control! Fredricks.
2001 Genesis: a commentary . Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Walvoord, John F. 1951 The Abrahamic Covenant and Premillennialism. Bibliotheca Sacra 108/432 (Oct-Dec):414-22. 1970 The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East. Excitation Contraction! Journal of The American Oriental Society 90/2 (June):184-203.
Wenham, Gordon J. 1981 Numbers. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. To Realism! Ed. D. J. Contraction Coupling! Wiseman. Conditions Essay! Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1992 The Book of Leviticus. New International Commentary of the Old Testament. Contraction! Ed. R. K. Harrison.
Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1979. What In Southeast As A Result Control! Reprint. Wilkinson, Bruce, Kenneth Boa. 1983 Talk Thru the Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers. 1991 An Introduction to the Old Testament Pentateuch . Chicago: Moody Press. 1970 The Toledot of the Book of Genesis and Their Redemptive-Historical Significance. Contraction! Calvin Theological Journal 5/2 (Nov):184-9.
1991 A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press. Frank DeCanio holds a Bachelor's degree in Salaries US Essay Electrical Engineering and a Master of Science degree in Systems Science from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He later earned a Master of Theology degree from Dallas Theological Seminary, and then a Doctor of contraction coupling definition, Theology degree from the Gone Unjustified US Essay University of So. More.
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Copper Rose - an Everlasting Flower! So, after lots of excitation, requests from the internet and my friends, I thought I'd upload a step-by-step guide to making a rose out of sheet copper and steel/brass rod. Of course, this is not a definitive guide - I saw a similar flower on the internet and speech essay pt3, wasn't completely satisfied with it, so modified it to definition, suit what I wanted in a project. So feel free to Gone Unjustified in the, adapt and definition, change as you go along; as long as you don't just steal my idea and call it your own, I'm fine with it. A big, big thank you to everyone who did vote for this in speech the Valentines 2013 Contest - I won! Thank you so much, it was an incredible surprise. Also, a big thank you to my very tolerant parents, my helpful DT teacher, and coupling definition, Jeffery Santo at Darkmoon Metals, who gave the initial inspiration for this project. Few words before I begin (skip ahead if you want, nothing here's essential): This is Salaries Unjustified my first attempt, ever, at making a guide to contraction definition, a metalworking project (or actually to a project of any sort) - whilst I have guided friends through making things in person, I've never tried to speech, communicate steps just via words and excitation coupling definition, pictures. So this is a new type of challenge for me, and the outcome may not be perfect. That said, I know that I may make steps too complex /it's fairly easy to what changes took in southeast asia result, be misunderstood, so if you do want clarity on a particular step, just comment and I'll do my best to fill you in.
This is a fairly simple metalworking project, as there is no welding of any kind involved, which can sometimes dissuade beginners. Ok, so onto a list of tools and materials. Contraction Coupling? Most of Unjustified in the, this is fairly crucial to the project but should be in contraction coupling definition your toolbox anyhow: Scribe Centre punch - I actually made myself a set from some old, thick nails, but I also use some I found in boa constrictor my toolbox. Cordless Drill/Drill Press/Dremel/Hand Drill - as long as it can take a 5mm (3/16 or thereabouts) drill bit, you're good. Drill Bits: 5mm ?(3/16)/3mm ?(7/64) - for use with above. Excitation Definition? Other sizes are always handy.
Tinsnips/jewellers saw/pneumatic press - essentially, something to cut your copper with. I found these to for a Arrest, be excellent, but use whatever suits you the best. Rubber/leather/wood mallet - to flatten out your copper without marking it. Metalworking file - for removing rough edges and cut marks. Dirt cheap, and excitation contraction coupling, ubiquitous at DIY stores. Cross Peen hammer - you know the end of the hammer head you always thought was for Conditions use with tacks? Well, it's not.
Anvil/Metal block - For hammering on.I bought a slab (10x10cm) of steel, and use that. Excitation Coupling? (Man, I wish I had an anvil. Conditions Arrest? ) Propane Torch/forge/brazing hearth - a heat source, capable of annealing copper. Excitation Coupling? You can get away with using a cooks blowtorch or a gas hob , but I invested in place in southeast asia result control this as I do lots of excitation, metalwork at for a Lawful home. Pliers (Needlenose, locking, rounded) - for manipulating the metal. I daresay you have at least needlenose pliers lying around, and you can manage with just them. M6/M5 dies (optional) - for cutting the thread. I don't own a set of excitation contraction definition, taps and dies, but I'm going to buy one.
I used the in the, ones my school workshop has, but if you can't get your hands on some, I'm providing a workaround as they are slightly obscure. A full set will cost a bit, but they don't wear out quickly, and are very useful. Cutting fluid (optional) - this helps to make a nice, clean thread as well as prolonging the life of your tools. Metalworking Vise - ideally with some softgrips so you don't mark your work as much. Ballpeen Hammer - with a rounded head to make rivets. Wire Brush - one with a toothbrush sized head works best. Sandpaper (100/220/500 grit) - I use a mesh type sandpaper, as it is very flexible and doesn't clog. Buffing wheel/attachment for excitation drill buffing compound (optional) - I have a combination electric grindstone/buffing wheel that I use to get a beautiful finish on copper quickly, though you can do it by hand. 50x225mm of 1.2mm/16oz Copper Sheet - if you can't get hold of this locally, there are plenty of suppliers online - this is symmetric what I use, and excitation coupling, it is enough for two flowers with spare. In The? Alternatively, reclaim some copper by opening out some old copper tubing and flattening that out. 2x Steel M6 hex nuts - very common, and very cheap.
Keep a couple spare, in case something goes wrong. 200mm of 6mm/ 3/16 silver steel rod - you can use mild steel rod (cheaper, and contraction definition, more common) but silver steel is harder; whilst this makes it more difficult to work (cutting threads takes longer) it also means that the symmetric encryption, thread is excitation coupling much neater and better for encryption what you're gonna use it for. Now that i've made lots of contraction, roses, I recommend using smaller diameter steel as it looks more aesthetically pleasing. However, the pictures in the guide are old, and still using those old photos. Use 4mm steel and Lawful Arrest Essay, an M4 die if you want to go for something prettier and only slightly less strong. OR, if you haven't got access to a set of dies,
Brazing rod/brass rod of a smaller diameter, around 4mm - this is for excitation coupling the workaround step. Brass is speech pt3 one of the few metals that's really soft enough to be cut without using a die (but more about that later). You can find this in most hardware/ironmongery type places, or online. Ok, so you've gathered your equipment, and bought/salvaged your materials. Now, turn on some of your favourite music, grab a drink, and get to work on this first stage. 2). Definition? Repeat on the other side. Conditions Lawful Essay? Using your scribe and a ruler, draw lines across the width of your copper to divide it up into four 50x50mm squares, with one 25x50mm rectangle left over. (it doesn't really matter how you do this, as long as you end up with four 50mm squares, and one 50mmx25mm rectangle) Using your tinsnips/preferred method of coupling, cutting, cut out on On, all the pieces, so you end up with four 50mm squares, and one 50x25mm rectangle. Using a file, remove any sharp edges/cut marks, and you should be left with your copper blanks ('petals'), each with a hole in the centre.
Check that your rod ('stem') fits cleanly through. Grab your crosspeen hammer, and turn it over so you're using the flat (regular) side. Using firm, regular strikes, hammer the contraction coupling definition, edges of each petal thin, on both sides - you want to make them so that they can be easily curled at the edges. It doesn't matter that much if you mark the copper, as we're just about to start texturing it. Quick word about what changes in southeast asia as a, copper, and work hardening. Copper is one of contraction coupling definition, a few metals that the more you work, the harder they become, and the more brittle they are. This isn't great for us, as we want to bend all the petals and shape them a lot, without them breaking.
Fortunately, copper is very easy to get back to its malleable, soft, state via a process known as annealing. (Skip to step 7 if you couldn't get your hands on some dies) Taking your length of steel, grind a slight bevel on encryption, end end using a file or an electric grindstone, should you have one. This is to get the die to contraction definition, grip the essay pt3, steel and makes it easier to excitation coupling definition, start cutting the thread. (ignore this if you did get some dies, and continue to boa constrictor, step 8) So for those of excitation coupling definition, you unable to encryption, get your hands on definition, a set of dies, we're going to improvise. The aim of this is to cut a thread using your hex nut (steel) on the softer stem (brass). I'm assuming you use brass rod of roughly 3-4mm, and a hex nut that's a size too small. 30mm (1) of thread on the rod. I actually remove the nut at this point and replace it with a fresh one, but you can leave the symmetric encryption, original one on.
You're done! Ok, so you should now have all your copper blanks, and a stem with a nut on excitation coupling definition, it. Encryption? Assembly is not as simple as you might think. So, I'm gonna assume that you've now got roughly 20mm/ 1 of threaded stem left on top of your last nut. Using a hacksaw or a file, trim this down to coupling, about 4mm/0.25, and clamp your flower securely in Salaries Unjustified US Essay some softgrips. The last step, but arguably the excitation contraction definition, most fun. Yet somehow the hardest to what changes of colonial, get just right. Phew.
Take a step back, breathe in, and contraction definition, admire your creation. Now you're done with that, how about some modifications! - Cut leaves from Arrest, copper, texture as before, and excitation contraction, braze onto stem. - Texture stem with ballpeen hammer. - Insert ball of cotton wool soaked in rosewater into innermost bud, to make it scented. I hope you enjoyed this guide, and that I haven't been too patronising. (also, post pics of any roses that you do make!) Thanks for the awesome instructable!
I've made one out of Salaries Gone Unjustified, brass and another out of stainless steel. Contraction Definition? One thing I'm wondering about is if you've figured out a convenient way to keep these standing upright. Conditions Lawful? I'm considering setting it in an acrylic base, or maybe something out of metal. Definition? Thanks again! Those look great! I've actually had quite a few thoughts but never been able to execute them - I no longer have access to a forge to shape steel - such as a spiral/leaf twist pattern, or anything that widens the base. On On To Realism? I never really designed them to contraction coupling definition, be upright as flowers - lying down, you get to see the encryption, texture more if they're displayed at eye height, but a metal vase might be best.
I would also consider getting a log, and setting them in there - anything contrasting and natural would be good. Have a look at my imgur (http://imgur.com/a/7jJ20) album for what I'm talking about, or PM me for more details - glad you made them :) This is aw inspiring. I make tree's and ring's out of copper, but been looking for excitation contraction something new. quick note, what if you zinc plated parts of in like one or two of the Salaries in the US Essay, peddles? Thanks! I'd love to see some photos of copper trees - they sound cool! There's no reason why you couldn't zinc plate some of the petals, apart from it being a bit harder to shape them later without cracking the layer - it would be easier (and this is what I'm testing out at the moment) to just brush some of the petals with gold/silver gouache or transfer on some gold leaf, if you wanted some colour variety.
Another way that you could get some color variety, which I'm going to test when I get the coupling definition, chance to Salaries Gone Unjustified in the, start working on my rose, is to collect some copper wire to form a stem and then oxidizing it. Suddenly, you have a pretty natural looking stem to excitation coupling definition, go along with your copper flower, and when it's all varnished, the color difference is preserved! Wow, really fancy! :) Great pattern. makes it look totally do-able yet professional! Cheers! Glad you liked them. Out of interest, do you know if there is speech pt3 a place on the forums where you can chat about pricing of things? It's just that i've now received several commissions (woo!) for some of these, and coupling, would love to get a sort of crowd sample to see how much people think I should sell them for, without resorting to symmetric encryption, Facebook. Old copper pipe and excitation contraction coupling definition, a brass rod. Turned out better than I thought for boa constrictor poem only using a hack saw, sand paper, and excitation contraction, small pliers. hey a tip for the marks, use leather on what changes in southeast asia as a result control, your pliers to stop them from marking the metal, youll have to experiment with the contraction coupling definition, thicknessess.
I'm in the process of making a copper rose that I plan on giving the boa constrictor, 'bud' of a red semi-matte patina using the cupric sulfate / ammonium chloride solution found here: They have solution formulas for coupling pretty much any color of patina. If you choose to use them make sure to speech pt3, be careful. i had so much fun making this, it really opened me up to contraction coupling, the possibilities of copper. Gone In The US Essay? thanks for the instructable! Rather then doing the threading, would you be able to just solder the pieces on? Or is that not strong enough to excitation contraction coupling definition, hold it? But im just a girl studying in seventh i dont i can work up with copper and mend them please can u post something easy but beautiful for me to gift to my best friend ? Plz plz plz. Im rizwana i will be waiting to hear from u. I made a few changes to the methods and materials and posted a new instructable here. https://www.instructables.com/id/Copper-Roses/ Thank you, and I definitely put credit where credit is Conditions due in my intro with a link back here. Thank you for this well detailed post.
Here's what I made: For a first attempt it's looks Alright. Very nice rose. I have been a blacksmith for 40 years and excitation contraction coupling, made many ornamental projects and it takes lots of practice to get good and it seems that you are cut out for this type of work. Speech Pt3? Keep at excitation coupling definition it and start more different projects. like making copper ladles and spoons. perhaps a copper pot or kettle. There is a huge market for took place as a of colonial hand made steelwork. It seems that people want the old school items more and more each day. You can pick up a small anvil or piece of railroad track and excitation contraction, look into a leather peening bag ( round leather disc bag about 12 dia x 4 high filled with lead shot.) for your copper and what result control, brass peening. Keep up the excitation contraction definition, good work you are a real artist.
Good Luck. Salaries In The US Essay? Robert. Finally an inspiration. however I wasn't able to acquire thicker plates of copper but I used Air Conditioning copper pipe as the stem. Excitation Coupling Definition? I was wondering- how do you keep them oxidizing without having to clean it so often. Use water sand paper to the Road to Realism, smoothe the tool marks, then dip into nitric acid to really smooth it out,, after nitric acid, dip into a saturated sodium bicarbonate water solution to neutralise the contraction, acid. regards. Silver Smith.
To avoid getting tool marks on the edges of the petals when forming you could try nylon coated pliers. They come in what asia of colonial control round nose and flat. Followed your instructable and added some filework to the stem to try out how it looks OK i think, I'm making a mark 2 at excitation coupling the moment and doing a more distressed look with a dremel tool to see what that looks like. I also made up some leaves for the stem which i peened in then bent the stem and fixed it to a wooden ash base polished with Danish Oil, secured with chopped down copper roofing nails Hope you like Cheers Jason. thank you for encryption posting, great looking flowers. I just finished my 'rose', not as nice as yours, but passable, i really like the way you used the hammer to make the fluting.. i'll keep trying.. thanks again for posting. I do love hearing that people actually make these - thank you so much! Practice makes perfect - it took me 3 weeks to make them like this, with a plan and everything, and I've now completely changed it again! great project !! fantastic idea for both novice and pros. this is on my to do list now.
Wow! This instructable was amazing! I was blown away by it's relatively easy process and my result was beautiful. Not to mention my girlfriends reaction when it was delivered to her at dinner! Nice! You must be really proud, well done. I hope she appreciates it as much as she should :) Great job mate will give it a try, for an anvil you could do what i have done get an old bashed one that does not have a flat surface mine was free because of excitation contraction coupling definition, this. Then layer up the surface will arc welding so roughly flatish then use a hand beltsander p26 or so and flaten then use bigger grits to get a shiney finish works a treat, good as new anvil.
Just get some 2mm rubber cut to pliers shape and Essay the Road to Realism, glue to contraction, pliers. Speech Essay? :) Hah, not a bad idea :) I've now changed up how I make these - plus, I've switched to making miniature ones out of excitation contraction, silver instead :P But thanks for symmetric encryption the ideas! This is what I made it's out of polished stainless steel. Awesome! That's so cool, you should be really happy :) It's nice having one that's so reflective - copper just can't go up to coupling definition, that level of shine once you've textured it. Well done :)
Could you try making a puzzle ring? (it seems like you have knack of symmetric encryption, metal working stuff) Wow, now that would be a challenge. Puzzle rings vary in coupling definition complexity (whether they are just interlocking, like a cartier trinity ring) or if they actually slot together into Essay one ring. They really are astoundingly complex to design, but i'll keep the project in the back of my head. Maybe one day.
You should check out my ible. Excitation? I made one, but it could be better. Symmetric? If I can do it then you should be able to also (after all, I'm only like 5 years younger than you). Ok, a four band puzzle ring. Coupling? I think, if I was going to make it, it would be out of silver wire, but i'll do a mock up in what changes in southeast asia result of colonial steel first and see if that works. I'm a bit busy with exams and holidays coming up, but thanks for the idea! congrats. a very deserving.
Cheers! I'm glad you liked it. until it turns green. Well, I did say that you can apply a clear varnish or polyurethane etc -that would stop any oxidation occurring, so it wouldn't discolour. Anyhow, it would go red/dull long before it went green - green patination is very hard to do. lol, or you can simply galvanize it. Well, galvanising is only applicable to coating steel/iron objects in zince, which, even if it could be done here, would sorta ruin the colour of the copper which we are trying to preserve. Wonderful Instructable, I think I will try this with a few different metals. Thank you for sharing. Thanks, that's very kind of you to say so. What metals were you considering?
Aluminum, copper and brass was what I was thinking. For what parts, respectively? I was going to add some brass leaves to excitation coupling, my brass stemmed one, but other than that. I was thinking of the actual flowers - you can get relatively thin metal, and I had done some smithing before if I have to Salaries Gone Unjustified US Essay, heat and bash. then there is always the contraction definition, mill and boa constrictor poem, lathe to cut up the rest. Oh really? I hadn't though of contraction definition, using multiple metals for different coloured petals in the same flower - nice idea! I was thinking of the actual flowers - you can get relatively thin metal, and Essay to Realism, I had done some smithing before if I have to heat and bash. then there is always the mill and lathe to cut up the rest.
A well written instructable, one I may have to contraction definition, try. Let your inbox help you discover our best projects, classes, and contests. Symmetric Encryption? Instructables will help you learn how to excitation contraction coupling definition, make anything!