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Wall street crash effects

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Sur LHeptameron de Marguerite de Navarre. Enquetes dauthenticite. Pages : 256 ISBN : 9782130544746 DOI : 10.3917/rhlf.042.0269 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Revue d'histoire litteraire de la France. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte.

Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon LHEPTAMERON ET SES AVATARS EN 1559 : TROIS NOUVELLES INCONGRUES. LHeptameron , a peine publie, eut son succes, et qui dura aussi longtemps quil y eut des honnetes gens pour se plaire aux vieux textes. Mais quand Marguerite de Navarre mourut, en decembre 1549, il fallait, pour le lire, en trouver quelque copie manuscrite. En 1558 seulement vint la premiere edition, sans nom dauteur, donnee par Pierre Boaistuau, bizarrement intitulee Histoires des amans fortunez , et bien loin encore du recueil que nous connaissons : il y avait la soixante-sept, et non pas soixante-douze, nouvelles, dans un ordre ou plutot dans un desordre etrange ou sefface la division en journees, ou se brouillent les roles des conteurs et ou surgissent parfois des annonces hors de propos. Des 1559, autre edition, et qui fit aussitot oublier la precedente au point detre tenue, en somme, pour une edition princeps . Claude Gruget la publie sous le nom de lauteur, la dedie a la propre fille de Marguerite, trouve le titre d Heptameron et se vante a bon droit davoir remis le livre en son vray ordre [1] [1] Sur ces deux editions, voir N. Cazauran, Boaistuau. . Cest le texte qui sera lu jusquen 1698 ou lon a voulu en donner une version en beau langage reecrite phrase a phrase : encore sap-puie-t-elle constamment sur celle de Gruget dont elle ne change en rien ni lampleur, ni la disposition, ni la substance [2] [2] La version en beau langage fut reeditee jusquen. . Faut-il croire aussi volontiers Gruget quand il pretend avoir demasque le livre pour le rendre en son naturel [3] [3] Il le dit dans sa dedicace a la fille de Marguerite. ? Je ne reviendrai pas ici sur les coupures et recritures pratiquees par Boaistuau et quil maintient : ce sont variantes eparses et qui sexpliquent par le souci de ne rien imprimer qui puisse faire suspecter lorthodoxie de la defunte reine de Navarre tante du tres catholique roi Henri II. Il y a plus surprenant.

Si Gruget donne bien et en bon ordre, comme font les manuscrits les plus longs, soixante-douze nouvelles, cest par un tour de passe-passe dont on wall street effects ne sest pas avise avant que Leroux de Lincy, en 1853, publie une edition enfin fondee sur un manuscrit. En 1559, en effet, on crash ne lisait ni la nouvelle 11, pourtant deja publiee par Boaistuau, ni les nouvelles 44 et 46 : Gruget leur en avait substitue dautres, chacune suivie, comme toujours dans LHeptameron , dun debat dialogue. Il eut ses raisons, quil nest pas impossible de demeler [4] [4] Voir larticle cite note 1, p. 157-159. , mais il faut bien aussi et surtout se demander ou il a trouve ces nouvelles incongrues qui ne figurent dans aucun des manuscrits repertories. Serait-ce la des textes que Marguerite aurait, a la reflexion, exclus, mais que Gruget aurait trouves dans quelque manuscrit que nous navons plus ? La question merite examen. En 1985, P. A. Chilton sest interroge sur leur authenticite et il regrettait de ne pouvoir saider dune concordance pour preciser son approche stylostatistical [5] [5] P. Chilton, The Epaves of the wall street crash effects, Heptameron.

Some quantitative. . Mais desormais, depuis 1990-1991, on dispose de deux concordances [6] [6] Des deux concordances, lune est inutilisable pour. , dont lune permet dexaminer le lexique de ces trois nouvelles propres a ledition Gruget. Si elles sont diverses dampleur, de ton et de sujet, leur ecriture a pourtant en commun une singularite qui les met a part et quil est aise de mettre en evidence. La pseudo-nouvelle 11 [7] [7] Gruget avait ses raisons pour supprimer lauthentique. est celle, a coup sur, qui surprend le plus : ni le cordelier predicateur, ni Hircan ou Simontault qui glosent ses sermons nhesitent le moins du monde devant les villaines paroles severement reprouvees par Oisille dans le debat de la N. 52 et Paul Chilton lui-meme, qui sest efforce dajouter, aux soixante-douze nouvelles de la vulgate, des epaves quaurait abandonnees la reine, na pas songe a soutenir lauthenticite de ces propos facetieux et obscenes. Mais a ce sentiment de lecteur on ionic for neutralisation peut ajouter un argument tout objectif : la proportion insolite, dans les mots et tournures employes, doccurrences qui, dans LHeptameron , sont des hapax. Excluons les termes concrets indissociables de leur contexte, comme andouilles ou baquet ou meme les tournures proverbiales usuelles : il y en a un peu partout et elles sont rarement repetees.

Reste une vingtaine de ces hapax. Dabord, savants ou familiers, des noms, des adjectifs, des verbes que je cite dans lordre et sous la forme ou ils apparaissent : facetieux (dans le titre de Gruget, mais repris par Saffredent dans le debat), enlangage, risee (deux occurrences), propos recreatifs, cacqueter, efficace (subst.), chiches et, dans le debat, effronte, erudition, derisions, devotieuses, amphibologie, impudemment, femmelette, modestie , rentrer dans ses erres . Sy ajoutent : maistre frere et, dans le debat, maistre moine (qui reapparait dans le debat de la pseudo-nouvelle 46), maitre etant longtemps dusage, selon le Dictionnaire comique de Leroux, dans le comique et le burlesque pour donner de lemphase a un mot, au sens de au supreme degre ; ou encore ladversatif ains , aussi dans les pseudo-nouvelles 44 et 46, et enfin, pour apostropher, un Tout beau , Seigneur Simontault , sans autre exemple. On pourrait meme relever : se mettre sur le beau bout , pour chercher a briller , proche de se mettre sur le bon bout dans la pseudo-nouvelle 44. Cest vraiment beaucoup en si peu de pages. La pseudo-nouvelle 44, malgre son ton tres bourgeois, ne parait pas si disconvenante que les propos facetieux du cordelier et le debat y porte, comme il arrive ailleurs, sur le mariage. Mais, la aussi, les hapax abondent.

Deux fois plus longue que la pseudo-nouvelle 11, elle en offre plus du double, une bonne quarantaine : Mediocre, politic, familierement, mettable, propagation (des enfans), pensement, vulgaire (quatre emplois), faire trafic, mariable, colloquer, caquet, censurer, aigre (au sens figure), inopinement, acoster, familiere et familiers, sadvantager, se racointerent, caresses, apoinct, sentrecaresserent, promenoir, abry, etre aux alteres, rageant, folastrement, serrant (avare), parfourny , et dans le debat, adultere, violement, amourettes [8] [8] Amourettes, employe par Gruget au titre de la N. 58. , repliqua , cornuz (au figure), forcement, coquine [9] [9] On trouve bien coquin dans le sens courant de gueux. , approbation, corruption, depravee, tacitement, subornation . A quoi sajoutent des tournures familieres, plus ou moins lexicalisees : Se mettre sur le bon bout (chercher a se parer), y allant a la bonne foy , laisser moisir son pucelage, se faire tirer loreille . Encore ne faut-il pas oublier des formules de liaison qui sont absentes des autres nouvelles : ains (deja note dans la pseudo-nouvelle 11), de toute anciennete , sur ces entrefaictes , et sous ombre de . Reste la pseudo-nouvelle 46 [10] [10] Elle met en scene le meme cordelier que la nouvelle. , de loin la plus breve, ou lon retrouve encore ains et maistre moine, deja notes, mais aussi onze nouveaux hapax : Dissolument, fy, encontre, predication (trois emplois dont un dans le debat), collauder , infracteur, chevir, excitee, semancipant, attraiante (au sens de seduisante ) et un terme tout nouveau dans le vocabulaire militaire, stratagemes [11] [11] Voir Henri Estienne, dans lApologie pour Herodote. . Ce releve, a levidence, ne saurait echapper a quelque approximation : jai pu noter tel ou tel mot que le contexte imposait presque et en negliger dautres par inattention. Dautre part, on Vista Social Essay ne doit pas oublier quil y a des hapax epars un peu partout dans LHeptameron , et parfois sans que rien les exige : mettre assus , par exemple, dans la nouvelle 30 (p. 339) ou, dans la nouvelle 49 (p. 458), nenny [12] [12] Nenny est peut etre plus vif et familier que non dans. , qui pourtant tendait alors a ceder la place a non , plusieurs fois atteste dans des reponses negatives (debats de la N. 10 p. 158, et de la N. 37, p. 387; dialogues de la N. 42 p. 413 et de N. 53, p. 481). Mais, a examiner le corpus donne par les manuscrits les plus longs et qui, malgre de multiples variantes de detail, compose une vulgate ou le lexique est etonnamment stable, on atlantic system a droit de conclure que les hapax sont rares. Ils sont le plus souvent concrets et strictement voulus par la matiere du recit. Dordinaire isoles, ils se repetent ou voisinent seulement quand le sujet lexige : ainsi le muletier , la muletiere et les mulets dans la nouvelle 2, le boucher et les boudins dans la nouvelle 34, la terrible salade de la nouvelle 36 et, reunis pour la grandmesse de la nouvelle 19, au sortir du revestoire , le diacre , le soudiacre et l accolite portant les canettes . Dans la malodorante nouvelle 52, si le recit comporte une dizaine dhapax, avec variations sur le verbe puer , le debat se borne a opposer paroles puantes a paroles villaines (p. 476-477).

Dans les trois nouvelles Gruget , le nombre des occurrences uniques que nous avons pu relever, sans meme tenir compte des mots concrets etroitement lies aux situations, est incontestablement tres insolite. Si certains sont des mots rares, comme amphibologie ou infracteur , la plupart sont dusage courant et pourraient convenir dans bien des contextes. Pourquoi, ailleurs dans LHeptameron , dans ces contes et debats si varies de sujets et de tons, ne trouve-t-on jamais facetieux , risee , ni derision ou encore caresses , familierement et familier ou bien vulgaire , pas plus qu amourettes , qui figure au titre de la N. 58, ou effronte que Gruget emploie pour qualifier lamour de la Bourguignonne au titre de la nouvelle 61 ? Hasard peut-etre. Mais on street effects ne trouve pas davantage des tournures passe-partout, servant a enchainer : ains , peut-etre archaisant face a mais , sur ces entrefaictes , de toute anciennete et, plus signifiant, sous ombre de que Gruget emploie aux titres des nouvelles 13 et 22. Les trois recits ont chacun leur caractere propre, meme si deux sur trois mettent en scene des sermons de cordeliers, et Gruget pourrait bien avoir puise a des sources diverses, manuscrites, voire meme imprimees dans quelque opuscule oublie. On ne peut pourtant se satisfaire tout a fait de lhypothese. Outre certains hapax communs aux trois, chacun est suivi dun debat dont le ton licentieux, bourgeois ou simplement plaisant, saccorde bien a lanecdote glosee et ces debats, comme ailleurs, relient les recits au recueil ou ils senclavent, faisant parler les memes devisants dont la presence et les roles assurent la coherence de lensemble. Si lon ne veut pas admettre que les interpolations de Gruget etrangeres a ledition de Boaistuau qui a precede la sienne comme a tous les manuscrits connus soient fondees sur quelque copie perdue qui aurait donne soixante-quinze et non soixante-douze nouvelles, il faut bien y voir des pastiches dont les debats dialogues sont la marque evidente.

Gruget serait-il lauteur du tout ? Comment savoir ? Tout au plus a-t-on pu noter que certains des hapax releves amourettes , effronte , sous ombre de se retrouvent sous sa plume dans ses titres (N. 58,61,13 et 22). Erudition se lit aussi dans sa dedicace a Jeanne dAlbret et deja en 1551, dans son epitre preface aux Dialogues de Sperone Speroni [13] [13] Dialogues de Sperone Speroni : Dialogo damore, traduit. . Ce nest guere. On pourrait y ajouter, dans ses titres, une quinzaine de mots qui ne sont pas dans le texte de Marguerite : impetrer (N. 1), mais qui convient au contexte juridique, un quidam (N. 8, aussi dans le titre de Boaistuau), impudence (N. 12), deux fois affiner (N. 28 et 69), un Jannin de village (N. 29), paillardise (N.

31), sous pretexte de (N. 33) industrie (N. 35), putier (N. 38), continence (N. 42, aussi chez Boaistuau), demenement (N. 43), frauder (N. 55), deux fois acoler (N. 59 et 71), pertinacite (61), un traict de lamour (N. 68), aux abois de la mort (N.

71). Autant de mots dont beaucoup peuvent passer pour allant de soi pour intituler tel ou tel recit, mais dont beaucoup aussi auraient pu se rencontrer dans le texte des nouvelles impudence nest pas meme represente par ladjectif, pas plus que continence ou paillardise . Au total, sur soixante-douze, ou plutot sur soixante-neuf titres, si lon exclut ce que jai appele les pseudo-nouvelles, ce sont dix-huit termes (et il doit y en avoir dautres) propres aux titres de Gruget et deux seulement peuvent lui venir de Boaistuau dont les titres, beaucoup plus longs, sont quasi des resumes. Certes, ce nest pas un argument pour conclure que le lexique de Claude Gruget nest pas celui de la reine, cest tout au plus un indice pour supposer a defaut dautre hypothese plus plausible quil a bien pu rediger les trois nouvelles [14] [14] La matiere des recits peut venir aussi de sources orales. et debats qui sont propres a son edition. Pendant des siecles, il est vrai, elles sont restees, pour ainsi dire, fondues dans un ensemble dont les amateurs devaient gouter surtout la variete, entre tragique et comique en tout genre, et dont les moralistes reprouvaient les libertes et gaillardises, sans que personne ny voie rien de disparate. Nous avons beau jeu, aujourdhui a nous en etonner. Mais, quoi quil en soit de lauteur de ces nouvelles Gruget il suffit, je crois, de mesurer combien leur lexique les met a part du corpus des manuscrits pour conclure, sans trop dhesitation, a une origine apocryphe. Il est bien difficile, voire impossible, dy reconnaitre la plume de Marguerite de Navarre. LHISTOIRE DANS UNE HISTOIRE : LE CAS DE LA TRENTIEME NOUVELLE. Boaistuau, en 1558, resumait ainsi la nouvelle 30, quil placait en dernier dans sa collection [15] [15] Sur ledition de Boaistuau, voir supra, p. 269 et note. : Dune femme que son filz engrossa, dont elle eut une belle fille, laquelle depuis son pere espousa et de la penitence quen feit la mere. Quand on wall crash nen retient que cette trame, rien de neuf dans cette nouvelle : jai pu le montrer jadis, en 1978, et Jean-Claude Arnould y est revenu en 1990 [16] [16] N. Cazauran, La trentieme nouvelle () ou la meditation. . Le schema senracine, pour son debut, dans une tradition tres ancienne et il prend sa forme plus complexe, ou un deuxieme inceste succede au premier, precisement au temps de Marguerite de Navarre, dans les annees 1540, sous la plume dun chanoine italien comme dans une lecon de Luther sur un chapitre de la Genese.

Marguerite a pourtant voulu, avec plus dobstination quailleurs, ancrer son recit dans un temps et un milieu tout proches delle, comme le fait aussi Bandello en italien, dans ses Nouvelles publiees en 1554, quil ait suivi quelque manuscrit dun Heptameron encore inedit ou quil ait eu, comme il le pretend, son propre garant [17] [17] Plusieurs nouvelles de LHeptameron ont leur pendant. . Et quand le dialogue moral ou, pour mieux dire, religieux qui suit letrange histoire dHircan se suspend pour faire place a un recit en raccourci, ce recit se situe encore, et, cette fois, sans que lon puisse soupconner le moindre double-jeu, dans le temps vecu par lauteur et ses devisants. Dabord, et seulement dans LHeptameron , laction est situee au temps du Roy Loys douziesme . On rencontre beaucoup de debuts analogues [18] [18] Voir, entre autres, les N. 1,15,16,19,26,52,62. Les. , mais il sy joint ici une reference plus precise et moins attendue au Legat en Avignon, alors de la maison dAmboise nepveu du Legat de France nomme Georges (p. 338). Autant de details exacts et pas si gratuits quil semblerait. Le texte suggere une date, ou du moins un moment et distingue, comme il convient, le legat en Avignon et le legat en France, dont les roles ne se confondent pas. Aupres dun prince chretien le legat represente le pape et, en France, des le debut du siecle jusqua sa mort en 1510, cest bien le cardinal Georges dAmboise [19] [19] Pere Anselme, Histoire de la Maison Royale de France. . En Avignon, depuis que le siege de la papaute est revenu a Rome, tandis que la ville et le comtat venaissin restent propriete du pape (jusquen 1791), des legats les administrent en son nom et y exercent dimportants pouvoirs temporels et spirituels. Ainsi, dans les dioceses du Midi, ils ont en charge dispenses et absolutions dans les cas graves [20] [20] Histoire dAvignon, Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, 1979. : rien de surprenant si la dame qui vit au pays de Languedoc sen va au denouement se confesser au legat en Avignon qui prend rang alors parmi les personnages du recit (p. 342-343). Un neveu de Georges dAmboise y fut-il bien legat pendant que son oncle letait en France ? A proprement parler, non. En 1503, quand le legat en Avignon Julien de La Rovere devient le pape Jules II, cest Georges dAmboise lui-meme, deja legat aupres du roi de France et desormais nomme legat a vie, qui se voit en outre nomme legat en Avignon.

Mais il joue un role politique trop important aupres de Louis XII pour resider et il delegue aussitot ses pouvoirs : ce sont deux de ses neveux qui vont successivement les exercer en son nom. Le premier, Francois-Guillaume de Clermont, archeveque de Narbonne, fils de sa s?ur Catherine, pour quelques semaines seulement, jusquau 10 fevrier 1504, le second Louis de Rochechouart, abbe de Moustier-Neuf a Poitiers, aussitot apres [21] [21] Leon-Honore Lalande, Avignon au XVe siecle, Monaco-Paris. . Enfin, quelque temps apres la mort de Georges dAmboise, cest Francois Guillaume de Clermont qui sera en 1513 officiellement legat en Avignon jusqua sa mort en 1541 [22] [22] Voir la liste des legats dans Gallia Christiana, t. , et rien ninterdit de supposer que cest lui, deja evoque dans la phrase initiale, qui intervient au denouement. Quant a la dame qui vit au pays de Languedoc , apres la premiere peripetie qui a fait delle une mere incestueuse, elle peut envoyer son fils a la guerre dela les monts aupres dun parent qui sert avec le grand maitre de Chaumont et, disent les manuscrits, se nomme le capitaine de Montoson . Boaistuau et Gruget a sa suite ont eu soin, dans leurs editions, de couper la precision, comme ils lont fait partout quand il sagissait dun nom connu et cen etait bien un. Philibert de Clermont, seigneur de Montoison en Dauphine fut chambellan de Charles VIII et de Louis XII, compagnon de Bayard et prit part a diverses batailles pendant les campagnes dItalie : il etait deja a Fornoue en 1495, et il meurt en 1511 a Ferrare ou il commandait, la meme annee que Charles dAmboise seigneur de Chaumont, qui gouverna le duche de Milan des 1501. La devise de sa maison reprenait lappel de Charles VIII a la bataille de Fornoue A la rescousse Montoison et Brantome fait son eloge en le disant dune bonne et ancienne maison, dont sont sortis beaucoup de gens de bien et dhonneur et y en a encore aujourdhui qui ne font pas deshonneur a leurs devanciers [23] [23] Brantome, ?uvres completes, ed.

Lalanne, Paris, Renouard. . La dame anonyme etait ainsi pourvue dun parent qui ne letait pas du tout et qui ne joue pourtant aucun role dans lhistoire. Etait-ce seulement pour attester la verite de lestrange cas annonce par le devisant-narrateur ? Dordinaire, Marguerite de Navarre prefere alors placer ses references, trompeuses ou non, en tete du recit pour preciser la position, la fonction du personnage principal quelle relie souvent au roi son frere, a son pere, a son premier mari, voire a elle-meme. La precision, ici, reste insolite, un peu hors de propos. Sy ajoute, encore au fil du recit, le role de la Royne de Navarre nommee Catherine . Cest a sa cour, nous dit-on, quest elevee la petite fille nee de linceste et cest elle qui consent au fatal mariage. Son prenom, evidemment, suffit a la faire identifier comme Catherine de Foix [24] [24] La premiere edition annotee, celle de P. L. Lacroix. , reine en 1483 apres la mort de son frere, mariee en 1484 avec Jean dAlbret, morte a Mont de Marsan au debut de 1517 [25] [25] Pere Anselme, op. cit., t. III, p. 376, et VI, p. . et qui aurait ete, si elle avait vecu, belle-mere de Marguerite. Quand elle favorise le mariage de sa protegee avec celui qui est, en fait, a la fois son pere et son frere, et qui est revenu dItalie parce que les guerres y ont cesse, celle-ci est agee dit le texte de douze ou treize ans . Tous ces details apparemment oiseux esquissent, en arriere-plan, une possible chronologie : au tout debut de 1504, quand lun ou lautre des neveux de Georges dAmboise fait fonction de legat en Avignon, premiere peripetie et depart du jeune homme pour lItalie aupres de son parent a un moment ou Charles dAmboise y commande ; douze ans plus tard, vers 1516-1517, au moment ou, apres Marignan, divers traites ont retabli pour un temps paix et tranquillite [26] [26] Texte tire du journal de Jean Barillon, cite par J. , deuxieme peripetie avec le retour du jeune homme et son mariage, juste avant la mort de la reine de Navarre; puis reapparition au denouement dun legat en Avignon qui est bien desormais, en titre, un neveu de Georges dAmboise. Enfin, dans la nouvelle italienne de Bandello qui suit le meme schema, la Navarre et sa reine sont plus presentes encore [27] [27] Pour lanalyse de cette version, voir Beatrice Rima. . Toute laction sy situe, sans reference au Languedoc, et Catherine de Foix y a un role actif : cest elle qui a fait venir la petite fille a sa cour, cest elle qui a favorise un mariage juge avantageux pour sa jeune protegee, et, dans un denouement qui nest pas exactement celui de LHeptameron , quand leveque a qui la mere incestueuse sest confessee avant de mourir lui a revele la verite, cest elle encore qui veut la garder secrete pour proteger le bonheur du jeune couple coupable dinceste sans le savoir. Mieux encore, Bandello pretend tenir lhistoire dune certaine Marie de Navarre qui laurait racontee, en sa presence, dans le cercle de sa protectrice Costanza Fregosa, au chateau de Bazens, ou, a len croire, elle venait souvent [28] [28] Bandello, ed. citee, t. I, II, 35, p. 1018. . On a pu montrer que les garants invoques par Bandello dans ses dedicaces sont parfois fictifs : peu importe ici. Mais il importe quil sautorise dune Marie de Navarre, quil dit ailleurs sorella dEnrico oggidi re di Navarra [29] [29] Bandello, t. II, III, 61, p. 563. , autrement dit belle-s?ur de Marguerite. Sa narratrice commence en effet par situer laventure au temps de son pere le roi Jean nel tempo de la felice memoria del re Giovanni di Alebret, mio padre e signore e re di Navarra [30] [30] Bandello, t. I, p. 1019. . Il est difficile, il est vrai, de preciser qui etait cette Marie de Navarre dont les erudits ne disent rien pas meme le Pere Anselme dans ses deux notices sur Catherine de Foix et sur Jean dAlbret, ou il enumere leurs filles, Anne et Isabel, mais aussi les religieuses Catherine, Quitterie et Madeleine [31] [31] Pere Anselme, op. cit., t. II, p. 376 et t. VI, p. tandis que le testament de Jean dAlbret, cite par Charles Dartigue-Peyrou, ignorant Madeleine, nen a mentionne que quatre [32] [32] Charles Dartigue-Peyrou, La Vicomte de Bearn sous le. . Une Marie de Navarre, dont lorigine nest pas precisee, fut, elle, vicaire a labbaye de Sainte-Claire a Nimes depuis 1526 : serait-ce cette mysterieuse belle-s?ur , [33] [33] M. Menard dans son Histoire civile, ecclesiastique. ? La vicaire dun couvent de clarisses venait-elle si souvent se divertir dans un cercle mondain ? Comment savoir ? Enfin, pour expliquer le silence des documents a son sujet, on hitler profile la ingenieusement supposee fille illegitime de Jean dAlbret : dans le recit de Bandello, en effet, elle parle bien du roi son pere, mais nappelle jamais la reine Catherine sa mere [34] [34] A. Durengue, Bandello, Agen, 1938, p. 232-238, cite. . Il nest pas impossible que Bandello ait bien entendu raconter lhistoire et pourquoi pas ? par cette Marie de Navarre.

Quoi quil en soit, plus encore chez lui que chez Marguerite, cette tres vieille histoire, avec ses deux peripeties, se trouve ainsi liee a ce qui se disait dans la famille royale de Navarre. Ce nest certes pas assez pour soutenir que laventure soit reellement advenue, mais cest assez peut-etre pour admettre que Marguerite lait tiree dune tradition toute recente encore, mettant en cause une dame connue, et conservee dans la famille dAlbret : Hircan qui la raconte ne passe-t-il pas, avec vraisemblance, pour etre limage dHenri dAlbret ? Quant aux propos des devisants, ils ne tournent pas en debat polemique : ils saccordent pour opposer radicalement confiance en soi et confiance de Dieu (p. 344) et cest pour rencherir sur la critique des cordeliers qui pretendent possible de se rendre par soi-meme impeccable que Longarine a recours a une petite histoire. A vrai dire, elle ne lui donne pas dabord lallure dune histoire : elle ne la situe nulle part, elle use dun present de generalite et parle comme si elle depeignait les m?urs habituelles en tout temps chez ces cordeliers assez fous pour vouloir triompher de la concupiscence en essayant des tentations de plus en plus fortes jusqua coucher sans emotion avec les belles religieuses qui partagent leurs epreuves de chastete. Mais soudain, au denouement, la perspective se restreint dans le temps et le lieu avec lintervention de l Archevesque de Milan ou ceste religion sexercoit (p. 344) et nous voila face a une anecdote precise qui semble surgie, dans la memoire de Longarine, dun passe proche. Les notes a ce passage nen renvoient pas moins, jusquici, a un passe lointain, sans lien avec Milan, et cela sexplique. Il y avait longtemps que les proces dInquisition avaient reproche des pratiques de ce genre a des sectes proches des fraticelli , ainsi aux pseudo-apotres groupes en Italie, au XII e siecle, autour de Segarellus : erant dicentes quod quilibet homo et qualibet mulier nudus cum nuda possunt sine peccato in atlantic system uno eodemque loco jacere et licite se tangere in street crash omni parte sui () ut tentatio cesset [35] [35] Guy de Perpignan, Summa de heresibus, 1521, chap. V. . Memes accusations en France, au XIV e siecle, contre des beguins provencaux : non reputabant esse perfectum aliquem nisi possit se ponere nudum cum nuda [36] [36] Interrogatoire a Toulouse en 1322 du beguin provencal. . Cest pourtant bien lactualite milanaise qui donne la clef des propos ironiques de Longarine.

Dans les annees 1530-1540, on street crash retrouve a Milan de tels soupcons autour de deux nouvelles congregations, les Chierici (futurs Barnabites) et les Angeliche , fondes sous linfluence du dominicain Fra Battista da Crema (1460-1534) et avec lappui de sa disciple la comtesse Guastalla [37] [37] Sur ces personnages, voir Orazio Premoli, Fra Battista. . Les seigneurs et dames quelles regroupaient sy distinguaient par leurs austerites et par des mortifications publiques qui surprenaient les Milanais. Un chroniqueur populaire notait des reunions a jours fixes dans certains lieux ou il ne sait ce qui se passe e li fanno quello che non so [38] [38] Cite par O. Premoli, Storia, p. 21-22. . Il est difficile de demeler le vrai et le faux dans les ondit, dautant que les historiens de Fra Battista et de ses disciples tiennent pour calomnies toutes les accusations et defendent lorthodoxie des ouvrages de Fra Battista. Reste quil fut lauteur dun traite Della cognitione e vittoria di se stesso ou il insistait sur la puissance de la volonte humaine : luomo () e quasi omnipotente nel vincere se stesso [39] [39] Cite par L. Bogliolo, p. 34, note 7. et parmi les signes de la victoire sur la luxure il note limpassibilite face aux tentations : e quando luomo si trova potente di stare fra la compagnia di meretrici () di persone belle e lascive et maxime quando alcuni di quelli sollicitasseno tal persona, coparole e gesti, a qualche cosa mancho honesta [40] [40] Chap. XXIII, p. 52, texte cite par O. Premoli, Fra. et dans lapologie qui fut faite de son traite, on street crash effects crut necessaire de commencer par le justifier sur ce point. A Milan, ses ennemis eurent beau jeu de pretendre quil conseillait a ses disciples des epreuves de continence comme celles que les beguins passaient pour avoir pratiquees. A preuve, en 1536, le bref du pape Paul III qui exigeait une enquete diligente sur les reunions de nobles des deux sexes, appartenant a une secte placee sous le patronage de Battista da Crema, ou se trouvaient beaucoup dheresies condamnees par lEglise notamment celles des Beguins et des Pauvres de Lyon , praesertim Beghinarum et Pauperum de Lugduno [41] [41] En 1534, un premier proces avait seulement reproche. . LInquisiteur et lArcheveque de Milan, charges de laffaire disculperent les accuses et lon ne sait rien sur le detail de la procedure puisque les actes ont ete detruits, avec dautres, sur ordre des autorites, au XIX e siecle [42] [42] O. Premoli, ibid., p. 36. . Mais en 1551, quand Paola Antonia Negri, qui dominait alors les deux communautes, provoqua par ses manquements a la regle de nouvelles accusations sur leur conduite peu prudente et ambigue [43] [43] Ce sont les termes de L. Bogliolo, op. cit. (note 37). , le bref du pape Jules III en juillet 1552, en condamnant la doctrine de Fra Battista comme scandaleuse sur la plupart des points () et souvent heretique , eut soin, pour mettre fin aux racontars et aux causes des desordres, dordonner une rigoureuse separation des deux congregations [44] [44] L. Bogliolo p. 13. Les ?uvres de Battista da Crema. : selon Longarine, cest ce quaurait fait, sans doute apres 1536, larcheveque de Milan, davis de mettre les hommes au couvent des hommes et les femmes en ceulx des femmes . Quant aux rumeurs on wall ne peut douter ni de leur nature ni de leur persistance. Fantaisistes ou non, elles avaient pris corps, et pour longtemps.

Des 1546, dans une de ses Satire alla Carlona , Pietro Nelli ironisait contre certaines sectes nouvelles et leur maniere daller au ciel et de vaincre les appetits : alcune sette novelle / Che in crash effects letto sperimentan lor fortezza [45] [45] Andrea da Bergamo (pseudonyme de Pietro Nelli), Satire. . En 1548, Ortensio Landi reprit lhistoire dans ses Notabili et mostruose cose dItalia , a sa rubrique sur Milan, en denoncant une secte dirigee par une grande dame : Si forza di riduri i suoi seguaci alla battismale purita e innocentia et del tutto mortificarli e per quanto me stato rifferito da persone degne di fede, per far prova della mortificatione fa coricare in atlantic system un medesimo letto un giovane di prima barba e una giovane [46] [46] Ortensio Landi, Commentario delle piu notabili e mostruose. . En 1567 le calviniste auteur de LHistoire de la Mappemonde papistique nhesite pas a vouer a cette meme secte une de ses republiques allegoriques quil baptise Pauline il se refere surement a Paola Negri ou guastalienne : Voici la quatriesme Republique () fondee () par le conseil dun certain architecte et ingenieux nomme frere Baptiste de Creme, Moine, Jacopin prescheur. Le but et la fin de ceste Republique sappele, victoire de soy-mesme contre la chair. Les peuples de ceste cite, sont meslez dhommes et de femmes, demi hommes et lautre moitie femmes toutes jeunes, belles, grasses et bon poinct. Apres quoi vient la description de lepreuve dedans le lict avec leloge ironique des combattants , si souvent vainqueurs quen peu de temps ils sont multipliez comme mousches [47] [47] Glose de la note 67. Comme me la precise F. Lestringant. . Bien plus tard, Bayle, dans son Dictionnaire critique , se plait encore a citer, et tres exactement, cette virulente Mappemonde pour faire echo a cette meme tradition satirique [48] [48] Bayle, Dictionnaire critique, Rotterdam, 1702, t. IV. . A coup sur, des les premiers proces, autour de 1535, setaient repandus les soupcons et rumeurs dont le bref du pape Paul III faisait deja mention. Marguerite avait bien assez de liens avec laristocratie, les lettres, les prelats dItalie pour avoir eu vent de lhistoire. Rien dinsolite, dans des propos entre seigneurs et dames de la cour de Francois I er , a evoquer, plutot que des proces dinquisition, un pretendu scandale a Milan tout recent, et qui netait pas sans lien avec laristocratie de la ville. Lirruption de details historiquement exacts inscrits dans cette histoire de double inceste est plus inattendue. Mais jhesite a y voir un jeu delibere, obstinement poursuivi au fil du recit pour lui preter les couleurs de la verite : ce nest guere la maniere de Marguerite qui se contente dordinaire alors de faire commencer la nouvelle par une breve mention qui la situe en temps et lieu. Jy verrai bien plutot, et dautant que cest Hircan, comme je lai note, qui parle, le signe quelle est de bonne foi et fonde la tres austere lecon qui oriente le recit sur un cas presume vrai et quelle a entendu raconter dans la famille de son mari.

On aurait mauvaise grace a la taxer dun exces de naivete : au XX e siecle, lexpert en droit canon qui statuait au Vatican sur les questions matrimoniales examine un cas exactement identique qui serait advenu apres la guerre de 1914-1918 et dont il ne conteste nullement la realite [49] [49] D. Gerardus Oesterle, O.S.B., Consultations de jure. . Ainsi, pour lhistoire de la mere incestueuse comme pour la satire des epreuves de chastete, un double arriere-plan dactualite ou quasi : des lieux, des personnes surgissent avec assez de precision pour mettre a proximite des auditeurs et des premiers lecteurs des recits qui senracinaient dans des traditions deja lointaines. Universite de Paris-Sorbonne. Sur ces deux editions, voir N. Cazauran, Boaistuau et Gruget editeurs de LHeptameron : a chacun sa part , Travaux de Litterature , XIV, Lecrivain editeur , I, p. 149-169. La version en beau langage fut reeditee jusquen 1827. En 1841, le Bibliophile Jacob (Paul-Louis Lacroix) revient au texte de Gruget. Il le dit dans sa dedicace a la fille de Marguerite, Jeanne dAlbret, en definissant son ambition dediteur. Voir larticle cite note 1, p. 157-159. P. Chilton, The Epaves of the crash, Heptameron . Some quantitative and wall crash effects qualitative clues to their attribution , Studi Francesi , 1985, p. 449-467. Des deux concordances, lune est inutilisable pour mon propos.

Lindex de Suzanne Hanon se refere a la version dAdrien de Thou qui ne comprend pas ces nouvelles Gruget ( Le vocabulaire de LHeptameron Index et Concordance , Paris, Geneve, Champion-Slatkine, 1990, avec 15 microfiches). Jai utilise lindex etabli en 1991 a Clermont-Ferrand par le groupe detudes quantitatives interdisciplinaires sur la langue du XVI e siecle. Il nest pas lemmatise, mais il se refere a ledition de M. Francois, ou les nouvelles Gruget sont donnees en appendice et dont le texte suit un des manuscrits appartenant a ce quon peut appeler la vulgate de LHeptameron . Gruget avait ses raisons pour supprimer lauthentique N. 11 : voir N. Cazauran Sur trois recits de LHeptameron : de limportance des arriere-plans , Nouvelle Revue du Seizieme siecle , 2003, p. 5-11. Amourettes , employe par Gruget au titre de la N. 58, lest aussi par Saffredent (debat N. 29, p. 337), mais dans une citation de Jean de Meung qui semble passee en proverbe, puisquon la trouve dans la liste des proverbes francais de Jean Gilles de Noyers (Johannes Aegidius Nuceriensis) reprise en appendice dans ledition du Thresor de Jean Nicot, Paris, Douceur, 1606, p. 3. On trouve bien coquin dans le sens courant de gueux, mendiant (N. 59) mais, pas coquine , avec connotation erotique. Dans les Contes et Discours dEutrapel , Eutrapel dit, dans le meme sens, que nature estoit trop coquine (Noel du Fail, ?uvres facetieuses , ed. Assezat, Bibl. elzevirienne, 1874, t. I, chap. XI, p. 8). Elle met en scene le meme cordelier que la nouvelle 46 quelle remplace.

Voir Henri Estienne, dans lApologie pour Herodote , 1566, chap. 15 : Un stratageme (puis que ce mot grec depuis quelque temps a trouve lieu au langage francois) (texte cite dans le dictionnaire Huguet) et le titre dun ouvrage, aujourdhui perdu, qui explicite le sens du mot, Stratagemes, cest a dire proesses et ruses de guerre du preux et tres celebre chevalier Langey traduit du latin de Fr. Rabelais par Claude Massuau , Lyon, Sebastien Gryphe, 1542. Le TLF cite pour premiere attestation de la forme stratageme un emploi au feminin dans un ouvrage de Jean dAuton de 1503 et, pour premiere attestation de lemploi au masculin, le texte precite dEstienne. Dans le texte de Gruget, le mot est au masculin. Nenny est peut etre plus vif et familier que non dans la replique amusee du personnage qui invite a repondre a ses questions par ouy ou nenny . Dialogues de Sperone Speroni : Dialogo damore , traduit par Claude Gruget, La Licorne, coll. Textes rares, UFR Langues, Litteratures, Poitiers, 1998, annexe I, p. 211. La matiere des recits peut venir aussi de sources orales. Ainsi sexpliquerait que les deux nouvelles 46 aient un meme protagoniste, le cordelier de Vale a moins que Claude Gruget ait emprunte le nom propre a Marguerite de Navarre. Sur ledition de Boaistuau, voir supra , p. 269 et note 1.

N. Cazauran, La trentieme nouvelle () ou la meditation dun exemple , Melanges Jeanne Lods , Paris, collection de lENS de jeunes filles, 1978, t. II, p. 617-652 ; J. C. Arnould, Recits dinceste, 1516-1635 , Studi Francesi , 1990, p. 443-453). Plusieurs nouvelles de LHeptameron ont leur pendant dans celles de Bandello ( 1561) dont les trois premieres parties ont ete imprimees en 1554 et la quatrieme, posthume, en 1573 seulement. La comparaison simpose pour les nouvelles 3,23,30,70 dune part et IV, 10, II 24, II 35, IV 5, dautre part. Sur les rapports entre les deux recueils et les polemiques a ce sujet, voir P. Jourda, Marguerite dAngouleme , Paris, Champion, 1930, t. II p. 708-722. Bandello semble avoir rassemble quelques nouvelles de jeunesse et poursuivi la composition de son recueil, en France, a partir de 1541 : voir ledition de F. Flora, Tutte le Opere , reimpr. 1972, Verone, chronologie, t. I, p. LIII - LX. Mes references renvoient a cette edition. Ici, a la difference de la N. 70, il ny a guere de ressemblances textuelles. Voir, entre autres, les N. 1,15,16,19,26,52,62. Les references a LHeptameron renvoient a ledition de N. Cazauran et S . Lefevre, coll.

Folio, Gallimard, 2000. Pere Anselme, Histoire de la Maison Royale de France, des Pairs, Grands Officiers de la Couronne () et des Anciens Barons du Royaume , 1726-1733, t. I, p. 843, t. VII, p. 124-125. Histoire dAvignon , Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, 1979, p. 290-291. Leon-Honore Lalande, Avignon au XV e siecle , Monaco-Paris, 1920 ; Laffitte Reprints, Marseille, 1975, p. 541-542. Sur la famille dAmboise, voir Pere Anselme t. VII, p. 124-125, et aussi t. I, p. 469 et t. IV, p. 678 pour les mariages de Catherine et de Marguerite dAmboise. Voir la liste des legats dans Gallia Christiana , t. I, Paris, 1716, col. 842-843.

Brantome, ?uvres completes , ed. Lalanne, Paris, Renouard, t. II, 1866, p. 408-410. Voir aussi ce quen dit lHistoire du gentil seigneur de Bayart par le Loyal Serviteur, Paris, Societe de lHistoire de France, 1878, t. I, chap. XL, XLIV, XLV. Les notes jusquici ne lidentifiaient pas. Sur Chaumont dAmboise, voir Brantome, ibid. , t. III, p. 2-5 et Pere Anselme, op. cit. , t. VII, p. 119. La premiere edition annotee, celle de P. L. Lacroix en 1841 ( Les Vieux Conteurs francais , Paris, Pantheon litteraire) le precisait deja. Pere Anselme, op. cit. , t. III, p. 376, et VI, p. 215. Texte tire du journal de Jean Barillon, cite par J. Jacquart, Francois I er , p. 88.

Pour lanalyse de cette version, voir Beatrice Rima, La novella in street crash pulpito. Tre exempla di Matteo Bandello , Filologia critica , mai-aout 1999, p. 219-232 et pour les differences avec LHeptameron , voir Delmo Maestri Due questioni bandelliane : lautenticia delle dedicatorie e le fonti delle novelle , LArte dellinterpretare. Studi () a Giovanni Getto , Turin, 1984, p. 187 et 203, note 12. Bandello, ed. citee, t. I, II, 35, p. 1018. Bandello, t. II, III, 61, p. 563. Bandello, t. I, p. 1019. Pere Anselme, op. cit. , t. II, p. 376 et t. VI, p. 215. Charles Dartigue-Peyrou, La Vicomte de Bearn sous le regne dHenri dAlbret , publication de la Faculte des Lettres de Strasbourg, fasc. 67,1934, Pieces justificatives , p. 500-501. Dans son texte lauteur mentionnait cinq filles survivantes sur sept, mais nen nommait que quatre, p. 159. M. Menard dans son Histoire civile, ecclesiastique et litteraire de la ville de Nimes (Paris, 1753, t. IV, p. 412) cite un document date de 1526 ou labbesse donne procuration a la vicaire Marie de Navarre et A. Puech, qui sy refere ( La Renaissance, et la reforme a Nimes , Nimes, 1983 p. CXLIV ), cite une lettre du juge-mage Jean de Montcalm ou il recommande de faire ecrire par cette vicaire, pour obtenir une faveur de la reine de Navarre : il en deduit que cette Marie de Navarre est bien la belle-s?ur de la reine et il lidentifierait volontiers avec Madeleine religieuse, citee par Pere Anselme et des 1612, sans precision, par Andre Favyn ( Histoire de Navarre , l. XII, t. 703).

A. Durengue, Bandello , Agen, 1938, p. 232-238, cite par A. Fiorato, Bandello , Florence, 1979, p. 494. Il nest pas question, en tout cas, de supposer quil sagirait de Marie dAlbret fille de Jean dAlbret sire dOrval et comtesse de Nevers. Bien quelle recoive en 1526 de Louise de Savoie un don en faveur de la proximite de lignage , ce nest quune cousine issue de germain de Jean dAlbret (Pere Anselme, t. VI, p. 215). Guy de Perpignan, Summa de heresibus , 1521, chap. V, f. XCI v Secta et errores pseudo apostolorum . Voir aussi Duplessis dArgentre, Collectio judicorum de novis erroribus , Paris, 1728, t. I et I. Laurentii a Mosheim, De Beghardis et Beguinabus Commentarius , Leipzig, 1790, p. 424.

Interrogatoire a Toulouse en 1322 du beguin provencal Guillaume Ruffi. Texte cite dapres Philippe de Limburch ( Historia Inquisitionis , Amsterdam, 1692, p. 382 et sq.) par Romana Garnieri, Il movimento del libero Spirito Archivio Italiano per la Storia della Pieta , IV, Rome, 1965, p. 428. Sur ces personnages, voir Orazio Premoli, Fra Battista da Crema , Rome, 1910 et Storia dei Barnabiti nel Cinquecento , Roma, 1913 ; voir aussi Luigi Bogliolo, Battista da Crema , S.E.I., 1952. Cite par O. Premoli, Storia , p. 21-22. Cite par L. Bogliolo, p. 34, note 7.

Chap. XXIII, p. 52, texte cite par O. Premoli, Fra Battista , p. 95, qui en retient la suite ou il est recommande de ne pas rechercher cette victoire, mais de preferer la fuite quand elle est possible. Mais, dans lApologie du traite, cest le premier point debattu parce quon peut en deduire que lhomme peut se rendre impassible erreur deja reprochee a Climaque dapres son chapitre De la chastete dans son traite Des degres pour monter au ciel (degre XV). Voir O. Premoli, LApologia di Fra Baptista da Crema , Estratto del Periodico Il Rosario. Memorie Domenicane , janvier-mars 1918, Dubbio primo , p. 9. En 1534, un premier proces avait seulement reproche a ces communautes milanaises des nouveautes dangereuses pour lordre public (O. Premoli, Storia , p. 25). Le texte du bref de 1536 est donne par O. Premoli, ibid , p. 464 : Pervenit ad aures nostras quod nuper Mediolani () nonnulla conventicula quorumdam nobilium utriusque sexus inventa sunt quamdam sectam, quondam Batista da Crema nuncupatam, tenentes et actualiter observantes, inqua multe hereses ab Ecclesia damnate praesertim Beghinarum et pauperum de Lugduno nuncupate continentur . Les pauvres de Lyon sont les disciples reunis par Pierre Valdes vers 1170 et dits vaudois. Ce sont les termes de L. Bogliolo, op. cit. (note 37), p. 12 et O. Premoli ( Storia , p. 113), sagissant des liens entre les deux communautes, parle aussi de pozitione ambigua . L. Bogliolo p. 13. Les ?uvres de Battista da Crema sont alors mises a lindex : voir O. Premoli, La Storia , p. 109 et s. Andrea da Bergamo (pseudonyme de Pietro Nelli), Satire alla Carlona , Venise 1546, satire VII, p. 32.

Ortensio Landi, Commentario delle piu notabili e mostruose cose dItalia , Venise, 1548, f 26. Glose de la note 67. Comme me la precise F. Lestringant, lHistoire de la Mappemeonde papistique developpe les breves legendes numerotees, inscrites en bas de la Mappemonde proprement dite qui se presente comme une carte. Sur la carte, son texte et lauteur voir F. Lestringant, LHistoire de la Mappemonde Papistique , communication faite a lAcademie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Comptes rendus des seances de lannee 1998 , juillet-octobre, p. 699-730. L Histoire ironisait aussi sur les dames entrant dedans les chambres de leurs beaux peres confesseurs et dont le ventre devenait si enfle . Bayle, Dictionnaire critique , Rotterdam, 1702, t. IV, article Vayer (La Mothe), p. 2929 a. A noter que dans ces trois versions, il nest pas question de la gradation des epreuves dont parle Longarine et quil doit y avoir entre lhomme et la femme un baton (mieux vaudrait dit Nelli, une branche dorties) voire, dans LHistoire de la Mappemonde un crucifix afin quils ne se donnassent des coups de pied, tout ainsi quon met des perches ou barres entre les chevaux . D. Gerardus Oesterle, O.S.B., Consultations de jure matrimoniali, Rome, 1942, Casus ad canonem 1076 , Pater propriam filiam simulque sororem in wall matrimonium ducit , p. 253-261. utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to a larger size. Wall Street Crash! We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. Sandler: An Actor That Gives Than Movies To Hollywood! If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers Dont see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono)

Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of street crash effects wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of street crash hygiene, quality and customer service.

Aiming to leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 Present. Memorized restaurants wine stock and Essay on Makeup vs Makeup Setter the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into wall street crash effects, computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to atlantic system state law. Effects! Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen.

CARRABBAS ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 July 2011. Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to crash prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and effects Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is , able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations.

Excellent problem solving and wall street crash communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to equation upsell customers on wall alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. The Buena Vista! Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to street crash return to Essay on Makeup vs Makeup the establishment. 2. Wall Street! Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and The Buena Vista speak fluidly in front of strangers at length. Wall Street! Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by wall crash effects 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and effects comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and atlantic system practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish Excellent verbal and Essay written skills.

Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to upsell alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 Present. Memorized restaurants wine stock and wall crash effects appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patrons food orders on slips, memorized orders, and The Buena Social managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and ionic enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and street crash equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 2012. Awarded Employee of the Month two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and Sandler: An Actor that Gives Just to Hollywood conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is crash effects, transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service.

3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If youve ever had a job where youve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded Employee of the Month for wall street effects consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the Essay restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to wall effects meet company average. Experience with 3 types of Essay POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and effects knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and Sandler: than split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over wall street crash, 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Trip to New York, Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of wall street customer dissatisfaction. University of Essay on Makeup vs Makeup South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the crash Ultimate Server Resume. Food service encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the Vista front end (customer service) and the back end (food preparation) of the street effects establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with front end server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to:

Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. Wall Crash! If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to atlantic system decide if youre a worthwhile candidate.

Be sure to crash include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. Hitler Profile! If you dont have any, you can land more interviews and crash potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective.

The first major section of your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of hitler profile experience in food preparation and service 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and hitler profile Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business:

Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of street a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill: Aiming toeffectively perform a management position at your restaurant. Hitler Profile! In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for effects an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is atlantic system, also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to wall street increase by 11% through 2022. Its very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for ionic for neutralisation the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that shed be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about atlantic system how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the wall street effects hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience.

By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and Adam Sandler: that More Just Movies how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by wall crash making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to street crash effects blow away the The Buena Vista Social Club hiring manager, youll need to street crash effects do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurants wine stock and The Buena Vista Social Club the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly?

You can expect to wall street make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants especially big chains will track their servers sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didnt perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and Social Club hard working. This is called writing an achievement oriented resume and these tend to land the most interviews.

Bonus: Action Verbs for wall street Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to Essay Setter a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to street crash build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to wall having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right.

All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the Trip to New York City Essay education section. Street Crash! Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. Essay On Makeup Vs Makeup! The most important reason the crash effects applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not and thats fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, youll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the atlantic system employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because its likely that you dont have prior work experience. Wall Crash Effects! The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs youve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter (Note: One of the atlantic system few decent resume samples in this industry on the net.

The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Street Crash Effects! Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done Professional Profile.) Cook (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to hitler profile MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the effects One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady.

Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and street Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

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How to Write a Visual Analysis Essay. A visual analysis essay is street effects quite different from a normal essay. Essays in general are descriptive, reflective, argumentative, etc. But a visual analysis essay is different from hitler profile, these as in the visual analysis essay there is no given topic or research statement. Students are supposed to think on the topic and content of the essay by interpreting and analyzing the visual stimulus which might be in the form of crash effects a photograph, a portrait, a painting, a sculpture or any kind of artistic object that has some amount of graphical element in it. However, quite often students find it difficult to write such essays as they are not aware of the steps and methods involved in Sandler: An Actor that than Movies to Hollywood, writing a visual analysis essay and as such, the common query they make is: how to write a visual analysis essay? This article is aimed at such students who find writing a visual analysis essay a challenging and crash effects, daunting task.

Steps in Writing a Visual Analysis Essay. Before starting to write a visual analysis essay, you should carefully study the artwork for atlantic system a good amount of wall crash effects time. Hitler Profile. This is the first and street crash effects, foremost step before writing a visual analysis essay. The study should be at first a causal one looking at the overall tone, settings and moods of the character(s) or object(s) in the painting or picture/image. Wall Street Crash. By doing so, some thoughts will naturally come to the mind, like the overall theme or message that the artist is trying to portray through his or her artwork, the background, the underlying themes, motifs or symbols, etc.

When all the initial thoughts and ideas have been carefully noted down, you should now try to give more focus to wall street crash effects, the artwork as this time the aim of the scan will be to look into little and finer aspects of the artwork like texture, composition, hue, emotions, background, colours, borders, etc. By taking a second detailed look at the finer elements of the sample artwork, you will find it easier to join the missing gaps and other clues for making the overall essay. Some of the questions that you should ask yourself while looking at the artwork could be: What is the object that the artwork is wall referring to? Is it animate or inanimate or a mixture of both? What is the material used in making the artwork? Is it stone, wood, canvas, paper, etc.? What is the form or structure of the artwork? Is it a sculpture, painting, image, portrait, etc.? What was the approximate era or period when it was made? What is the approximate era or time it refers to?

Is it representational in nature? If it is, then what exactly is wall crash being represented by the image, painting, drawing or sculpture? What might be the reasons for the artist, painter to portray the artwork in that particular fashion? What emotion does the artwork convey to the mind: colour, texture, tone, shape, space of the sculpture/painting? What are the initial feelings that come to the mind after looking at the artwork? What are the secondary thoughts that come to the mind on a second look at the artwork? Do the initial and secondary feelings and thoughts correlate with each other or are they different from each other? What is the overall theme, motif or symbol that the artwork is trying to convey to the reader? Does the title of the artwork have any seemingly resemblance with the artwork or is street it quite vague and abstract from the artwork? Structuring a Visual Analysis Essay.

After the artwork has been studied thoroughly and all the ideas have been exhausted, the next step is to write all these thoughts that have been accumulated in the mind in the previous steps. This is a basic outline that you should follow while trying to attempt to write a visual analysis essay. While structuring the essay, it is important that an appropriate thesis is chosen. The thesis is the first and foremost thing that should be kept in the mind while writing the essay, as it relates to the main idea(s) of the visual analysis essay. Another important thing that should be kept in mind while writing the essay is that the paragraphs should both be assertive as well as creative in nature. You should think and reflect on the artwork in a creative way in the initial few paragraphs of the essay.

But the later paragraphs should solidify into a concrete statement, by becoming assertive and authoritative in nature. In the end a concluding paragraph should be made so that a proper conclusion is reached and a restatement of the thesis/essay title is clearly achieved. By following the above-mentioned steps, you will find writing a visual analysis essay an easier task to do. Most Frequently Asked Questions About Visual Analysis Paper Writing. How to wall crash effects, start a visual analysis paper. The first step in writing a visual analysis paper is to review the piece of visual art carefully for a long period of time, ensuring you make note of all notable aspects such as the tone, characters, objects and setting. Record all your thoughts as this will be your guide to creating your visual analysis essay, as they will be the main points discussed.

Next, you will want to Trip, write your essay starting with an introduction that explains your thesis statement for the art piece. This will be followed by the body of the essay, which explains your main points. The visual analysis paper can be concluded by effects summarizing the main points and giving your final opinion on the piece. How to write a visual analysis thesis statement. The thesis statement explains what the visual means to you. This involves explaining aspects such as: What the visual meant to the artist compared to what it means to wall street effects, you. What the visual meant in the time it was done compared to what it may mean now in the present day. Any changes to the meaning of the visual that may have occurred over time.

Possible reaction of audiences and also your reactions and feelings towards the piece. How to write a visual argument analysis essay. Atlantic System. When writing a visual argument analysis essay, follow these steps: Examine the visual carefully and thoroughly. Document details such as the artist, when it was created, any characters or objects in the visual, background setting, colors used, type of materials used, etc. Use the information you documented to form your visual analysis piece. Wall Street. These can be used throughout the introduction and body of the essay. Be sure to include your interpretation of the piece and give reasons for crash your opinion. Before you conclude, ensure that you have properly evaluated the piece and vs Makeup Setter, given sufficient arguments on what was seen and interpreted. End the visual analysis paper with a summary of the main points and your final thoughts on the evaluation of the piece. How to write a visual analysis of an artwork.

When writing a visual analysis of an artwork, you will need to describe elements such as the lines, shapes, colors and hitler profile, forms in the piece. Next, you will want to evaluate how they are put together, ensuring a comment on the symmetry, balance, proportion, scale and rhythm of the piece. How to street crash effects, write a visual analysis of a painting. In order to analyze a painting, you must record the artists name, title of the piece, date the painting was created, medium used, size and the stylistic period. Following this you will need to atlantic system, describe the subject, theme, content, background and street crash, ideas ascertained from the piece. Other points that you will need to review and An Actor Gives More Just Funny to Hollywood, comment on crash effects are the focal points, geometric shapes, symmetry and depths of the piece.

How to write a visual analysis of Adam An Actor Gives than to Hollywood a sculpture. Wall. When analyzing a sculpture, you will need to review and The Buena Vista Club, document the following: Sculpture details artists name, title of the piece, where it was made, when it was made, dimensions of the piece, ensuring that you state the height of it first and the material used to street crash effects, make it. Subject matter determine whether the piece is abstract or representational, explaining reasons of your opinion, and give details on the characterization of the piece. Other observations to include content, lighting, color, lines/contouring, space and depth. How to write a visual analysis of a photograph. Analyzing a photograph is street similar to analyzing many types of visual images. You will need to look at and comment on the age, dimensions, lighting, color, lines and texture of the picture. In addition, you should make note of any emotions the photograph evokes and any opinions you have on what is in the picture. How to write a visual analysis of a political cartoon. Cartoonists are expressive persons who use visuals to send their messages. When evaluating a political cartoon, you need to assess the following points: Symbols may be used to represent a main point, issue or idea and it is effects your responsibility to decipher what the artist means.

Exaggeration is done when they emphasize a physical feature of a character or thing to make a point. Labelling is done to ensure that their point is clearly made. An analogy is used to compare a complex issue with a more familiar one to help explain it to the audience or help them see it from to New Essay, a different viewpoint. Irony is often used to explain their view on a subject matter. When you have assessed these points, you will need to street effects, determine what the issue is and the opinion of the cartoonist. You can then determine whether or not it was a persuasive cartoon and express your thoughts and opinions on it. How to write a visual analysis paper on an advertisement. Analyzing an advertisement requires you to do the following: Introduce the ad by stating the product or service being advertised. Give background information on the ad, and maybe a competing ad, making sure to state the medium (TV, radio or press). State the target audience it is aimed at, the reaction of the persons to the ad and end with your own thoughts on it.

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Essay: Intersectionalism in novels of the Black Womens Literary Renaissance (1970-2000); The Color Purple and Beloved. I am a feminist, and what that means to me is much the same as the effects meaning of the ionic equation fact that I am Black: it means that I must undertake to love myself and to respect myself as though my very life depends upon self-love and self-respect. June Jordan. The position of black American women is one that only few people would desire. For centuries these women have struggled to find their identity and free themselves from oppression by white people, but also from wall sexism and classism. Of course we had the civil rights movement and feminism flourishing in the 60s and 70s of the last century, but what had these movements meant for black American women?

Women had played a vital role in hitler profile, the civil rights movement, they mobilised the people to participate and initiated various successful demonstrations for the movement. Effects. However, black women received little recognition for their efforts. They were given positions behind the scenes whereas men were placed in Club, controlling positions. In the famous March on Washington in 1963, many speakers and crash civil rights movements were able to present their ideas. One group, however was silenced and hitler profile was denied the opportunity to wall crash effects, speak in the March: black women. Civil rights activist, Dorothy Height, states that: There was an all-consuming focus on race. We women were expected to put all our energies into it [the March]there was a low tolerance level forquestions about womens participation (Height, 2001). Although inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, in which black women had gained experience in atlantic system, civic organising, no black women were granted an important role in the Feminist Movement. The Feminist Movement was led by middle class white women.

White women had to be convinced that black women were also entitled to wall street crash effects, enter the ionic Feminist Movement, and to share power within the organisation. However, due to racism and classism, black women were not given equal roles. We can easily conclude that the role of black women in both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement was marginalised by street effects subsequently sexism and racism/classism. The dissatisfaction women felt with their position in both movements, led to the rise of Black Feminism. Atlantic System. Black Feminism argues: that the experience of being a black woman cannot be understood in terms of being black, and of being a woman, considered independently, but must include the wall street effects interactions, which frequently reinforce each other. (Crenshaw Thomas, 2004). This intersectionalist approach clarifies that the race and gender problems black women face, are very much entwined and thus more complicated.

At the dawn of feminism, with the civil rights movement declared dead, but black feminism still alive, black women writers entered their literary renaissance in Essay vs Makeup, the late 20th century. Fuelled by their experiences in the era in which the civil rights movement and feminism flourished, oppression of black women is the wall crash effects central theme in most novels by Afro-American women writers of this time. Award winning novelists Alice Walker and Toni Morrison emphasize the intersectionalist problems black women face in Social Club Essay, their novels. In this essay, I will explore how the theme of racial, class and gender oppression is discussed in two Pulitzer prize-winning novels of the second black women renaissance: The Color Purple by Alice Walker and wall street crash effects Beloved by Tony Morrison. By looking at the novels from an intersectionalist point of view, I will focus on how racism, classism and to New York City Essay sexism are portrayed and intertwined. The novels Beloved and The colour Purple are drenched with violence and other forms of oppressive behaviour towards women. The women in the novels endure gender, class and racial discrimination, which is street effects often expressed through violence and sexual abuse.

Both stories are set in a post slavery, all black, rural community around the turn of the previous century. Unlike The Color Purple, Beloved uses flash backs to take us to the time of slavery at the plantation of Sweet Home. However, set in the time after slavery, Bergthaller (2006) concludes the following: It is thus only consequential that the novel puts its characters at a temporal remove from their own experience of atlantic system, slavery: the wall street crash diegetic present of the novel is set in , the year 1873, and the former lives of the characters as slaves are presented in a series of flashbacks as the novel unfolds. Wall Street. Properly speaking, then, Beloved is a novel not so much about slavery itself as about its effects on those who live in its wake. (Bergthaller, 2006). In the two novels, race plays an important role, although described from a very different angle. In Morrisons Beloved, racial oppression is the most important theme. The issue is dealt with through describing the horrors of slavery and, even more so, the trauma it caused, whereas in The Color Purple the Essay racial tension is present throughout the street effects novel, but with feminist concerns as the key topic. Although all black people, at the time, suffered from racial oppression, women seem to , have a worse position because of their gender and wall effects their ability to hitler profile, have children.

One of the crash effects main disadvantages women had, was that they could increase the slave owners wealth through the production of more slaves, and were therefore systematically raped. Rape is a frequently reoccurring phenomenon in both books. In their recent study West and Johnson (2013) describe the history of rape of crash effects, black women since the early days of slavery. Even before arriving in America the women were systematically raped by the crew members during their Middle Passage. To the slave owners the value of women was mainly in the fact that they could produce children and with that increase the slave owners wealth. But even after slavery was abolished, rape was still widespread due to poor legislation that did not recognise the sexual molestation of black women as rape. Historical Overview: Throughout much of U.S. history, the rape of Black women was widespread and institutionalized. The legal system offered little protection and Trip Essay stereotypes about Black womens hypersexuality were used to justify limited social support for Black rape victims. Black women developed a culture of silence and engaged in anti-rape organizing to cope with their victimization. (West Johnson, 2013) In her novel Beloved, Toni Morrison writes about the cruel history of rape in Afro-American history during the time of slavery. Street Crash. On page 62 we learn about the vs Makeup brutalities during the Middle passage.

Although Morrisons word choice is quite subtle and veiled, we can conclude that the story she tells is gruesome: Sethes mother and Nan were repeatedly raped during their transatlantic trip. Sethes mother threw all resulting children (except Sethe) overboard, and Sethe was given the name of a black man. were taken up many times by the crew and She threw them all away but you. The one from the crew she threw away on the island. The others from more whites she also threw away. Wall Street Crash. Without names, she threw them. You she gave the name of the black man. (Beloved p.62) Just like her mother, Sethe experiences rape when enslaved. She is sexually violated by her masters nephews. Although again not described explicitly, we can read that the two sexually and The Buena Social physically molested her while she was pregnant and wall crash took her milk. (p. Atlantic System. 16) + 251.

The experience deeply influences Sethe as we can conclude from her actions taken when, after having fled to Baby Suggs House, Schoolteacher arrives to take her and her children back to Sweet Home. Sethe kills her daughter so that. no gang of wall street, whites [would invade] her daughters private parts, [soil] her daughters thighs (Beloved, p. 251) Through this horrific act, Sethe demonstrates her belief that death is a kinder alternative than rape. To her, it is the only way she can protect her child.

In the book Morrison reports on numerous other instances of rape of women during slavery: Vashti, Stamp Paids wife was forced to have sex with her enslaver, Baby Suggs was forced to have sex with her straw boss and with an overseer, and Ella was locked up and repeatedly raped by a father and son. However, in Morrisons Beloved, not only women suffer from Essay on Makeup vs Makeup Setter rape by the hands of white men. Wall Street Crash. Paul D describes how he gets raped during a chain gang. Atlantic System. Every morning the prisoners are forced to fellate the white guards. Wall Crash. Field (2007) remarks that. Race, not gender, makes Paul and Sethe vulnerable to the trauma of rape; and hitler profile rape, in turn, signifies the many atrocities of slavery through which Paul, Sethe and Sixty Million more suffered. (Field, 2007) In my opinion, Fields remark is partially correct. In Beloved both men and women are raped because they are black. But with this, she disregards the fact that the wall street extent in which rape occurred with women, because they could produce offspring, is of a different magnitude. As indicated before, racism plays an important role throughout The Color Purple.

Although not the main theme, it seems that the effects and consequences of slavery and racism are an underlying cause for what happens in the story. An example of this, is that late in the novel we learn that Celies and Netties real father is lynched by white men for atlantic system no other reason than being a successful store owner. One could argue that the loss of her father is the cause for Celies mistreatment in wall street crash effects, her youth. It seems that in the post slavery, rural community, black men and Trip to New City Essay women are trying to rediscover their identity. As we have seen in Beloved, Slavery has taken away the identity of the slaves leaving them numb and animal-like. Especially men are trying to find a way to shape their masculinity and wall street effects position towards women.

More about this will follow in the paragraphs about gender discrimination later in this essay. Women too are trying to find a position in life. Throughout the novel, there is the belief that bright skin is more beautiful. Squeak, who is of mixed race, is aware of this division and asks Harpo, Do you really love me, or just my colour?. The most explicit example of racism is the incident between Sofia and the mayors wife who offers Sophia to become her maid. Sophia answer is a short hell, no! on which she is vs Makeup Setter slapped by the woman.

Sofia however stands up for herself and hits back. The beating she receives from the police is disproportionately severe. Celie visits her and witnesses the gruesome results of the beating: Celie: When I see Sofia I dont know why she still alive. They crack her skull, they crack her ribs. They tear her nose loose on one side. They blind her in one eye. She swole from head to foot. Her tongue the size of my arm, it stick out wall street, tween her teef like a piece of rubber. . She cant talk.

And she just about the wall crash effects color of a eggplant. (TCP, p. 88) Harpos wife Sophia is sentenced to 12 years in jail. After several years, Sophia is released and sent to street crash, work for the mayors wife, and with that confined to servitude and domesticity within her home. Sophia described work as slavery. (TCP, p. 102-108) But racism is not only present in America, Nettie understands that although she has the same colour skin, cultural differences separate her from the The Buena Olinkas.

She states: I think Africans are very much like white people back home, in that they think they are the center of the universe and that everything that is done is wall street done for them. (TCP, p. 65.2) Olivia expresses one of the most political statements of the book, recognizing that sexism and racism are similar forms of , oppression. In contrast to Morrisons novel where most perpetrators are white oppressors, we find that in The Color Purple they are mostly black males from within the community. This shows that living in an all black community does not guarantee black women to street crash, be much better off. Especially Celie is discriminated against because of her gender. Adam Gives More Just Funny Movies To Hollywood. She endures sexual abuse, exploitation and violence only because she is street crash a woman.

The Color Purple is placed in a rural setting just after the abolishment of slavery, where traditional roles of Vista Social, men and women were standard. Male dominance is the norm throughout society and wall street therefore men feel that they own women who should obey and submit. One could argue that gender domination being the standard at the time, was similar for both black and ionic equation white females. However, it seems that women in The Color Purple suffer from a different kind of male dominance than their white counterparts. Many instances of oppression of women/Male dominance in the book show a striking resemblance to what women experienced in slavery. Wall Effects. It seems that the men in the story are struggling to , rediscover their male identity, which they had lost during slavery. Not being sure how to effects, achieve this, they apply what they have experienced in the past and for neutralisation take on crash, the role of the slave owner. The novel starts with the most disturbing scene in the book. Here we learn that the man Celie believes is her father, Alfonso, rapes the protagonist, a fourteen-year-old black girl.

Celies mother is ill and refuses to Social Club Essay, have sex with her husband because she is too weak. Effects. In the process of being raped Celie cries, Alfonso chokes her and immediately makes sure that she knows this behaviour will also occur in Essay vs Makeup Setter, future by saying: you better shut up and git used to it. (TCP, p. Wall Street. 1) In this case, we see rape is used as an expression of Alfonzos belief that he as a man has the right to have sex. He uses Celie as a sexual substitute for her mother and says You gonna do what your mammy wouldnt. (TCP, p. 1) As women in slavery, Celie suffers the sexual abuse throughout childhood and subsequently gets pregnant a number of times. In order to hide the evidence of his sex crimes, Alfonzo takes away the children and lets Celie believe that he killed them. He took it. He took it while I was sleeping. Kilt it out there in the woods.

Kill this one too if he can.. Essay On Makeup. (TCP, p. 2). Celies Marries Mr_. The sexual encounters with him are unloving and might just feel like being raped. Just do his business, get off, go to sleep (TCP, p.78) Besides being sexually abused from her teenage years, Celie has also been exploited. Celie had to follow traditional responsibilities, first by her own family and crash effects then in her marriage to Albert. When her mother fell ill, Celie was required to An Actor that More than Funny Movies to Hollywood, do all the wall crash effects work around the house: cooking, cleaning, washing. Alfonzo pulled her out of school so she could spend more time working around the house.

After a while Alfonzo wants to get rid of Celie and Adam Sandler: that Just Movies marries her off to Albert (Mr_). Albert is really more interested in Nettie, but Alfonzo tells him about the advantages of taking Celie: Well, next time you come you can look at her. She ugly. Dont even look like she kin to Nettie. But shell make the better wife.

She aint smart either, and Ill just be fair, you have to watch her or shell give away everything you own. But she can work like a man. (TCP, p. 8) The way Celie is given away to street crash, her husband resembles the Sandler: Gives More than Just way slaves were sold at a market. Wall Street Crash Effects. By giving her away to a suitable man, her father puts the young teenager in a situation in atlantic system, which she has to cope with the street crash abusive relationship she is forced into. Celie does not call her husband Albert by his first name but refers to him as Mr__. Hitler Profile. This shows that she is street effects not on the same level as her husband and it resembles the way the slaves used to call their masters. On Makeup. The relationship between the two bears great similarities of that of a slave and her master. In her fifteenth letter to God, Celie tells the reader that she has to wall crash effects, work the on Makeup land, whereas her husband is sitting on the porch smoking a cigar. Celie is expected to work on the land alone. Celie is also told to look after the house and children and do whatever Albert demands without objecting. One of Mr__s sisters tells her that.

When a woman marry, she spose to keep a decent house and a clean family (p. 20). Physical violence is common and street crash used as a manner of control and a way of punishment. Mr_ beats Celie on a regular basis. When Harpo, Mr__s son asks his father why he beats Celie, Albert says that he does so because she is his wife, and does not listen. From the scene we can read that he has no respect for women. Harpo ast his daddy why he beat me. Mr. ____ say, Cause she my wife. Street Crash. Plus, she stubborn. Atlantic System. All women good forhe dont finish. He just tuck his chin over the paper like he do.

Remind me of Pa. (TCP, p. 23) The conversations between Harpo and his father and Celie provide us with an street effects, interesting insight in how the young mans understanding of the on Makeup Setter role of women and being a man is effects shaped. In the vs Makeup nineteenth letter Celie reports on an other conversation between Harpo and his father. Street Effects. In this conversation we learn that Harpo wants to control his wife. Although it seems that they have a loving marriage, Harpo is used to men dominating women and Essay Setter wants to do the wall street crash effects same. He even feels embarrassed to admit that he has never beaten Sofia. Mr.__ advises Harpo to dominate Sofia the way most men do, by using violence. Harpo want to know what to atlantic system, do to make Sofia mind. He sit out on the porch with Mr._________. He say, I tell her one thing, she do another.

Never do what I say. Always backtalk. To tell the truth, he sound a little proud of this to me. You ever hit her? Mr._________ ast. Harpo look down at his hands. Naw suh, he say low, embarrass. Well how you spect to make her mind?

Wives is like children. You have to crash, let em know who got the upper hand. Nothing can do that better than a good sound beating. (TCP, p.36) Much later in the book, when Celie points out that Harpo should not hit Sofia because she is a good wife, Harpo tells her that he wants to dominate Sofia. To Harpo, a good marriage is one in which the woman is totally submissive.

I want her to do what I say, like you do for Pa. When Pa tell you to do something, you do it, he say. When he say not to, you dont. The Buena Vista Club Essay. You dont do what he say, he beat you. Sometime beat me anyhow, I say, whether I do what he say or not. (TCP, p. 63) From Celie we learn that Mr__ abuses her even if she does what he wants. Not all women are passive and scared to stand up and fight for themselves. Unlike Celie, Sofia doesnt accept men using violence against her but hits back. [Harpo and Sofia] fighting like two mens.

Every piece of furniture they got is turned over. Every plate look like it broke. Effects. The looking glass hang crooked, the curtains torn. The bed look like the stuffing pulled out. They dont notice.

They fight. Social. He try to slap her. What he do that for? She reach down and grab a piece of stove wood and wall whack him cross the eyes. Hitler Profile. He punch her in the stomach, she double over crash, groaning but come up with both hands lock right under his privates. To New York City Essay. He roll on the floor. He grab her dress tail and pull.

She stand there in wall street, her slip. Trip To New City. She never blink a eye. He jump up to put a hammer lock under her chin, she throw him over her back. He fall bam up gainst the stove. (20.2) Sofias pride and not independence however results in the dreadful incident with the mayors wife, for which she gets imprisoned first and the is forced to work in the mayors wifes household. This shows that even though a woman is street strong enough to escape male dominance, racism and classism forces her back into servitude. Being black around the 1900s is Essay on Makeup a great predictor for class. All black people in the novels are poor with the exception of wall crash effects, Celies father in The Color Purple.

Her fathers wealth however leads to atlantic system, his death, because white people do not condone blacks to be well off and lynch the man. All other black characters in wall street crash, both books are exploited, poorly educated, and badly housed. Hitler Profile. It is hard for them, not to wall street crash effects, say impossible, to better themselves. For black women the situation is even worse. In addition to whites making it hard to escape class, men oppose women trying to better themselves just as much. In The Color Purple, a young Celie hungers for education but her stepfather pulls her out of school because she is wall crash effects needed to hitler profile, fulfil the traditional role of a woman which means that she has to street crash, do work around the house. Not only in America, we find the idea that women do not have to hitler profile, be educated because they have to fulfil a domestic role.

In Africa, Nettie encounters similar problems: Why cant Tashi come to school? she [Olivia] asked me. When I told her the Olinka dont believe in wall street crash, educating girls she said, quick as a flash, Theyre like white people at home who dont want colored people to learn. (62.10) Because black women are poor, we also find examples of prostitution out of desperation. City Essay. The first instance of this is Sethes exchange of sex for engraving het daughters tombstone, the second involves the street effects Saturdays girls work at the slaughterhouse. With the recent experiences of The Civil Rights Movement and More Just Funny Movies to Hollywood the Feminist Movement in mind, both Alice Walker and Toni Morrison address the notion of intersectionalism as emphasized by Black Feminism. In Beloved, as well as in The Color Purple we find black women struggling with racial, gender, and class oppression. Alice Walkers The Colour Purple mainly focusses on sexism within the black community, whereas reminiscences of slavery and racism is key topic in Toni Morrisons Beloved. Although different in focus, in wall street crash effects, both novels the intersectionalist idea that the problems black women face are very much entwined and thus more complicated, is a major theme. In her novel Beloved, Morrison addresses the problem of racism and Black American heritage in which black Americans deal with the trauma of Adam An Actor that Gives than Just to Hollywood, slavery. Slavery has left such scars within the black community that it is wall street difficult to leave behind. To New York City Essay. In addition to describing the general horrors of slavery, she particularly focusses on the traumas and experiences of women.

On this intersection between race, gender and class (only a slave), being a black enslaved female and able to wall, produce offspring added to the horrors of slavery, because females were consequently raped and impregnated. Being a mother under such circumstances was difficult: women could often not care for atlantic system the children that were conceived through rape because they were taken away. If children stayed with their mothers, they were often unable to protect them which in Beloved results in street crash effects, Sethe murdering her daughter. Starting point for The Color Purple, is a more feminist view. Walker challenges the traditional role of women and male dominance. In her novel we follow the struggle of protagonist Celie, for Trip York identity and self worth in a situation in wall street effects, which men force her into being a submissive, almost slave-like, housewife. The men in her life use her to exert their masculinity. The way men try to oppress her is very similar to how the slaves were suppressed by the plantation owners.

It seems that black men follow by example, and the only example they have, stems from their experiences in slavery. In both novels black women are unable to better themselves and transcend their class. Black women and slaves are not permitted to The Buena Social, educate themselves. Although the starting point and street focus of the two novels is different, we may conclude that the hitler profile situation for black American women is complicated. Race, gender and class play a huge role in the lives of black women, but they are entwined to such an street crash effects, extend that it is Sandler: An Actor that More than Just to Hollywood impossible to pinpoint one of the forms of oppression without taking the others into consideration. Bergthaller, H. (2006).

Dis (re) membering Historys revenants: Trauma, Writing, and Simulated Orality in Toni Morrisons Beloved. Wall Crash Effects. Connotations, 116. Crenshaw, K., Thomas, S. (2004). Hitler Profile. Intersectionality: the double bind of street effects, race and gender. IN: perspectives. Vs Makeup. Fr??hling. C-Span (2001, July 20), Video interview with Dorothy Height. Retrieved June 02, 2015, from Fields, R. (2007).

Tracing Rape: The Trauma of Slavery in Toni Morrisons Beloved. Women Writing Rape: Literary and Theoretical Narratives of effects, Sexual Violence. Warwick University, 24th April. I_am_a_feminist_and_what_that_means. (n.d.). Columbia World of Adam An Actor More, Quotations. Retrieved May 22, 2015, from website: Walker, A. (2003). The color purple: A novel.

New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. West, C. Johnson, K. (2013, March). Sexual Violence in the Lives of African American Women. Harrisburg, PA: VAWnet, a project of the crash National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. Retrieved 20/05/2015, from: Search our thousands of essays:

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However, there are applicants, such as graphic designers or photographers, who should consider them. . When used appropriately, images can anchor your resume in the mind of the hiring manager. Follow the link to find a multitude of resume examples in a variety of styles. Wall Effects. InDesign Created by Adobe, InDesign can be thought of as page-layout software. . It enables the wall crash, easy movement around the page of images, text, icons, or other artwork. This allows you to manipulate your resume in creative ways. At the atlantic system, link you will find 26 resume templates using the crash effects, InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format. LaTeX LaTeX is not a word processor; it is a high quality type-setting system. LaTex was created for academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and non-Roman scripts. This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of , images that its competition lacks. Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files.

If you are applying for wall street crash effects, work in academia, you might need a CV template. Essay. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and examples. Some documents from crash effects, our template library use lorem ipsum text. We refer to those documents as blank resume templates because they are designed to assist you with the hitler profile, resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and other content. These are created to help guide the resume writing process. Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and wall street crash, templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and Adam Sandler: An Actor More than Funny, start landing more interviews.

For job-hunters on the go, here are three Editors Choice sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for Essay on Makeup vs Makeup Setter, most career stages and experience levels. You can also browse some of the most popular layouts weve created. Our hall of fame Top 10 Best Templates includes our ten most popular resume templates for you to download for wall crash effects, free. Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and accomplishments at equation, a glance. This type of resume is a great choice for job seekers with a long and stable employment record. Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style.

See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to wall street effects, format your own resume, and to Trip York Essay, download free chronological resume examples. Functional resumes take the focus away from work experience and emphasize qualifications and skills. This resume type works best for career changers, job seekers who have gaps in their work history, and wall street crash, applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to learn how to create your own skills-based resume, and to equation for neutralisation, download functional resume examples. Combination Resumes (also known as hybrid resumes) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and responsibilities. Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools youll need to make this tricky format work for wall effects, you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Basic does not need to be boring. Hitler Profile. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of color to help your application stand out.

They are appropriate in most industries and career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Three of crash, our favorite examples are below, and atlantic system, thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library. Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in their recruitment process. Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. If you want to ensure that an ATS doesnt lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the Trip to New York, safest choice. This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles. Wall Effects. See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for clarity and readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the , right amount of style to your professional profile. These effective designs rely on typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. Wall Crash. If you think this resume style is for you, download one of three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here.

Our Modern designs are elegant and streamlined with a twist of creativity. While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of Adam Sandler: Gives Funny Movies to Hollywood, industries, they are ideal for high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the latest technology. Effects. See three examples below, or follow the atlantic system, link to view more templates in our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and crash effects, teasers. They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. Hitler Profile. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection.

In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of professional work. Crash. If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to effects, present your creativity and accomplishments in a visual way. See all of our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to Vista Social Essay, decide what to street crash, trim from your two-page resume? Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on a single page, follow the link to to New York, our discussion of One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. Crash Effects. As fancy and for neutralisation, bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to consider who will be reading them.

You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the wall street crash, Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the story of your professional life. Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry.

We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to download see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly?

Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders. Essay Setter. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from wall street effects, standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and fonts. The content produced by resume templates and vs Makeup Setter, builders, however, is not meant to be the final result. Every job seekers experience is unique, and a template needs to be customized to match and promote that singular experience. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the best choice for wall street crash effects, executives with an impressive vertical career progression.

Templates are meant to be a place to Social, start the difficult process of creating your resume. Wall. They arent one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldnt be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in atlantic system, landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and street crash effects, do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. Ionic. This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and can create excellent first drafts. The search for wall street, work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They dont get you to , the finish line, but can give you a head start over wall street your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the Sandler: that Just to Hollywood, job-hunting process.

Here are a few: Email and online resume You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in crash, many formats. Essay Vs Makeup. Writing Tips Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and wall street crash, achievements. Cover letter templates and builders Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and hitler profile, design. Resume samples Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts.

The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at wall crash,, Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing. Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. Essay On Makeup Vs Makeup. But their covert function is to street crash, show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style.

Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company.

If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is street effects where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and atlantic system, maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the wall crash, following guidelines. Dont skimp While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Essay On Makeup Vs Makeup. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job intervieweven if the employer doesnt read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and crash effects, a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Keep it brief And the shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or the shorter the better approach. But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine.

Just make sure its well crafted. If possible, create a narrative Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letterexecutive resumes, for examplemake it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader wont care that it is long. For a resume, a narratives context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences youve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed.

And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. With social media, this is Adam Sandler: than Just Funny far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to street crash, study their content and the culture. Focus on details Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Equation. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and wall effects, proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the Sandler: An Actor More than Funny Movies, most of Microsoft Words features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks.

How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and wall crash effects, page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to hitler profile, customize tabs, text boxes and crash, tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. Hitler Profile. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. Crash. We use text styles and Sandler: that Gives More than Funny, built-in color schemes to create our templates.

Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the crash effects, process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. Trip To New York. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the street crash, size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to York City, none and print on a high-quality colored paper. Wall. If the hitler profile, design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is wall unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.