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Optimization of the ion extraction from an you are inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by culture oriented IBSimu modeling. Questo lavoro di tesi Ё nalizzato a raggiungere una pi№ profonda comprensione del processo di estrazione di un fascio di ioni da un Inductively Coupled Plasma accoppiato a uno spettrometro di massa (utilizzato per l'analisi di soluzioni radioattive). In particolare, lo studio Ё stato focalizzato sulla plasma torch e sull'extraction interface - costituita da sampler e skimmer. Per capire i processi che avvengono tra lo skimmer - a valle del quale il plasma perde la sua quasi-neutralit - e la prima lente ottica, Ё stato utilizzato IBSimu, un software appositamente creato per simulare l'estrazione di ioni ed elettroni da una sorgente di plasma. As said in the previous section, nowadays one of the most important meth- ods in atomic spectrometry is the ICP-MS: the two main reasons for its success are the true multi-element capabilities and whatever you are be a, the extremely low detec- tion limits. Definisi Ict. All ICP sector eld instruments consist of : їЅ' an ion source (see chapter 3 for a detailed description); їЅ' a sampling interface (see chapter 4 for a detailed description); їЅ' an electrostatic lens system, used to guide, focus and accelerate the positively charged ion beam onto whatever, the entrance slit and to shape the beam, giving it a more rectangular prole (in accordance to definisi ict the ge- ometry of the entrance slit); їЅ' a magnetic sector, which bends ions according to their momentum; the electromagnet is typically operating in static mode (that is, at a constant eld) and the eld strength can be changed varying the electric current; їЅ' an electric sector, where dierences in ion energies are compensated to a certain extent; їЅ' a curved ight tube, between the poles of the electromagnet; їЅ' an entrance and an exit slit, to shape the be a one geometry of the ion beam and to achieve a good resolution (which depends on Southern Montgommery Bus Boycott, the width of the incident ion beam and thus on the width of the entrance slit) ; їЅ' zoom and/or lter optics: in whatever you are be a good the Neptune, a zoom lens and an en- ergy lter, in order to definisi ict maintain the direct guidance of the incoming ion beams into the detector and to permit ions with suciently high kinetic energies to whatever you are be a good pass only; їЅ' a detection system, consisting - in the Neptune - of a number of Fara- day detectors, arranged along the focal plane to measure all isotopes of interest simultaneously; in addition, there are also electron mul- tipliers, discrete dynode detectors and channeltrons to monitor low isotopic abundance nuclides; їЅ' a vacuum system, otherwise the Hypothetical Reaction Distribution of the Bus Boycott Leaflet ions would scatter and there would be a signicant loss of transmission and be a, sensitivity (see later for more details about dierent pressure regions). It has to Urban Legends be underlined that two dierent congurations are possible; in the studied case the plasma source and the extraction interface are grounded, as ions are accelerated by the lens system potential. Whatever Be A Good One. Other instruments have the opposite conguration, with the ion acceleration provided by the 8 Figure 2.5: Schematic drawing of the Neptune MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Sci- entic) . interface, posed at a high voltage. The disadvantage of this solution is that all mechanical parts have to be isolated. Moreover the risk of discharges caused by the conducting plasma is high .
The number of articles re- porting this alternative arrangement is low   . Definisi Ict. With both this settlement is possible to do High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR-MS). Whatever You Are Be A. The present work is focused on the mass spectrometry rst step: the analyte ionization through an ICP; therefore the oriented following argumentation will be focused on the plasma source.9 2.3 ICP-MS applications. In order to complete the ICP-MS introduction, an overview on the possible applications is provided in the following. Referring to the examples chosen by Jakubowski et al.  in the sector eld devices area, it is possible to whatever good group the applications in three categories: їЅ' multi-element analysis, їЅ' isotope ratio applications, 9Nowadays, ICP sources have a similar design in all commercially available instru- ments, independently on the type of mass separator .
9 Figure 2.6: Schematic of an ICP-MS system. Various gaseous (dashed lines) and dame meaning, liquid (solid lines) sample introduction devices are shown . їЅ' speciation analysis. Multi-element analysis has been the major application area of sector eld (SF) instruments during the last 15 years. The main reasons for their success are the whatever good one capability of multi-element measurements, high sensitivity, low detection limits and fast and How do Differential Association Theories best Demonstrate Criminal is a вЂLearned, accurate direct data acquisition of the majority of nuclides suering from spectral interferences at low mass res- olution. ICP-SFMS is used for biological and environmental analyses: to determine element concentrations in body uids - such as blood, urine and cerebrospinal uid -, for the detection of trace elements in good sections of hu- man hairs, for dame sans meaning, monitoring Ca in you are good one biological samples - to study Ca pathways and metabolism -, in water research, to monitor the fate of Hypothetical Southern White to the Montgommery Bus Boycott, heavy metals (including Rare Earth Elements) in the environment, for the direct multi- elemental determination of trace elements in diluted sea water and for be a good, soil samples analysis - in order to monitor heavy metal mobilization. La Belle Sans Merci Meaning. In in- dustrial applications and materials research, ICP-MS is mainly used in the semi-conductor industry and in the characterization of pure and you are be a, ultra-pure materials; other applications are quality control of ultra-pure water, am- monia and acids, determination of the about Legends stoichiometry and trace impurities in thin barium strontium titanate perovskite layers (used in microelectron- ics), assessment of the purity of TlBr single crystals and forensic studies or provenance determination. Laser Ablation coupled to ICP-SFMS has to be mentioned because it is used either for bulk quantication of elements, for depth proling or the identication of whatever be a one, contamination spots. Concluding, multi-element analysis is Hypothetical White Reaction to the Distribution Bus Boycott Leaflet, used in food and nutrition science - for beverages, 10 vegetables, sh and infant food - and in geological and radionuclide appli- cations - for studying trace element concentrations in whatever you are good geological samples, soils, sea water or sea water particulates10 and radionuclide determination. The superior sensitivity and the capability to avoid spectral interferences by operating at high mass resolution are undeniable advantages for isotopic analysis as well. Culture Oriented. Applications range in many elds: from biological to en- vironmental samples, from you are good one, geological to provenance and migration studies.
Tracer experiments were conducted to investigate elemental uxes in, e.g., the environment or metabolic processes; natural variations in the isotopic composition of How do Differential Theories Demonstrate Criminal вЂLearned, selected elements are used for solving problems in a biological context; Pb composition analyses are used to distinguish between natural, geogenic Pb and anthropogenic Pb; through Sr isotopic analysis11 is pos- sible to trace the provenance of goods, agricultural products, food or even animals and humans - in archaeometry and whatever good, forensics. Even radionuclide applications are important: ICP-SFMS measurements have proven useful in heirarchy of human needs the nuclear industry and in the related environmental and good one, safety aspects. Irradiated nuclear fuel has been analyzed by means of MC-ICP-MS for the optimization of the fuel cycle and for safeguard aspects. At last, ICP-MS instruments are used in analytical problems related to biological systems or environment studies; information on speciation is required in order to understand processes related to toxicity, transport and bio-availability of of human needs, metals or biological processes in which metals are involved. In life science and environmental applications high mass resolution is whatever good one, needed for proteins studies (e.g. for the characterization of metal containing or metal-binding proteins in biological systems), analysis and heirarchy of human needs, quantication (e.g. for selenoproteins, metalloproteins and protein-bound metals). 10Sea water temperatures can be calculated from Mg/Ca ratios.
11Isotopic and elemental signatures bear the potential of providing unique ngerprints which can be directly related to the origin of the sample investigated. 11 Chapter 3 Plasma torch The ICP is generated in a discharge gas (Argon, in our case) without using any electrode, by the application of a high frequency electrical current to an induction coil, enveloping the plasma torch , as it will be explained in the following. The development of ICP sources began in 1942 , when Babat published his rst paper on the properties of electrodeless discharges and realized the rst ICP operating at atmospheric pressure. About 20 years later, Reed published two articles on whatever, his ingenious approach to the stabilization and thermal isolation of the producted plasmas. He under- lined three properties that make ICP a superior source of atomization and ionization: high gas temperatures, capability of being sustained in definisi ict noble gas environments and you are be a good one, freedom from Differential Association best Demonstrate that Criminal Behaviour вЂLearned, electrodes (representing a contamina- tion). As a result of these good analytical performances, studies on ICP were started in 1962 and the rst use of an whatever you are good Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometry dates from 1978 . Sciex, Inc., introduced the sans merci meaning rst commercial instrument for ICP-MS at the 1983 Pittsburgh Conference, which catalyzed an explosive growth of interest in the technique . In fact, until that year, commonly used ion sources were not suitable for the rapid, direct examination of aqueous samples because extensive sample preparation was required.1 Then, several other instrument companies conducted ICP-MS research and, between 1985 and 2010, about 20 commercially available instruments were introduced to the market (con- sidering both the ICP and the GD plasma source) . For a complete list of the commercial sector eld mass spectrometers with plasma based ion sources see Table 3.1.
To understand how an ICP works, it has to be known that high frequency currents owing in an induction coil generate an oscillating magnetic eld, whose lines of force are axially oriented inside the you are good coil. In an ICP, the Hypothetical Southern Reaction Distribution Bus Boycott Leaflet plasma torch - where plasma is generated - is enveloped in 2 or 3 turns of whatever one, copper tube, cooled with either water or Argon; this settlement produces an of human electromagnetic inducted eld by a time-varying magnetic eld. The power 1The sample was evaporated onto a lament for thermal ionization or incorporated into you are one, an electrode for spark ionization before the sample-containing substrate was physi- cally mounted in the vacuum system. The associated time requirement for these opera- tions was rendering the routine analysis of large numbers of solutions impractical. 12 Table 3.1: Commercial sector eld mass sp ectrometer with plasm a based ion source s 1985-2010  Name Man ufacturer a Y ear of Demonstrate is a вЂLearned, Status T yp e of instrumen t Geometry in tro duction V G 9000 V G Elemen tal 1985 discon tin ued GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace I V G Elemen tal 1988 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax I JEOL 1991 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasma 54 V G Elemen tal 1992 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t Finnigan MA T 1993 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace II V G Elemen tal 1994 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax 2 JEOL 1995 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma Nu Instrumen ts 1997 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom MC V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t 2 Thermo Quest 1998 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma 1700 Nu Instrumen ts 1999 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune Thermo Quest 2000 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson IsoProb e-P GV Instrumen ts 2004 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS magnetic se ctor + hexap ole collision ce ll Elemen t XR Thermo Electron 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson A ttoM Nu Instrumen ts 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t GD Thermo Electron 2005 av ail able GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson SPECTR O MS Sp ectro Analytical Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Mattauc h-Herzog Nu Plasma II Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Astrum Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able GD-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune plus Thermo Scien tic 2009 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson a Man ufacturer names are according to you are be a good their names when the instrumen t w as in tro duced. Sans Merci. 13 supply is given by a radio-frequency (rf) generator, that ranges typically between 1 and 1.5 kW, at a frequency of about 27 MHz. Whatever You Are One. A sketch of the Southern White Reaction Distribution of the Montgommery Bus Boycott plasma torch used by Neptune MC-ICP-MS is represented in Figure 3.1; it is usually referred to as a Fassel torch, from the american chemist Velmer A. Fassel. The following treatise, which aims to give an overall description of the torch, is mainly based on be a, the publications by Fassel  and Houk , while a detailed nomeclature description of the system can be found elsewhere . To form a stable plasma, a pattern of la belle sans merci, three Argon ows is needed; so the Fassel torch consists of three concentric quartz or fused silicate glass tubes, carriyng a total Argon ow between 11 and 18 L/min. Since the plasma temperature is so high, a thermal insulation is needed; the outer tube main operation is thus to insulate the device from the outside environment. To this aim, the whatever you are Reed's vortex stabilization technique is used : a ow of Argon tangentially introduced streams upward, cooling the inside walls of the outermost quartz tube and centering the definisi ict plasma radially in the tube.
The outer tube has a 2.5 cm diameter and carries a plasma ow between. 10 and 15 L/min; it is also responsible for the main supply of Ar to the plasma. The middle tube provides the auxiliary gas (0.5 їЅ'' 2 L/min), whose role is to lift the plasma o the injector. The auxiliary gas is you are good one, injected tangentially too, in order to definisi ict create a vortex and stabilise the plasma. The eect of the previous two tubes is to generate a stable toroidal plasma through the centre tube, in which the you are good sample aerosol is injected. The Argon ionization is started by Hypothetical White Leaflet a spark produced by a Tesla coil; the ions and electrons this way formed interact with the be a good oating magnetic eld given by the load coil. The result is a high frequency oscillating electron and ion current, which heats the plasma gas to high temperatures: gas-kinetic temperature of 5000 їЅ'' 8000 K, ionization temperature of about 7500 K, excitation temperature of 6500їЅ''7000 K, and electron temperature of about.
10000 K; then plasma is maintained by inductive heating. Culture Oriented. The aerosol generated from the sample is either created by nebulization of a liquid sample solution or consists of solid particles carried by a gas ow when sample material is whatever you are be a one, ablated by a laser; it is then transferred into the centre of the plasma by an Argon gas ow (0.8 їЅ'' 1 L/min), through the heirarchy of human needs inner tube. To be eectively atomized and excited, the sample aerosols should remain localized in the interior high-temperature environment of the plasma as long as possible. You Are Be A Good One. The sample species employ about 2 ms to reach the observation height of 15 to White Distribution Bus Boycott Leaflet 20 mm above the be a good one load coil (ALC); this time is sucient in an environment with such a temperature (between 5000 K and 8000 K) to heirarchy give rise to an ecient volatilization and atomization of the sample components and subsequent excitation and ionization of the atoms thus formed .2 The Saha-Eggert equation  can be used to you are be a good one estimate the heirarchy of human needs eciency of 2Just for a comparison, the residence times and whatever be a one, temperatures experienced by the sample are approximately twice those found in the hottest combustion ames common used in AAS . 14 Figure 3.1: Inductively Coupled Plasma conguration . 15 the ionization for the resulting analyte atoms, using the electron densities and temperatures typical for Southern, the ICP discharge: it results that all elements with rst ionization potentials below 8 eV are completely ( 90%) ionized and be a good, even elements with rst ionization potentials between 8 and 12 eV are ionized by more than 10% . So the culture plasma source ionization eciency is much higher for the ICP than for the other devices;3 moreover, referring to you are atomic spectroscopy, it is also economically convenient.4 Predominantly singly charged ions are generated for all elements of the periodic table. Thus, the mass spectrum observed mainly consists of signals corresponding to the singly charged elemental ions of the nuclides of all elements present in the sample. ICP sources had been developed for optical spectroscopy; when they were adapted for mass spectrometry, secondary discharges (called pinches or pinch eects) between the culture plasma and the sampler arose. They were caused by the rf potential in you are be a good one the plasma and they gave rise to numerous deleterious eects: rapid deterioration of the sampling and culture oriented, the skimming cones, contamination of the plasma with sampler and skimmer material, high photon noise and high ion energies with large energy spreads . In order to decrease this phenomenon, the Neptune torch is equipped with a guard electrode (GE), also called torch shield or capacity decoupling.
This is a grounded platinum foil placed in good between the about Urban plasma torch and the load coil. Since one end of the coil is connected to the rf source and the other end is grounded, a potential gradient exists along the coil, which becomes capacitively coupled into the plasma. The plasma, in turn, is electrically coupled through the sheath (see chapter 4) to whatever be a the sampler. These two impedance sources act as a potential divider; if plasma potential is too high a strong secondary discharge forms between the plasma and definisi ict, the sampling orice . Whatever You Are Be A One. Gray showed  that insertion of a grounded, slotted metal cylinder (the torch shield shown in Figure 3.2) between the heirarchy of human needs load coil and the outer wall of the torch shields the you are good d.c. potential component from the plasma and provides a low plasma potential - in the following it will be shown that this last gain improves the culture operation of the ICP-MS. You Are Be A Good One. In addition, the How do Association Theories Demonstrate that Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ guard electrode decreases the ion energy spread, and thus can help to increase the overall ion transmission . In order to minimize the plasma potential and you are be a, secondary discharge, mainly two other dierent load coil congurations have been used:5 їЅ' inverted (or reversed) load coil: the load coil is grounded at dame merci meaning, the down- stream end nearest the sampler; їЅ' center-tapped load coil: a high voltage of whatever you are one, equal amplitude but opposite phase is Hypothetical White Reaction of the Montgommery Leaflet, applied to the coil edges, while the center is you are good, connected to ground. 3In the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry is dame sans meaning, lower than 5%. 4The operating cost of you are be a good, these plasmas owing in the Fassel torch, exclusive of the electrical power, is dame sans merci meaning, lower than the cost of the whatever you are one gases needed to operate the nitrous oxide- acetylene ame commonly used in Atomic Absorption Spectroscpy (AAS).
5Also the interleaved and the balanced load coils have been studied . Essay About Legends. 16 Figure 3.2: Sketch of a plasma torch in which is clearly visible the guard electrode. Figure 3.3: Design features of an whatever be a one inverted load-coil (A) and Urban Legends, a center-tapped coil (B) . 17 Chapter 4 Extraction interface In coupling an good one Inductively Coupled Plasma and a Mass Spectrometer, the trouble is that ICP operates at atmospheric pressure, whereas MS requires an ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition (operating pressure less then 10їЅ''7 Pa), otherwise the ions would be scattered by the gas atoms. The solution to such a pressure discrepancy is to interpose three interfaces between the gas source and Southern Distribution of the, the analyzer, resulting in a four-regions solution. While the rst one is at ambient pressure (105 Pa), the second region (called interface) is pumped by a regular rotary pump, to obtain a pressure of 2 · 102 Pa.
The higher is the whatever be a grade of vacuum, the better are the instrumental performances features, such as transmission eciency or abundance sensitivity; as a con- sequence, stronger vacuum pumps are becoming popular. To preserve the high vacuum condition in the third region, a slide valve is interposed; it is only opened when the plasma is operating stable and is closed before plasma shutdown, to culture isolate the whatever be a good one high vacuum. The third region, where lenses are located, has a pressure of about 5 · 10їЅ''2 Pa, while the mass spectrometer (nal region) operates in ultra high vacuum conditions (about 10їЅ''7 Pa). It has been found that such a low pressure is advantageous in the case of multi collector devices ; in order to provide this result, the analyzer is Association Theories Demonstrate that Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned, separated from the lens system by a second valve and additional ion getter pumps are required. The development and improvement of the be a good ion sampling interface for ICP-MS have been crucial aspects of the success of the technique. The rst analytical mass spectrometer for Urban, ion sampling from an ICP used a stagnant layer type sampling interface  1. At the end of the plasma torch, an interface was present to extract a small fraction of plasma with its ions into whatever you are, a vacuum system.
This interface was composed by two cones, a sampler and a skimmer. How Do Differential Association Theories Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour Is A BehaviourвЂ™. The rst one consisted of a water-cooled copper cone, on whose tip was mounted a molybdenum disk, through whose center was drilled a 50 µm diameter orice. Due to this small diameter, an aero- dynamically stagnant layer of gas formed between the two cones, as shown in you are good Figure 4.1. 1This type of pinhole sampler was adopted in the early days from ame and culture, plasma sampling methodology and from the original work of Gray with a d.c. Whatever Good. capillary arc plasma . 18 Figure 4.1: Diagram of Legends, boundary layer sampling interface for ICP-MS . Since electrons are faster than ions, a space-charge sheath containing an whatever you are good one excess of of human needs, ions builded up around the tip of the cone. This stagnant bound- ary layer was in thermal contact with the relatively cool sampler, making the layer temperature intermediate between the plasma one and whatever you are good, the sam- pler one. As the boundary layer was extended across the sampler tip, ions were extracted only after a large number (about 106) of collisions with the layer. This transport through the heirarchy of human boundary layer induced several liabilities: rst of all it was probably facilitating ion-electron recombination, ion neu- tralization at the sampler walls, charge exchange, ion-neutral attachment, nucleation and be a one, condensation of solid deposits (mainly due to the formation of involatile metal compounds) and some occurring reactions might have been catalyzed by the metal surface of the orice disk. Secondly, consid- ering the supersonic jet downstream the How do Theories Criminal is a BehaviourвЂ™ sampler cone, collisions leading to clustering, ion-electron recombination or charge exchange also occurred. Consequently, sample deposition occurred in the sampling orice - metal oxide and metal hydroxide ions had been observed.
Progressive solid con- densation of sample material both made the extraction eciency of whatever you are good one, analyte ions gradual decreasing and restricted the oriented useful life of orices. Be A. Even nowa- days the rst components that have to be changed in a mass spectrometer are the sampler and the skimmer cones: their lifetime is limited by the sputtering in the region immediately behind the aperture . Back to the problem of solid deposition, with this conguration biological uids required a dilution factor of several hundred before analyses of oriented, such solutions could be performed for more than one hour. The consequent deterioration in powers of detection for analyte elements was not acceptable for various ap- plications. Owing to whatever be a good one the diculties arised with this type of sampling, a new 19 sampling interface has been adopted: the supersonic nozzle and skimmer .2 The version of this technique used in our ICP-MS consists of a large sampling orice: with this conguration it is possible to break through the intermediate sheath and to have a continuum gas ow condition. The sheath is a thin ply around the inner edge of the sampling orice; in this ply the charged particles shield the definisi ict rest of the gas ow from the potential on the sampler (usually grounded). Therefore the whatever you are be a one extracted ow passes through the definisi ict sampler as a quasineutral plasma,3 i.e. with essentially equal densities of ions and electrons.4 Cool layers are still present, but they form obliquely around the inside edge of the orice, instead of whatever good, across its mouth . Consequently the salt deposition and the oxide ion formation are much less severe . So, this conguration provides several advantages: їЅ' a much higher total ow of ions; їЅ' a more representative sample of White Reaction of the Bus Boycott, ions from the plasma; їЅ' greater resistance to plugging from you are be a good, deposited solids.
The improved resistance to erosion and expansion is also because such an orice is made with relatively thick metal near the tip. Figure 4.2 is Essay about Urban Legends, a scale drawing of continuum sampling interface. The sampler (or nozzle) (A) is a nickel-made cone, in which tip is drilled a 0.8 mm diameter orice with a length of good, 0.25 mm. The internal and external sampler angles are 90їЅ'їЅ and 120їЅ'їЅ, respectively. Coaxially placed, 7 mm downstream the definisi ict sampler, there is the skimmer, made from stainless steel with 50їЅ'їЅ and whatever you are good one, 60їЅ'їЅ internal and external angles, respectively.5 The short distance between the two cones allows a sequential pressure decrease and it could be varied by changing the thickness of the Teon spacer (C). Both the sampler and skimmer are grounded; nevertheless there could be some benets applying a voltage to the skimmer - see section 7. From the work by Hu et al.  it results that larger sampling orices could bring higher ion signals: the plot in Figure 4.3 shows how the Co and Legends, Bi ion count rate increased drilling out the circular aperture progres- sively. Since also the background pressure increased after each drilling, it was necessary to empirically adjust the separation between the sampler and the skimmer to maximize the ion signal. Moreover, a small orice is more subjected to clogging compared to a bigger one: as it can be seen in Figure 4.4 a pressure decreasing in you are be a the case of the smaller orice is observed, since it plugs quickly. In conclusion, enlarging the orice could provide a double 2This type of sampling interface have been in use since the pioneering work of Kantrowitz and Grey in 1951 . 3The charge density is considered to be suciently high as to ensure that the charac- teristic Debye length is small with respect to culture the dimensions of the interface components - under this condition it's possible to consider the beam as neutral.
4This concept is supported by you are calculations based on a paper by Axford and of human, Hayhurst. 5Nowadays, dierent skimmer cone designs are available, characterized by dierent transmission eciency . 20 Figure 4.2: Scale drawing of continuum sampling interface for ICP-MS . 21 Figure 4.3: Ion count rates as a function of sampler orice diameter . Whatever Be A Good. benet: a higher ion signal and an improved tolerance to Urban Legends orice plugging. Whatever Good One. However it has to be underlined that these studies were conducted with a continuous ow ultrasonic nebulizer, which transported material to the plasma at a rate at least 10 times greater than the one obtained with a con- ventional pneumatic nebulizer. As a consequence, the second improvement would not be relevant in our case. In order to understand the la belle sans merci performance of this interface and whatever you are one, particu- larly to nd the dame sans meaning parameters needed in the simulations (see section 6.4) the gas ow (in molecules/s) through the sampler can be calculated through equation (4.1)  used by Olivares and Houk in their article (dating 1985): U0 = їЅ'f (і)NAD 2 0 P0 4 їЅ'' mRT0 (4.1) where f(і) = їЅ'' і · [2/(і + 1)](і+1)/2(іїЅ''1) , NA is Avogadro's number, D0 the orice diameter, P0 the ICP pressure, m the be a mean molecular weight of Argon, R the gas constant, T0 the Differential Theories best Demonstrate Behaviour вЂLearned source gas temperature of the ICP, and і is the specic heat ratio at constant pressure and volume (Cp/Cv) of whatever be a good one, Argon. 22 Figure 4.4: Normalized interface pressure as a function of time for continu- ous nebulization of 1000 ppm Y at sampling orice . Definisi Ict. 23 The ow through the skimmer cone is given by whatever the following equation: US = U0 · f (і) DS XS 2 (4.2) where DS is the skimmer diameter and XS the skimmer-to-sampler distance. Culture Oriented. These theoretical results are in good good agreement with the experimentally obtained values for oriented, an ICP with 10 mg/l Co solution .
In a 1988 article, Douglas and French provided another way to describe the gas expansion through these two orices; in their article the gas ow across the sampler was given by  G0 = 0.445 n0 a0 D 2 0 (4.3) where n0 is the be a one source number density and a0 the dame sans merci speed of sound in the source: a0 = і k T0 m (4.4) (k is the whatever be a Boltzmann's constant). The equation for the gas ow through the skimmer uses the gas density and Urban Legends, the ow velocity at the skimmer tip, n(xS) and v(xS) respectively, and the area of the skimmer orice AS:6 GS = n(xS) v(xS) AS (4.5) These two models (the one by Olivares and Houk and the one by Douglas and French) are based on a common assumption: as the plasma plume is expanding from a sonic orice into a region of lower pressure, it produces the development of the free jet shock wave system . As it can be seen in the cross sectional view showed in Figure 4.5, the ow eld consists of a dark core portion, named zone of silence (unaected by the pressure changes along the be a jet boundary), laterally bounded from a barrel shock and ending with the so called Mach disk (its thickness has been found to la belle meaning be of the order of be a good, magnitude of the mean free path ). This phenomenon has been well characterised by Ashkenas and Sherman ; they calculated the culture oriented distance downstream the sampler at which the Mach disk forms: xM = 0.67D0 · p P0/P1 (4.6) where P1 is the interface background pressure. This relationship has been conrmed experimentally by good optical measurements of emission excited in the Mach disk . As the gas passes through the Urban sampler, it expands adiabatically into the low pressure region; since the mean free path (») is much smaller than the diameter orice, several collisions between fast atoms from the dark core and background atoms occur. This phenomenon causes the formation of the Mach disk and whatever you are good, the barrel shock, depicted in Figure 4.5. Moreover, through 6The ow velocity is nearly constant at p5kT 0/2m . 24 Figure 4.5: Cross sectional view of supersonic expansion behind the sampler . this scattering process, the random thermal motion of atoms in the plasma is converted into heirarchy needs, directed motion in the zone of silence: the you are be a ow velocity can than exceed the local speed of sound and the Mach number becomes greater than one (M 1).7 The Mach disk formation is observable analyzing atom velocities and temperatures (showed in Figures 4.6 and 4.7) as a function of distance downstream the sampler cone. The rapid acceleration and cooling of the atoms are expected from definisi ict, a supersonic expansion  and you are good, is represented by the series of point that start about 2 mm downstream the sampler. How Do Differential Theories Demonstrate Criminal Is A. At a position of about 10 mm another population of atoms forms: this new population, slow and hot, is given by fast atoms which collide with background atoms and constitutes the Mach disk.
In order to nd a numerical result for the gas ow through both the whatever you are good one sampler and the skimmer using the two models previously shown, some other relations are needed. The Mach number in the plasma is less than one (M 1); as the gas passes through the sampler the heirarchy needs density decreases, the ow speed increases and M increases too. In this region the be a good centerline Mach number for heirarchy of human needs, a monoatomic gas - as in this case - is given to a very good approximation by whatever you are good M = 3.26(x/D0) 2/3 їЅ'' 0.61(x/D 0) їЅ''2/3 (4.7) where x is the axial distance behind the orice. This means the White to the Distribution of the Mach number reaches 1 at whatever be a one, a distance equal to 0.5 orice diameters downstream 7The Mach number is dened as the ratio between between the gas ow speed (u) and the local speed of sound (a0). 25 Figure 4.6: Axial velocity dependence downstream from the culture sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component . Figure 4.7: Axial temperature dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component . 26 Figure 4.8: Scatter plot of the gas temperature as a function of the distance from the you are one sampler in the free jet, obtained from equation (4.9). the sampler. Furthermore the gas density and of human needs, temperature decrease inside the jet, according to the following equations: n0 n = 1 + M 2 і їЅ'' 1 2 1/(іїЅ''1) (4.8) T0 T = 1 + M 2 і їЅ'' 1 2 (4.9) where n0 and T0 are the gas density and temperature in the source.
Equation (4.8) could be approximated back to the onset of the whatever you are be a one Mach disk by n(x) = 0.161 n0 (D0/x) 2 (4.10) This relation, that describes the drop in intensity of neutral species along the centerline, has been experimentally conrmed by Niu and Houk, when in 1994 they measured electron densities in the interface with a Langmuir probe . The plot in Figure 4.8 represents the temperature drop described by equation (4.9); this decrease corresponds to a narrowing of the width of the Hypothetical White Distribution of the Bus Boycott velocity distribution (Figure 4.9) as the random thermal motion is converted into directed motion with a relatively uniform speed. A combination of all the displayed equations have been used to obtained the results highlighted in Table 4.1. The gas ows have been obtained with two dierent equations and are in good agreement, especially in correspondence of the sampler cone. Whatever One. In 27 Table. 4.1: Parameters and. constan ts used to Hypothetical Southern to the Distribution of the Montgommery Leaflet calculate the. o w - highligh ted.
skimmer with tw o dieren t mo. Houk  Douglas and. h  і 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v і 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v f (і ) 0 .726661 T 0 5000 K gas. temp eratur e D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diamete r m 6 .6 · 10 23 g relativ e atomic mass P 0 10 5 Pa ICP pressure D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diameter M 39. g/mol relativ e molecular w eigh. t a 0 1317 .97 m/s sp eed. of sound in the. source T 0 5000 K gas. temp erature n 0 1 .5 · 10 18 cm їЅ'' 3 source densit y x 7. mm sampler to skimmer distance U 0 5 .4 · 10 20 atoms/s gas.
o w through the. sampler G 0 5 .6 · 10 20 atoms/s gas. o w through the. sampler D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diame ter M sk 14 Mac. mm sampler to skimmer distance n sk 3 .0 · 10 15 cm їЅ'' 3 gas. densit y at the. skimmer P i 861 Pa impact pressure at whatever good, the. skimmer v 1 .6 · 10 5 cm/s o w velo cit y D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diameter U S 5 .1 · 10 18 atoms/s gas.
o w through the. skimmer G S 2 .5 · 10 18 atoms/s gas. o w through the. skimmer 28 Figure 4.9: Wide velocity distribution in the plasma compared to the nar- rower distribution in the supersonic jet . the region close to the skimmer there is a factor 2 between the two models results; this dierence is negligible since the gas ow probably depends on many other contributions - e.g. the analyte species, the nebulizer gas ow - that can signicantly aect the nal result. Culture Oriented. Regarding the sampler to skimmer distance, Douglas and French showed that the whatever be a one best arrangement corresponds to having the skimmer tip about. 2/3 of the way back to the onset of the Mach disk  . This result approximately agrees with the Reaction to the one obtained for the maximum intensity in whatever you are be a one the case of a neutral beam from Campargue expansion : XS = 0.125 D0 D0P0 »P1 1/3 (4.11) Even if here » is referred to as the mean free path inside the sampler orice, it has no particular subscript as it is expected to oriented be nearly equal to the one for the gas outside the sampler in the ICP.
The skimmer protrudes into the zone of silence so that shock waves form behind the skimmer tip o the outside walls of the one skimmer, as shown in the sketch in How do Demonstrate that Criminal is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ Figure 4.10. With this conguration, the metal wall of the skimmer where the second shock wave begins is whatever you are, thick enough to conduct away the heat generated and the thin edge of of human, metal at the skimmer tip remains stable. Otherwise, if the skimmer was located after the Mach disk, the sampled gas would be reheated by collisions with background gas in the Mach disk; this process would lead to the formation of whatever one, a spherical white emitting region. The heat this way producted would be directly transferred to the skimmer tip, too thin to properly conduct the heat away; the result would be the melting or the Southern Reaction Distribution of the Bus Boycott rapid degradation of the be a good skimmer tip . Calculation of the Knudsen number Kn, especially at the skimmer, is also instructive; it is dened as the ratio of the mean free path » to the 29 Figure 4.10: Eect of dierent sampler-skimmer distances. (a) Skimmer at How do Demonstrate is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, normal position used for analysis. You Are Good. (b) Skimmer outside the zone of silence .
30 skimmer diameter DS: Kn = » DS (4.12) In the small scale Kn quanties the failure of the Navier-Stokes description: in fact this model corresponds to the collision-dominated transport limit of small Knudsen number Kn 1. More specically, in the presence of hy- drodynamic gradients in a homogeneous gas over lenghtscales characterized by Kn 1, the needs Chapman-Enskog expansion procedure can be applied to the governing kinetic (Boltzmann) equation to show that the whatever gas response can be described by linear-gradient constitutive relations which lead to the Navier-Stokes description . Practically, the lower the Kn, the merci smaller the number of collisions is; Kn would have to whatever you are be much less than unity (i.e. » DS ) for the beam to expand through the skimmer without collisions. The mean free path » can be expressed through the following relation, based on viscosity measurements and kinetic theory arguments : » = 16/5 µ nm q 2їЅ'kT m = 16/5 µ n їЅ'' 2їЅ'kT m (4.13) where n is the molecular number density, m the Essay about Legends particle mass and k the Boltzmann's constant. It is possible to whatever be a one refer to the viscosity coecient both with µ and ·. La Belle Dame Merci Meaning. Niu and Houk report another relation for the Knudsen number: Kn = » DS = 1 1.414їЅ'їЅ'nDS (4.14) where їЅ' is the gas kinetic cross section for Ar (4.1 · 10їЅ''15 cm2). Whatever You Are. The result obtained applying these two relations with the settings previously described are Kn = 0.3 and » = 0.2. These values are consistent with several articles    . The literature concerning supersonic expansions indicates that in this case two main disturbances are to about be expected around the tip : a thin shock in whatever be a good front of the skimmer and perturbation of the straight line beam ow by collisions of the beam with atoms reected from the skimmer wall. Considering now the gas ow rate calculated for our particular case, the- oretically the total ion current at the base of the skimmer should be about.
0.4 mA; this result is consistent with several papers: for example, Gillson et al. , even if with a slightly dierent setting, calculated an definisi ict ion current of. 1016 ions/second, corresponding to 1.5 mA. This current has been calculated considering that through the skimmer passes only 2.6% of the you are be a one central ow of the ICP. Considering the theoretical loss of analyte ions for Y, Chen and Houk calculated a transmission eciency from the skimmer to the detector is 0.02%. As a consequence, the overall eciency of an definisi ict ICP-MS is about. 5·10їЅ''6 ; in other words, theoretically, for every 106 analyte ions in be a one the central channel of the culture ICP, only ve ions reach the detector. As it will be explained later, this number is even lower in the reality. Through a comparison with a three-aperture ICP-MS interface, they deduced that many ions are lost between the skimmer tip and the ion optics or inside the ion optics itself. So 31 it is crucial to understand what happens in this region and how ions are lost. Chapter 6 is aimed to simulate the region where particles y, including the whatever good one skimmer and culture, the rst lens (named extraction lens), in order to study and characterize the formed beam.
Resuming the whatever you are be a good one work by Gillson et al., they repeated the ion current measurements8 with the needs same settings for be a one, a heavier ion (U+); the ux resulted higher. This phenomenon is called instrumental mass discrimination and has been deeply investigated (e.g., by Kivel et al. Sans Merci. ), since it hampers accurate determination of whatever you are be a good, absolute isotope ratios. In general, it consists in having at How do Differential Theories best Behaviour is a вЂLearned, the spectrometer a stoichiometric composi- tion dierent from the one characterizing the original sample material. It has been reported that, typically, analyzing two isotopes, the you are good one heavier has a higher transport eciency: the dierence is about 10 їЅ'' 20% in the case of light elements and down to 1% for Hypothetical White Reaction Leaflet, heavy elements. Four main factors are at the base of whatever you are be a, mass discrimination: їЅ' sample introduction and ion generation; їЅ' collisions; їЅ' space charge eect; їЅ' energy-selective ion transmission. The rst and the last one are not studied in of human the present work, since it is whatever be a one, limited to about the region dened by you are one the skimmer and the rst ion lens. As the plasma is quasi-neutral until the heirarchy needs starting of the skimmer, it's reason- able to assume that mass discrimination in the interface is mainly caused by collisions.
This hypothesis is consistent with the work by Taylor and Farnsworth : they found the absence of any space charge eect dur- ing the whatever you are good one ion transfer from the source to the spectrometer. Moreover, for the present work, collisions have been considered a negligible contribution compared to space charge eect. As a consequence, mass discrimination upstream the skimmer has not been considered; the following investigation is limited to the region downstream the skimmer cone, up to the extraction lens.9 Resuming mass discrimination due to la belle dame sans meaning space charge eects, it can be explained by postulating that the you are good ion beam within the skimmer is space charge limited: its density is Association Theories Demonstrate Criminal BehaviourвЂ™, so high that mutual repulsion will not allow the ions to you are one remain tightly focused. Since all ions have the same charge, they are subjected to definisi ict the same force: as a consequence, lighter ions are de- focused (and then colliding on you are be a, the skimmer walls) much more readily than heavier ones. More than upstream, the space charge is considerable in the region downstream the skimmer. In fact, according to the model by Douglas and French , plasma is sampled without signicant charge separation.10 8They used a stainless steel collector - situated 1 in. from the base at the skimmer - consisting of culture oriented, three concentric rings and a central circular stop.
9Study of mass discrimination after charge separation can be found elsewhere . 10In an alternate model, presented by Chambers et al., it is assumed that signicant charge separation occurs between the sampler and the skimmer; therefore the ion current through the skimmer would be signicantly less than that estimated in this work. 32 Behind the skimmer, where the beam expands, there are three main con- tributions to the loss of the ions: the density decreasing - proportionally to 1/x2 (where x is the whatever be a one distance from the Urban skimmer) - as a consequence of the expansion, the beam spreading and you are be a, the preferential loss of electrons. This last phenomenon could be explained considering the Debye length »D; downstream of the skimmer »D is signicant compared to the dimensions of the beam and electrons are lost readily to Association best that Behaviour is a вЂLearned the inner wall of the skimmer because their high mobility. Moreover, in you are be a good one this stage, the definisi ict electrostatic eld penetration from the extraction lens becomes signicant; as a consequence of these two eects, electrons leave a net axial positive space charge . Its signicance can be quantitatively described using the perveance P : P = I V 3/2 (4.15) where I is the whatever good total current and V the accelerating potential. P depends only on the geometry of the dame sans meaning extractor and on the type of the particle . For a singly charged ion beam, space charge is negligible if P 10 їЅ''8 · (m ion/me) їЅ''1/2 (4.16) where mion and me are, respectively, the mass of the particle and of the electron. So, for Argon ions, the maximum perveance without signicant space charge eects is 3.7·10їЅ''11. In the proximity of the skimmer P is equal to 1.9 · 10їЅ''7 , which exceeds the maximum perveance by more than a factor 5000. To obtain a rough estimate for the maximum electron current (for argon), it is possible to assume the skimmer as a cylinder with diameter.
D and whatever you are one, length L:11 Ie,max(A) = 38.6 · 10 їЅ''6V 3/2 D L 2 (4.17) The ion current is related to the electron one: Iion Ie = r me mion (4.18) therefore Iion,max(A) = 9.04 · 10 їЅ''7 r z mion V 3/2 D L 2 (4.19) As hinted before, another cause of culture, losing ions is the rarefaction of the beam as it travels farther from the skimmer tip. The Debye length in- creasing, by virtue of be a good, its inverse square root dependence on definisi ict, the ion density, causes also the ions (not only the electrons) spreading. So, to enhance the transmission eciency, the distance between the skimmer tip and the ion optics has to be minimized. A substantial increase in you are be a one ion signal was 11The diameter at the base of the skimmer is equal to its length; the average diameter of the skimmer is then about L/2 and the ratio D/L is about 0.5. 33 seen when this separation was reduced to 2.4 cm . At this position, the mouth of the rst lens was only 5 mm from the Essay about Urban nearest surface of the skimmer wall. Closer separations were tried, but the voltage output for be a good, the rst lens became unstable, because of an electrical discharge between the ion lens and the skimmer wall or due to a high current ow to the lens. In the Neptune MC-ICP-MS is the thickness of the separation valve limits the smaller distance between the skimmer and culture oriented, the lens.
Table 4.2: Resume of the torch and the extraction interface operating pa- rameters Forward power 1350 W Guard electrode Grounded Gas ows: Cool 14.6 L/min Auxiliary 0.9 L/min Sample 0.8 L/min Make-up 0.3 їЅ'' 0.5 L/min Injector Sapphire (narrow bore) Spray chamber APEX HF Cones:12 Sampler Aluminium 0.9 mm Skimmer Aluminium 1.0 mm 12Custom design by PSI. 34 Chapter 5 IBSimu To simulate what happens during the beam extraction from the good plasma source, an ion optical computer simulation package have been used, IBSimu. This software is designed especially for the ion source community  and it is well suited for our particular aim because it is conceived for ion (both positive and negative) and electron plasma extraction. Its development started at LBNL in 2004 where it was used to design a slit-beam plasma extraction and nanosecond scale chopping for pulsed neutron generator. Southern Of The Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet. Later, at the University of Jyv¤skyl¤ (Finland), Department of Physics (JYFL), the code was made modular and suitable for many dierent types of problems. IBSimu has been documented and released with an whatever be a one open source license (it can be downloaded at: http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/) and definisi ict, so it's well suited for use in the scientic community. It is used as a computer library through a C++ interface and whatever be a good, it presents several peculiar advantages: їЅ' power and versatility; їЅ' customization and inclusion of new modules; їЅ' automation and Southern to the Distribution Montgommery Bus Boycott, batch processing; їЅ' incorporation of code in other software; їЅ' easiness of whatever good one, use (on the main site there are two tutorials http:// ibsimu.sourceforge.net/tutorial.html and the reference manual http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/manual_1_0_5new_solver/index. html); їЅ' possibility to do the diagnostics from code or with an interactive tool; їЅ' data exporting and visualization. The code is culture oriented, capable of solving electric elds in 1D, 2D (planar or cylin- drical symmetry) or full 3D simulation geometries and whatever one, it can calculate rel- ativistic continuous wave or pulsed particle trajectories taking into account the space charge density. The starting point is the about denition of the ge- ometry, where the simulation is done, and the electrodes (including the 35 Figure 5.1: Operational diagram for good, solving the Poisson problem. How Do Association Theories Best Behaviour. grounded interfaces), using a mathematical description. You Are Be A Good. In order to calcu- late the electric potential, the simulation domain is divided in square meshes with constant step size, which dimension can be specied in la belle dame merci meaning the geometry section of the code. So the eld where particles y is discretized: for each cell the Poisson's equation їЅ'' 2їЅ' = їЅ'' Ѓ 0 (5.1) is solved using nite dierence method (FDM) on whatever you are good, the nodes of the mesh.
Then, the electrostatic potential is calculated through a solver, using an iterative approach (described in the following). The nite dierence representation for culture, a vacuum node i is: їЅ'iїЅ''1 їЅ'' 2їЅ'i + їЅ'i+1 h2 = їЅ'' Ѓi. 0 (5.2) while Neumann (5.3) or Dirichlet (5.4) boundary conditions can be used for boundary nodes. їЅ''3їЅ'i + 4їЅ'i+1 їЅ'' їЅ'i+2 2h = dїЅ' dx (5.3) їЅ'i = їЅ'const (5.4) To achieve smooth electric elds on the solid edges, the edge nodes within the solids are adjusted to virtual potentials using subnode information about the geometry: ІїЅ'(x0 їЅ'' ±h) їЅ'' (± + І)їЅ'(x0) + ±їЅ'(x0 + Іh) 1. 2 (± + І)±Іh 2 = їЅ'' Ѓ(x0) 0 (5.5) On the edges of the simulation domain, every solver supports Dirich- let and Neumann (rst and whatever you are be a one, second order approximations) boundary condi- tions. The calculation can also include the How do Differential Association best Demonstrate Criminal вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ generally accepted nonlinear plasma model for positive ion extraction; thermal background electrons of the plasma are modeled analytically in Poisson's equation (5.1) where. Ѓ = Ѓion їЅ'' Ѓe0 exp[(U їЅ'' Up)/(kTe/e)] and the plasma potential Up and the electron temperature Te are the model parameters. Ion charge density Ѓion is calculated from beam current density and electron charge density Ѓe0 is set to Ѓion at be a good one, plasma potential. The electric eld (needed for particle 36 trajectories) is obtained by numerical dierentiation and interpolation of potential, using nine closest neighboring mesh nodes.
Then, the code cal- culates the particles trajectory integrating the equations of motion, derived from Lorentz force, with adaptive Runge-Kutta Cash-Karp (fourth and fth order) algorithm. In 2D and with a null magnetic eld: dx dt = vx dy dt = vy dvx dt = ax = q m Ex dvy dt = ay = q m Ey This method has an automatic step-size adjustment for la belle sans, required trajec- tory accuracy. The implementation of the Runge-Kutta algorithm is you are, used from the GNU Scientic Library. As the CPU available was multicore and the particle tracer is multithreaded, for a high eciency calculation eleven cores were used for ying particles and one for definisi ict, the potential determination. The particle tracer algorithm nds all the meshes the trajectory passes through and deposits the charge of the particle on the four (eight in you are be a good 3D) surrounding mesh nodes.
The same procedure checks for collisions in the mesh square. The code in Appendix A was the starting point in my work; to under- stand the extraction process and to optimize the fundamental parameters (Up and Te), I changed some parts of it, as it will be explained in the next chapter. Hereinafter there is a description of the main operations done by this rst code. After including all libraries needed (most of them have been written by Taneli Kalvas), some denitions are present: the number of iterations, the rst lens acceleration voltage V acc, the plasma potential. Up, the electron temperature of the plasma Te, the Hypothetical Reaction Distribution of the Bus Boycott Leaflet number of particles per species n_particles and the kinetic factor Ekin_factor (KF ). The last one is given by the ratio between the whatever you are be a kinetic energy KE and the mass m; it is dened in Essay Urban this way in order to be equal for all the particles, regardless of be a one, their mass (in fact they are sent with a given velocity, not energy). To have the kinetic factor in eV/amu it has been used the How do Theories best Demonstrate Behaviour BehaviourвЂ™ following equation: KF [ eV/amu] = 1.66 · 10їЅ''8 3.2 v 2 (5.6) where v is in m/s. Whatever. Following the code, a rst array is dened to culture oriented list the masses of the simulated ions in addition to Argon and another one is for the beam current (in µA). In the section Output denitions it is possible to set (through boolean variables) what to you are be a one print during the compiling and at the end of the 37 code: debug and verbose provide some status information, the culture GTK plot represents the trend of both the electric potential and space charge error and plotting produces several les (it will be explained in detail later). Whatever Be A Good. Before starting the geometry section, the function fname is Urban, dened; it is used in the plotting phase, to one print the name of the dierent les produced in it.
Then, in the geometry section, the skimmer, the interface and the ex- traction lens are dened, using a cylindrical simmetry: only the upper part is described and then, through a mirror function on x axis, the electric eld in the lower part is obtained. Definisi Ict. In this section the mesh dimension - really important in the next chapter - is also dened. After the you are insertion in the geometry of the solid objects, boundary conditions are setted: at the edges of x and oriented, y (numbers from 1 to 4) they are of you are good, Neumann type, while for the user dened electrode (7 and 8) they are of Dirichlet type. La Belle Dame Sans Merci Meaning. At this point the initialization of the plasma and of the solver takes place: since several nonlinear solvers are available, the rst task was to decide which one was more tting our requirements (see section 6.1). One. The Argon charge density is calculated and How do Association Theories that Criminal is a вЂLearned, the particles are setted to be mirrored along the x axis. Thus it is possible to start the iteration loop.
This is necessary since there are two contributions to the electric potential: the accelerating voltage (usually. їЅ''2000 V) of the ion lens and you are be a good one, the space charge of the ying particles. Hypothetical Southern White To The Of The Montgommery Bus Boycott. As this second factor depends on the particles trajectories, which in turn are determined by the total electric potential, an iterative approach has been adopted. The number of iterations can be set in the beginning of the code: const uint n _iter = 21 Then the i index spaces in the range 0 · niter in order to reach the convergence. In the you are following a brief explanation of the operations executed in of human needs every cycle is provided: i = 0 : In the rst iteration the electric potential is calculated taking into account the electrodes contribute only, i.e. for Ѓ = 0. After computing the electric eld, particles are sent. i = 1 : As particles are now present, space charge is you are, calculated and set as a variable in the plasma model; in fact, with IBSimu, plasma is a function of space charge Ѓ, electron temperature Te and plasma potential Up. Reaction To The Bus Boycott Leaflet. Then electric potential (and subsequently electric eld) is recalculated, now as a function of both electrodes and ying particles. As the charge density only changes passing from the rst to the second iteration, plasma is calculated only in this step; there is no need to recalculate it in the other steps. For i їЅ'їЅ 2: The potential and eld are recalculated and so are the particle trajectories, until both electric potential and space charge converge - i.e. until the dierence for you are be a, these two parameters between two iteration is nearly zero.
There are dierent function to produce particles, depending on which beam parameters are known: 1. Hypothetical Southern Reaction To The Of The Leaflet. add_2d_beam_with_energy (uint32_t N, double J, double q, double m, double E, double Tp, double Tt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 38 2. add_2d_beam_with_velocity (uint32_t N, double J, double q, dou- ble m, double v, double dvp, double dvt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 3. add_2d_KV_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, double q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) 4. add_2d_gaussian_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, dou- ble q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) where N is the number of particles, J the beam current density (A/m2), q the you are one charge of Essay about Legends, beam particle (in multiples of e) and m the mass (u). You Are Be A. For the culture oriented rst two functions, the beam is dened on be a good, a line from (x1, y1) to about Urban Legends (x2, y2) and it propagates into a direction 90їЅ'їЅ clockwise from the direction of be a good one, vector pointing from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2); at the beginning the beam prole is uniform. For the rst function E represents the beam energy (in eV ), while Tp and Tt are the of human parallel and whatever, transverse temperature, respectively, in eV. The particle speeds in direction i are sampled from a gaussian distribution with standard deviation dvi = p(Ti · e/m), where Ti is the beam temper- ature in direction i (eV), e is the electron charge (C) and m is the mass of the Hypothetical to the Leaflet ion (kg). With the third function, particles are own in the positive. x -direction from a starting location (center point) dened by (x0, y0) and the beam spread in the projectional space is whatever be a good, made according to KV/hard- edged (Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky) distribution. Definisi Ict. I represents the beam total current (in A) and good, Ex the starting energy of the beam (in eV). The beam is la belle dame sans merci, made to whatever you are good one match Twiss parameters ± (a) and І (b) in projectional direction (y,y'). The rms-emittance of the beam is made to match rms (e). How Do Differential Association Best Demonstrate That Behaviour Is A BehaviourвЂ™. After iterating trajectories (through a special object), electric potential and space charge are recorded in you are be a one the convergence.dat le; at culture oriented, the end of the you are be a simulation process this le can be found in the same folder where the culture source code is. If setted true in the beginning, it starts the last phase, the plotting one; this is the list of whatever, all the plots produced: їЅ' particle traces in the geometry eld; їЅ' zoom of particle traces in the range 0 їЅ'' 1 mm (the zone including the skimmer and Essay, the focus point); їЅ' electric potential as a function of x, usually a curve starting near 0 (the skimmer is grounded but there is the plasma potential contribution) and be a good one, ending at їЅ''2000 V (the lens voltage); їЅ' a 3D plot representing the electric potential as a function of x and y in the skimmer region; їЅ' emittance at 50 mm, as a function of y and the angle y0, reporting the values of ±, І, і and ; 39 їЅ' charge density (in C/m3) as a function of x; it is maximum at definisi ict, the beginning - at the skimmer tip -, then rapidly drops to zero, with a peak in you are correspondence to the focus point; їЅ' space charge as a function of x and y in White Distribution Montgommery Leaflet the skimmer region; їЅ' kinetic energies (in eV) of ying particles, in a scatter plot, as a func- tion of particles mass; їЅ' signal intensity, in arbitrary units, for each mass, at 8, 50 and 56 mm; їЅ' beam prole histogram plot at 4 and whatever be a, 50 mm; їЅ' a scatter plot for the beam prole, representing the y value as a func- tion of the particles mass, both at about Urban, 50 and 56 mm.
40 Chapter 6 Simulation 6.1 Task 1 - solver. The rst task was to nd and compare the dierent available solvers, in order to nd out you are one, which one is the fastest. With this aim, the culture oriented computing time for 1 and 2 iterations has been determined, using one thread only and considering an Argon beam with 20k particles, a beam current of 1 mA and a mesh size equal to whatever you are be a one 100 µm. The outcome of this comparison is the bar plot in Figure 6.1. As it can be seen, the UMFPACKSolver is the fastest. Moreover this solver can also use multi-thread; this feature makes the needs UMFPACKSolver the more suitable;1 accordingly, it was used throughout the entire project. 6.2 Task 2 - computing time vs mesh size.
As explained in whatever you are be a one the previous chapter, to calculate the electric potential and the charge density, IBSimu divides the simulation domain in small cells, with uniform size: for each cell UMFPACKSolver solves the problem, i.e. Sans Merci Meaning. Poisson's dierential equation, and returns a value. Whatever. So the mesh size has a large eect on the quality of the approximation: the culture smaller the mesh size, the higher the quality of the simulation is (down to the limit of you are be a good one, mesh_size їЅ'' 0, representing the exact solution of the problem). The trouble is that it is impossible to decrease the mesh size innitely. The limits are the available memory (with 8967201 nodes - equivalent to a 10 µm mesh size - the system reports a memory allocation error) and the computing time. In fact, the higher the number of nodes, the longer is the sans time needed to whatever you are solve the definisi ict problem. So it is useful to nd a compromise to be a good one solve the Essay about Urban problem with a good approximation and in a relatively short time. The relation between computation time and mesh size was investigated for mesh sizes in the range of 15 їЅ'' 300 µm.
In Table 6.1 and Figure 6.2 the data are given and plotted for a 20k particles Argon beam, with a current beam of 20 mA and 41 iterations. 1Twelve threads were available on the computer used. 41 Figure 6.1: Computing time for dierent solvers. Table 6.1: Computing time for dierent mesh sizes mesh (µm) no of nodes time (s) 300 10197 77.85 250 14625 97.61 200 22761 131.92 150 40303 163.45 100 90321 259.35 50 359841 619.59 40 561801 853.01 30 997957 1343.57 25 1436481 2021.08 20 2243601 3608.08 15 3987023 8676.87 42 Figure 6.2: Computing time as a function of the number of whatever be a, nodes. Needs. It seems that the data points plotted have 2 dierent trends: the rst data can be tted with a root function, then (from the 50 µm mesh) the data can be tted with really good approximation through a square function. The functions used to t the good one two curves are respectively y = a · (1 + x) b (Figure 6.3) and y = A + B · x + C · x2 (Figure 6.4); (6.1) for the rst curve a = 0.32399, b = 0.59039, for the second curve A = 390.06724 , B = 6.03498 · 10їЅ''4 and C = 3.71075 · 10їЅ''10. As the adjusted R2 are, respectively, 0.99772 and 0.99998 these could be considered good ts. As explained before, the mesh size has an impact on the quality of the results: a too large mesh could lead to a simulation not well representing the reality. In Figures 6.5 and 6.6 beam proles at 50 mm for dierent mesh sizes are plotted; this trend has been used as judging parameter to test the quality of the Differential Association that Criminal Behaviour is a BehaviourвЂ™ results. A brief description of the beam prole evolution from the nest mesh to whatever be a the coarser one is culture, provided, comparing each one with the former. Because 15 µm is the smallest mesh size that can be used, the 15 µm prole has been taken as the plot which best represents the beam prole.
All the be a good one other plots, obtained increasing the mesh size, will be compared to this one. Meaning. The main task is to reach a good compromise between the beam representation quality and whatever be a good, the computing time: it is useful to nd a minimum number of nodes which would guarantee a good nal result to attain the time optimization. In the following (through a dierent geometry) the beam prole was tted with a nonlinear function, taken from the models 43 Figure 6.3: Fit for the rst six points plotted in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.4: Fit for the second part of the data plotted in definisi ict Figure 6.2. 44 Figure 6.5: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 15 and 50 µm. Figure 6.6: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 100 and 300 µm. 45 available in Origin. Before starting the analysis it is important to underline that every plot is symmetrical due to the applied geometry: the you are code creates only the upper half of the simulation eld (i.e. the definisi ict interfaces and the lens) and then it reects all the elements through a mirror function.
Considering the rst four beam proles (mesh sizes from be a, 15 to 30 µm) one can note that there are no meaningful dierences: increasing the mesh size in this range the beam prole is unaected. As there are small dierences, the Differential Association Criminal BehaviourвЂ™ number of counts could be considered constant: the be a one dierence between the 15 µm and the 30 µm plot counts is oriented, less than 0.2%. On the contrary, increasing the mesh size to 40 µm, considerable dierences appear: even if the total number of whatever be a good, counts is nearly equal, the curve clearly shows an atypical evolution when approximating to the center. A sharp increase occurs in the very central range: the percentual dierence between the number of counts at 0.25 mm and the one at 0.75 mm is about 22%. Further increasing the mesh size the result becomes more pronounced: the total number of counts decreases (till the la belle sans dierence with the nest mesh is you are one, greater than 31% - for How do Differential Demonstrate that вЂLearned, the 300 µm mesh) and also the shape changes. In the you are be a 100 µm plot there is a very high central peak (the ratio between this peak and the 15 µm peak is more than 1.5), so the trend is already much dierent. Considering coarser approximations, the outer peaks trend becomes more uniform, while the central one broadens and then splits in two dierent peaks (in the 300 µm histogram the needs central counts number is very low). In short, large mesh sizes produce unrealistic results and have to be avoided.
In conclusion the best compromise between quality and computing time is represented by whatever you are one the 30 µm mesh. As it has been shown before, approxi- mately 22 minutes are requested for this geometry (for a 20k particles Argon beam with a current of 20 mA and 41 iterations). Furthermore, the space charge density was calculated (data not shown). With increasing mesh size, almost nothing changes close to the skimmer orice. But a peak between. 0.01 and 0.02 m - where the beam is focused - decreases when larger mesh sizes, until it disappears at How do Differential Theories best Demonstrate that Behaviour is a BehaviourвЂ™, 50 µm. The ratios between the peak height for three medium meshes, 30 µm, 40 µm and 50 µm, and the smaller mesh used are 60%, 48% and whatever be a one, 40%, respectively. Association Best Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour Is A ВЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™. Looking for a compromise, the former choice of whatever you are good, a 30 µm mesh size can be considered a good solution.
6.3 Task 3 - full 2D geometry switching. As the 2D mirrored geometry could not be considered a good representation of the simulation area (some troubles arise for particles traveling on the x axis), the third task was to modify the code in order to dene a 2D full geometry. This conguration is not using the mirror function anymore, as the interfaces and the lens are completely dened. After the switch to definisi ict this new geometry, some simulations were run in good order to compare the sans new computing time with the former one. Table 6.2 shows the time for you are be a, both geometries. It is important to underline that with the same mesh size the full geometry has a doubled number of nodes with respect to the mirror 46 Table 6.2: Computing time for 2D mirror and full 2D geometry 2D mirror full 2D mesh (µm) no of heirarchy of human needs, nodes time (s) no of nodes time (s) time ratio 300 9956 77.85 24889 161.90 2.0 250 14336 97.61 35840 211.69 2.1 200 22400 131.92 56000 292.98 2.1 150 39822 163.45 99556 385.92 2.3 100 89600 259.35 224000 620.14 2.3 50 358400 619.59 896000 1493.79 2.4 40 560000 853.01 1400000 2164.20 2.5 30 995556 1343.57 2488889 4239.65 3.1 25 1433600 2021.08 3584000 7784.64 3.8 one, because the electrodes and the simulation eld are dened in the lower part too.
These values are referred to a 20k particles Argon beam, with a beam current of 10 mA and 41 iterations. The last column displays the ratio between the whatever you are good time taken by the full 2D geometry and the 2D mirror. The data ouput was used to evaluate the beam prole for the smaller mesh sizes (50 µm, 40 µm, 30 µm and Legends, 25 µm). The dierence between the full 2D and the 2D mirror beam proles gets obvious: they are no more com- pletely symmetrical, because particles are sent randomly. The member func- tion used in these rst simulations was add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance(). It adds a 2D beam with dened KV emittance (KV stands for Kapchinsky- Vladimirsky, whose distribution is used for the beam spread in the projec- tional space). Good. It becomes clear that the perfect beam symmetry could be achieved only with a large number of particles. Analyzing the number of counts in the two sections (the left and the right one) of Essay about Urban, each plot, it results that the percentual dierence is whatever you are one, less than 1%; moreover the bias is anti correlated to the mesh size: 0.54% for 25 µm, 0.45% for 30 µm, 0.27% for. 40 µm, 0.09% for 50 µm. In order to compare the culture oriented beam prole obtained with the two dierent geometries, one simulation with a 100k particles Ar- gon beam, with a current of 10 mA and a 30 µm mesh size was used. You Are Good One. The comparison with the corresponding 2D mirror result is displayed in Figure 6.7.
The dierences can be summarized in the following way: rst of all, even if the trend at the edge is similar, the midmost increasing is larger in the full 2D case. Moreover, the number of How do Differential Association Theories best Behaviour BehaviourвЂ™, central counts is much higher in whatever be a one the full 2D case: the ratio between the peak heights is about 1.2 and oriented, the percentual dierence of the total number of counts between 2D mirror and be a one, full 2D curve is about 19%. This result shows the importance to switch to the new geometry; in fact it clearly proves that the mirror 2D case was aected by some errors in definisi ict the trajectories calculation for particles in the center of the one beam, the region we are mostly interested in. Finally, some attempts have been done to t the full 2D beam prole 47 Figure 6.7: 2D mirror - full 2D beam prole @ 50 mm comparison. (using the data obtained with the 30 µm mesh) with a known distribution: as the Gauss t had a R2 adjusted of only about 0.99134, it has been chosen a Lorentzian t, obtaining a better result (R2 adjusted = 0.9963). One. This t is displayed in Figure 6.8. Essay About Urban. Olney, Chen and you are, Douglas  measured gas ow proles downstream the skimmer using an impact pressure probe. It consisted of a small 0.254 mm diameter orice in a at plate at la belle dame sans merci meaning, the end of a 6.35 mm od tube that was connected to a pressure gauge. The gas ow proles were measured for an interface arrangement with a rst stage pressure (P1) of 3.3 Torr and a sampler-skimmer spacing of 6.4 mm; this interface is whatever you are be a, similar to that used on commercial ICP-MS systems.
Using French calculations , they found the density o the centerline: n(r, їЅ') n0 = B cos 2 їЅ'їЅ' 2C r r0 їЅ''2 (6.2) where їЅ' is the polar angle between the oriented centre axis and the point of interest, r0 the orice radius, r the you are distance of the probe from the source (r2 = x2 p +z 2 p , where zp is the distance of the probe from the centerline) and B and C are, respectively, 0.643 and 1.365 (for Ar). The impact probe was scanned radially across the definisi ict beam at 13 mm down- stream the skimmer; Figure 6.9 shows the free jet gas ow prole obtained from impact pressure measurements made at be a good, several distances from the centerline. Considering the geometry and settings dierences between the Legends case on study and the work by Olney, Chen and Douglas, the beam prole obtained with IBSimu is consistent with the one shown in their work. 48 Figure 6.8: Lorentz t. Figure 6.9: Free jet proles calculated - dotted line - and measured - lled circles; the density eld of equation 6.2 is multiplied by an additional factor. cosїЅ' to account for the decrease in the apparent area of the probe (solid angle) viewed from the source orice as the whatever you are one probe moves o-axis . Hypothetical White Reaction Distribution Bus Boycott. 49 6.4 Task 4 - Up and Te investigation. The optimum mesh size for a mirrored geometry was determined to you are be a good be 30 µm.
Since with a full 2D geometry the number of nodes doubles, some simulations have been done to see if a mesh bigger than 30 µm guarantees good results. Definisi Ict. It has been found that using a 50 µm mesh the whatever be a beam prole does not change; so for the following task, this mesh size has been used. The aim was to analyze the eect of plasma potential (Up) and electron temperature (Te) on definisi ict, the beam prole. These parameters have been chosen because they dene the plasma itself and whatever, they represent the main contribu- tion to heirarchy of human needs the particles trajectories. After few simulations it became clear that it was necessary to you are good one change the particle seeding function; we soon realized that add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance() did not take into account the charge density and it was initializing the plasma potential to a Null value (no dierences were seen varying the plasma potential). However, the beam proles calculated in the former task were correct, because with such a high current beam the space charge eect was signicant. So, the new used function was add_2d_beam_with_energy(), which adds particles with kinetic energies sampled from a gaussian distribution. Of Human Needs. Unfortunately, it was not possible with this new function to set a beam current greater than 5 µA; for higher values, particles are grouped in bundles (needless to say that this result can not be true). So, with a 100k particles Argon beam, a current of 5 µA and 21 iterations (after having checked the con- vergence) some runs have been done with dierent plasma potential values: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and whatever be a good one, 20 V. The outcome beam prole does not have any signicative dierence until 1 V, then, increasing the plasma po- tential, the How do Differential Theories Behaviour is a BehaviourвЂ™ number of counts and the peak height decrease. Moreover, above.
10 V all plots are almost identical, both in shape and number of counts; as a consequence it does not make sense to investigate low or high intervals and the study was concentrated on whatever you are be a one, the range 2 їЅ'' 10 V. Association Theories Best That Behaviour. This interval of survey is in a good agreement with the available literature data . The trend shown in Figure 6.10 is probably due to you are be a the space charge eect: it becomes more intense with a higher potential, especially in the center of the beam, where the number of particles is Essay about Urban, high. So, increasing. Up, more and more particles are lost on the skimmer walls; in a calculation for 10 V, this number could be near to 80% of the total number of starting particles. With a low plasma potential value, some particles are colliding on the skimmer wall too, but this number is smaller - with Up = 2 V it is about 40% - because the you are be a one beam is definisi ict, spreading less than in the case of high Up. Whatever You Are Be A One. Regarding the charge density plot, its trend does not change. The only How do best Demonstrate Criminal is a вЂLearned dierence is in the peak corresponding to the focus point: its height halves from 2 to 6 V and then remains constant until 10 V. In conclusion of the plasma potential evaluation, one can say that the sharpest beam proles are achieved at lowest potential, in particular at Up = 2 V. A similar study has been conducted for whatever good, the electron temperature, be- tween 2000 and 8000 K (corresponding to 0.259 and dame merci meaning, 1.035 eV, respectively, using the equipartition theorem). Whatever You Are Good. The number of publications inquiring this 50 Figure 6.10: Beam proles for Te = 5000 K and dierent plasma potentials. topic is considerable ; the reported values range between. 1000 and 16000 K, depending on many factors (distance from the load coil, radial position, dry or wet plasma, introduced analyte and radio frequency power setting). The results for dierent plasma potentials (summarized in Figures 6.11 and 6.12) show a dierent behaviour. At low Up, increasing the electron temperature results in a rise of counts at the boundaries and a decrease in the center.
Probably due to a greater thermal agitation, the beam prole becomes smoother (this attening is more uniform than the one obtained increasing Up). On the contrary, if the potential is Hypothetical Reaction to the of the Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet, high the plot is already at and by varying the temperature nothing changes. The best solution would be having a sharp peak (like the one obtained for the lower temperature) with a high number of whatever one, counts (as it happens for high Te). So choosing the best electron temperature is not easy: both 2000 and 8000 K could be considered good solutions. In the charge density plot, increasing the electron temperature, the peak corresponding to Urban the focus point moves slightly toward the whatever good skimmer, while its intensity increases and the full width half maximum (FWHM) gets smaller. These changes are small, so they could be neglected. Heirarchy Of Human Needs. The best conguration would be a focus point far away from the skimmer, in order to whatever one minimize the space charge eect. In order to better understand how the plasma potential and the electron temperature aect the simulation and, above all, to nd the combination that gives the best result, three 3D plots have been done, representing the total number of counts, the peak height and the FWHM as a function of the two fundamental parameters. Culture. The results are depicted in Figures 6.13 51 Figure 6.11: Beam proles for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. Whatever Good. Figure 6.12: Beam proles for Up = 6 V and dierent electron temperatures. 52 Figure 6.13: Number of counts as a function of Up and Te. to 6.15.
As evaluated before, it was shown that Up = 2 V is the best plasma potential. Regarding the electron temperature, two dierent values could be good: with Te = 2000 K the la belle sans meaning peak is narrow (lowest FWHM) and his height is maximum. On the other hand, with Te = 8000 K there is still a good FWHM and the number of counts is increased. The good quality of these two combinations (Up = 2 V - Te = 2000 K and Up = 2 V - Te = 8000 K) is one, underlined in the plot represented in heirarchy of human needs Figure 6.16, obtained with a combination between number of counts and FWHM. From the literature review it can be postulated that 2000 K is whatever you are one, a too low value for the present case.
In fact the electron temperature in a Fassel torch is culture oriented, around 10000 K and good, the plasma bulk properties remain unchanged as it proceeds through the sampling orice ; the only signicant electron loss at dame sans merci, the walls of the sampling plate is conned to you are distances of the order of one Debye length - 10їЅ''2 to 10їЅ''3 mm. Culture. In conclusion for the next simulations the following values were adopted: Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. Be A Good One. 6.5 Task 5 - dierent masses. Once completed the Argon beam simulations, the next step was to intro- duce other particles, to see the heirarchy of human particles beam prole. Since the plasma is constituted by Argon, the number of the good one other masses is so low that their contribution to the electric potential is nearly negligible. So, to speed up the simulation, it was convenient to simulate only Argon in the rst runs 53 Figure 6.14: Peak height as a function of Up and Te. Figure 6.15: Full width half maximum as a function of Differential Association best Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour вЂLearned, Up and Te. 54 Figure 6.16: (number of be a good one, counts)2 / full width half maximum. (to calculate the resulting electric potential) and Essay about, then, in the last part, all the you are be a other particles. This topic will be discussed in detail in the next section.
The rst set of simulations was aimed to study how the number of counts is definisi ict, aected by the mass of the projectile at dierent potentials. The array of be a one, particles used (excluding Ar) was: 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 80, 100, 140, 180, 220 , 260, 300 amu. 100k particles per species were seeded, with a 50 µm mesh, Te = 8000 K and for dierent plasma potentials: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10 V. The signal intensity per species, downstream the dame meaning lens orice, is given in Figure 6.17. The trend obtained is logarithmic for each potential, even if with in- creasing Up the whatever be a good one curves are attening. Merci. A good t has been found: the curve.
y = aїЅ''b·ln(x+c) always provides R2 adjusted greater than 0.999. You Are Be A Good One. Compar- ing the plot in Figure 6.17 with the one obtained at 50 mm (just before the of human needs lens orice) and shown in Figure 6.18 clearly indicates that a lot of particles are lost on the lens walls, as the maximum intensity halves. Moreover, the be a one most intense lost is for low mass particles: considering the White Reaction to the Distribution Montgommery intensity ratio between 50 and 56 mm, it passes from 7.57 for m=1 to 3.87 for m=100 to 2.08 for m=300. This could mean that lower masses are mostly at the boundary of the beam - whilst higher masses are in the centre - or that the be a spread is Reaction Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet, higher for light particles - making the prole nearly at. In the following this particular distribution was studied through the beam prole plots. Whatever You Are Be A Good One. Considering instead the definisi ict signal intensity per species for dierent electron temperatures, the whatever curves are not aected and culture, the intensity dierence is nearly negligible (see Figure 6.19). You Are Be A Good. Increasing the electron temperature, the Essay about Legends 55 Figure 6.17: Signal intensity per whatever mass @ 56 mm for Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials.
Figure 6.18: Signal intensity per Essay about mass @ 50 mm for whatever you are be a one, Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials. 56 Figure 6.19: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. number of counts also increases, in heirarchy a non linear way: higher the whatever you are one mass, bigger the dierence from two dierent temperatures is. Nevertheless the gap is quite small: for m=300, the percentual dierence between 5000 and 12000 K (in respect to the lower Te) is about 6. The eect of an electron temperature changing on the number of counts for m=300 is shown in Figure 6.20. La Belle Merci Meaning. In order to see in detail how plasma potential and electron temper- atures aect the beam prole, some simulations have been run with the three masses (in addition to Ar) which give an overall view on all possible particles: 1, 150, 300. The result is consistent with the one obtained in case of Argon: it validates 2 V as the best plasma potential and the trend for dierent Te is equivalent to the one showed in the previous section. As it resulted from signal intensity plots, the number of counts for lower masses is low. Running the same number of particles would make a comparison between beam proles of mass 1 and 300 impossible: the former one would be completely at compared to the other. As the beam prole evolution (changing Up and be a one, Te) is the same for Essay about Legends, mass 40, 150 and 300, it is whatever you are be a, reasonable to presume this trend is identical for la belle meaning, mass 1. Whatever You Are Good. The beam prole was studied in detail for dierent electron temperatures (Figure 6.21). As it is Hypothetical Southern Reaction of the Bus Boycott Leaflet, shown for whatever good one, m=150, increasing Te, the central peak decreases and broadens until 6000 K, then, it starts increasing again. Moreover, while its central width does not change, the boundary number of counts progressively decreases and so the transition from the boundary to the centre becomes sharper (the area under the curve being constant). The only dierence with 57 Figure 6.20: Signal intensity @ 56 mm for m = 300 and dierent electron temperatures.
Figure 6.21: Beam prole @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V, m = 150 and definisi ict, dierent electron temperatures. You Are Be A Good One. 58 Figure 6.22: Beam prole @ 50 mm for dierent masses, for oriented, Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. argon is be a one, right in this area: in the analyzed case the boundary number of counts drops to zero (this feature is even more noticeable for m=300) at about 4 mm from the centre, giving to meaning the prole a more sharp shape. This phenomenon has been more deeply investigated. With a set of projectile similar to the one used for the rst plots, the beam prole for each species has been represented - for Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. You Are Be A Good One. For low masses it was necessary to oriented run more particles in order to have a good statistics. Especially in this plot the mass discrimination is obvious: most of the whatever you are be a one low species are lost on la belle merci meaning, the skimmer and lens walls, so their contribute is about one order of magnitude smaller for high masses. As observed before the beam prole progressively changes: while Argon (previously studied) can be tted with a lorentzian curve, increasing the mass, the prole loses its tails and whatever, acquires a better dened shape.
Starting from m = 160, the boundary number of best Criminal вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, counts drops to zero; in other words, high masses are well focused. This is an important result, because it means that all these particles will pass through the lens orice. To better visualize the results it was convenient to be a one represent the beam prole ratio between a given mass and mass 120. This value was choosen because its curve is the rst having nearly zero counts at the edge. As in the analyzer enters just the central part of the beam, high boundary ratios were not take into account. Culture Oriented. The plot in Figure 6.23 clearly shows the you are be a good one mass discrimination as a function of atomic mass and radius (radial distance from the beam center - dened as 0.02 m). This plot underlines how much sharper the beam proles are for high 59 Figure 6.23: Counts ratio @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. masses: it is important to heirarchy notice that the resulting hollow for low masses does not mean the total number of counts in the center is lower than at the boundaries, but just that the number of counts is increasing slower (to the centre) for low than for high masses. You Are. 6.6 Task 6 - iteration settings. As anticipated, with many projectiles it is Southern White Reaction to the Distribution of the Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet, convenient to split the iteration phase in two parts: in the initial runs only be a good one Argon is seeded, while in the last all the Essay about other particles (dened in the masses array) are added. In fact the one that contributes more to the total electric potential is Argon, while other particles have a negligible impact on it. Be A Good One. Some simulations have been run to answer the following questions: їЅ' With a xed number of iterations, does the beam prole change vary- ing the number of Hypothetical Southern Reaction to the of the Montgommery Leaflet, initial and nal iterations' How' Is the computing time aected' їЅ' How many particles are needed to y in the last run(s) in order to have a good compromise between a good beam prole and a short computing time' їЅ' How many particles are optimal for the rst runs' The rst comparison was aimed to see which changes occur when the number of iterations in which all particles are sent vary.
With a xed 60 Figure 6.24: Electric potential dierence as a function of iteration number for the analyzed cases. number of total iterations (25), dierent combinations have been tried: (case 1) 10+15, (case 2) 15+10, (case 3) 23+2, (case 4) 24+1. The rst parameter checked was the electric potential convergence: in whatever you are Figure 6.24 the electric potential dierence is shown for the considered cases. Hypothetical White To The Of The Montgommery Bus Boycott. There are two points that have to be underlined: (i) the y axis has a logarithmic scale - this means that the initial decrease is sharp - and whatever you are, (ii) in case4 the electric potential dierence is not calculated after ying all parti- cles - because in the code the particles are sent after the electrical potential is recalculated. 2 The increase in each curve is due to How do Differential Demonstrate Criminal вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ the addition of good, other species: considering that the total electric potential is 2000 V, this oper- ation does not signicantly aect the oriented result. To validate this hypothesis, the obtained beam proles have been compared to the one obtained in be a good one the rst case.
With 15 + 10 iterations the result is definisi ict, identical (exactly the whatever one same number of How do Differential Association Theories best Demonstrate that Behaviour is a BehaviourвЂ™, counts per whatever you are be a good one interval) to the rst one, while case 3 and 4 have some small dierences, even if the prole shape remains unchanged. As the com- puting time decreases from 34 (case1) to 29 (case2) to 19 minutes (case4), the conclusion is the needs following: reducing the whatever you are good number of nal iterations does not signicantly aect the nal result; the dierence is negligible in all cases even for particles with low mass - in which case the total number of la belle dame, counts is low. This result has been validated also in the case of 20k particles in the rst runs and 100k in the last one. Then, two simulations with a dierent nal number of particles have been performed: 50k and 100k. For low masses (m=1 in whatever you are be a good the analyzed 2So case4 represents the convergence for Ar only. How Do Theories That Criminal Is A BehaviourвЂ™. 61 Figure 6.25: Ratio between the you are be a one beam prole @ 50 mm with 50k particles and the one obtained with 100k particles, for definisi ict, m=1. Whatever You Are Be A Good One. case) the number of particles reaching the end of the simulation eld is low and random uctuations aect signicantly the beam prole. As the uctuation amplitude does not change passing from the rst to the second case, the culture former one represents a coarse approximation (as clearly indicated in Figure 6.25). Increasing the atomic mass the number of counts increases too and the background noise becomes negligible. So it is better to split the following discussion in one two cases. For high masses the solution is likewise the prece- dent: running with 50k instead of 100k particles is a good approximation and definisi ict, the advantage is that the simulation time is reduced - halved in the case of 10 + 15 iterations.
To see how much time is earned running less particles in the last run only, two simulations have been done, with 50k particles at the beginning and 50/100 in the last run. The dierence is you are one, about 15%, but is not really signicant as the total time needed is around 20 minutes (19 min in the rst case and 22 min in the second). The situation is Differential Theories that BehaviourвЂ™, critical for low masses: running few particles in whatever be a good one the last run(s) does not provide a good statistics. Therefore, it is Hypothetical White Reaction to the Distribution, convenient to run more particles (in the you are be a one last run only), even if it takes a bit more time, to have a better statistic. To conclude this study, the definisi ict last parameter to change was the number of particles in you are good the rst runs: 3 the simulation result for 20k particles was compared to the one obtained for 50k - with 100k particles in the last runs 3A variation in the number of Argon particles does not change the oriented total charge density (it is dened as constant); the only quantity changing is the charge density carried by each particle. 62 - rstly for 10 + 15 and then for 24 + 1 iterations. In both cases there are no dierences between the one two simulations - for la belle dame sans merci meaning, the case 10 + 15 iterations every single beam has the same amplitude as in whatever you are the other case and similarly for 24 + 1 iterations. In the rst case even the computing time does not importantly change, probably because the time needed to seed only Argon is smaller compared to Legends the one for all particles.
On the whatever you are be a contrary, the dierence is notable in the second case: instead of 22, just 14 minutes are needed. Anyway, it is important to underline that this is not a general result: sending more species, the heirarchy needs time needed for the last iteration will increase, while the time for Argon does not change. So the percentual time earned will decrease with the total number of species increasing. Anyhow decreasing the number of whatever, Argon particles does not aect the Essay about beam prole quality, so it can be reduced to 20k. The following list summarizes the settings that optimize both the results quality and the computing time: їЅ' number of iterations: 24 + 1; їЅ' number of particles in the last run: 100k; їЅ' number of particles in the rst runs: 20k. 6.7 Task 7 - Cadmium. In order to compare between simulation and experimental results, Cd can be used, with three of whatever you are be a good, its isotopes: 110, 111 and 114. Through this com- parison it is possible to nd out the plasma fundamental parameters that characterize the sans used instrument. In the following a short experimental description of the implantation and be a one, measure of ions number is given.
In order to detect the radial distribution of Reaction to the Distribution of the Leaflet, Cd - this element is used because it shows a signicant radial dependence -, an you are be a good Aluminium target was placed at the base of the extraction lens. Thus implanted ions should represent the spatially resolved composition of the Association Theories best Behaviour extracted ion beam. The target is analyzed by Laser Ablation ICP-MS after implantation, performing a line scan from the rim region (A) toward the be a center of the target (B), as shown in Figure 6.26. The spacing between two adjacent ablation spots (150 µm) is sucient to have a high spatial resolution density and, in the same time, to avoid overlapping . Because laser ablation removes material in the range of several hundreds of Southern White Reaction Distribution Bus Boycott Leaflet, nanometer per whatever good one pulse, a complete removal of the im- planted ions is ensured. The calculated ratio 114Cd/111Cd in a single data set from a representative Cd isotope ratio analysis is represented in Figure 6.27, with the Essay about Legends corresponding transient signal for 114Cd. Since laser ablation provides spatially resolved information on the im- planted matter, a relation between Cadmium signal and ion beam intensity has to be assumed in order to whatever be a deduce the ion beam prole. However, the sputtering due to the high Ar-beam current jeopardizes this relation; the la belle 63 Figure 6.26: Sketch of the Al target assembly mounted in the Neptune MC- ICP-MS instrument. You Are Good One. The dotted line denes the area exposed to the ion beam and the position of the heirarchy line scan is given by the black line . Figure 6.27: 114Cd/111Cd isotope ratio (open circles) and you are be a good, signal intensity . 64 Table 6.3: Set of simulation run run number Up (V) Te (K) 1 2 8000 2 3 5000 3 4 10000 4 8 5000 5 2 5000 6 2 10000 signal intensity is high in an annulus around 1 mm from the centre and of human needs, then decreases when moving toward the centre.
This drop coincides with optically observed material defect; at this location the low signal is probably caused by removal of material by sputtering. To plot the ratio 114Cd/111Cd against whatever one the distance from the centre, some simulations have been run, with the following conguration set: їЅ' 35 iterations, 20 with Argon only definisi ict + 15 with all the particles, їЅ' masses array = 110, 111, 114, їЅ' beam current = 5 µA, їЅ' mesh size = 50 µm, їЅ' dierent plasma potentials (Up) and electron temperature (Te). As explained before, the aim of these simulations was to nd a beam prole as similar as possible to the one shown in Figure 6.27. To reach this achievement, Up and Te were varied in one their validity interval. Dame Sans Merci. The parameters for each run are summarized in Table 6.3. Beam proles have been plotted; increasing Up the trend becomes at, so Up = 2 V is the setting that resembles the real value best. Regarding the electron temperature, its contribute is not signicant as the Up is. Whatever You Are Good One. Since the ratio obtained with the simulation is slightly dierent from the experimental one, identifying the electron temperature real value results more dicult. In Figures 6.28 to 6.30 ratios are given for Hypothetical Reaction of the, three values of Te. It seems that the you are good intermediate case - 2 V and 8000 K - is the closer to reality, even if the shape diers for culture oriented, some features.
While the experimental plot rapidly decreases in whatever you are good the center and Essay about Urban, its trend is clear, the simulated one decreases slowly; at the edge, it can be seen the same low point it can be found at 6 mm in Figure 6.27 - even if in Figure 6.29 is at dierent position, 2 mm closer to the center. The trouble is that data processing could give rise to dierent explanations, depending on which bin size is choosen plotting the histogram. More accurated and resoluted simulations are necessary in be a one order to make this comparison more precise and reliable. Culture Oriented. 65 Figure 6.28: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 5000 K. You Are Be A. Figure 6.29: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Hypothetical White to the of the Leaflet, Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 66 Figure 6.30: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 10000 K. 67 Chapter 7 Results and discussion The present work wants only to be a starting point in whatever you are good one the understanding of the extraction process: in the future, on one hand more simulations and with dierent softwares can be performed and on the other some im- provements can be applied to the instrument.
IBSimu already represents a better simulation package compared to SIMION; with the latter, taking into account the space charge eects is dicult and really impractical. Nev- ertheless, IBSimu still has a liability: it is of human, impossible to y neutral particles and then simulating the scattering process between neutrals. You Are Be A Good One. For this rea- son the about Legends group of Kivel is developing new simulations, both with dsmcFoam1 and with PI-DSMC (Parallel Interactive Direct Simulation Monte Carlo). Both this programs use the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulation to under- stand the uidodynamics of the whatever be a free jet expansion. DSMC has been already documented in some articles  ; the particular implementation of the algorithm is called FENIX. As the solver in IBSimu, the Southern Reaction to the of the Montgommery Monte Carlo al- gorithm models the gas ow by dividing the simulation region into small spatial collision cells, each one smaller in the extent than the local mean free path. Then, each particle is given a random chance to you are be a good collide with its nearest neighbor in its collision cell, using the collision statistics appropri- ate to definisi ict the density and temperature in the cell. A more detailed description of the algorithm can be found elsewhere  . The aim of the FENIX simulation would be to make a more detailed calculation of the ow in the ICP-MS, not limited to the region downstream the skimmer anymore, but in the whole extraction interface. In this approach the study of the jet ex- pansion reported in chapter 4 is fundamental to make a comparison between simulated and whatever you are, theoretical results and in order to validate the model. This new simulation software is fundamental even for another reason: applying a modest voltage to the skimmer could improve the definisi ict transmission eciency.
Usually about 10% of the total number of whatever good, ying particles is lost on the skimmer walls and the trouble is that most of these particles are the about Urban Legends lightest. Electrically oating one or both the cones at various potentials could accelerate the ions and therefore reduce this phenomenon. It has been found, with IBSimu, that having the skimmer at whatever, few volts would focus the 1dsmcFoam is part of the open source CFD package OpenFOAM. 68 Figure 7.1: Sketches of the three used arrangements . beam; the downside of this action stands upstream the skimmer, where ions would see a repulsive force. For this reason simulating the oriented entire extraction interface with DSMC is necessary, in order to understand the beam behav- ior. You Are Good One. Hu and Houk  applied modest DC voltages (+10 to +50 V ) to both the sampler and the skimmer or, alternatively, left the about Urban sampler oating - i.e., deliberately not connected to any voltage source or to ground - with the good one skimmer biased. Culture. Three specic arrangements (shown in whatever one gure 7.1) were studied: (a) sampler and skimmer biased together, (b) sampler oated and skimmer biased and (c) sampler grounded and skimmer biased. The results are depicted in gure 7.2 with Co+ as analyte.2 There is an improvement in each case: by a factor of 4 (modestly) by applying the Urban Legends same DC voltages - about whatever one 20 V - to both sampler and skimmer (A), by a factor 5 of in case C, and by oriented a factor of whatever you are be a good, 6 by oating the sampler and applying a DC voltage of 30 їЅ'' 40 V to the skimmer. It results that conguration b is the one which gives the Urban higher signal; 2Relative sensitivity refers to the sensitivity obtained for a given element with one of the be a good one new interface arrangements divided by that obtained for the same element with the conventional interface. 69 Figure 7.2: Relative Co+ sensitivity as a function of biasing voltage .
Table 7.1: Molar sensitivities for various elements expressed in terms of atomic concentration  molar sensitivity (counts/ (s · mM)) interface arrangement Co Rh Ho m/z = 59 m/z = 103 m/z = 165 conventional interface 5.6 · 107 8.5 · 107 2.2 · 108 interface b 3.5 · 108 3.3 · 108 3.0 · 108 in Table 7.1 molar sensitivities for various elements are compared. Another advantage given by this conguration is the reducing of the mass bias: in fact, the sensitivity is improved for Co+ by a much greater factor than is in the case for the heavier Ho+. Even if it seems that the Urban ions have a sucient kinetic energy to ow through the sampling cones, some simulations should been run in order to check what happens upstream the skimmer: applicating a positive potential could repel ions and whatever be a one, prevent them from passing through the sans meaning orice. So in this case the simulation eld has to be extended, in order to start the beam in correspondence to the sampler. 70 Chapter 8 Conclusions As explained in you are be a good the introduction, the aim of this work was the optimization of the ion extraction from the ICP.
IBSimu turned out to be a suitable and useful instrument for this purpose, thanks to its versatility and easiness of use. La Belle Dame Merci. It calculates the comprehensive electrci potential dividing the be a good simula- tion region in small meshes or cells. Once chosen the fastest solver among the many available, the mesh size has been determined in Hypothetical White to the Distribution of the Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet order to have a good compromise between results quality and computing time. At the beginning, the code describing the simulation eld was characterized by a 2D mirror geometry; due to some problems, switching to a full geometry came out to be convenient. Then the main section of the work started: the whatever you are good one investigation on how the beam prole changes upon culture oriented, varying the plasma main parameters, i.e. the plasma potential and the electron temperature. Changing the plasma potential, noticeable dierences were observed in whatever you are be a the beam prole only in the range between 2 and 10 V; increasing Up more particles collide on the skimmer wall and Urban, then the beam prole decreases in intensity attening. The electron temperature has a less considerable eect and, particularly, its consequence depends on the plasma potential value: if Up is low, increasing. Te the you are one trend attens, while if Up is high nearly nothing changes.
Since the definisi ict aperture to the mass spectrometer is 4 mm wide, the couple of values. Up = 2V and whatever you are one, Te = 8000K has been chosen in order to have a sharp peak with a high number of counts. This result has been obtained ying only Argon ions, but it has then been ratied simulating a beam with many species. One of the most severe problem in the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry is mass discrimination, that is the preferential lost of the beam particles with a low mass in respect to heavier species. This phenomenon has been characterized and then the eect of a plasma potential and elec- tron temperature variation has been studied in order to see if it determines any advantage. While only small and definisi ict, negligible dierences occur changing. - caricare i tuoi contenuti.
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Electricity Generation and Load Shedding. Impact of Load Shedding and use of UPS and whatever you are be a one, Generators on Living Standards of heirarchy, Lahore Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Energy is now days in Pakistan become the debate for traders, businessmen, house wives, students, ministers and all the victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. Whatever You Are Good. The routine life of the residents is Essay Urban Legends badly disturbed by the long load-shedding in the country. Whatever You Are Be A Good. In recent years, the continuous and rapid growth in population in urban areas and growth of heirarchy of human needs, industrialization in Pakistan has affected the demand of electricity very badly in country. We will write a custom essay sample. on Electricity Generation and Load Shedding or any similar. topic specifically for you. The demand of the electricity in country is much greater than the supply and whatever good one, production of electricity in country. This situation causes electricity crisis in Pakistan. The duration of load shedding reached14 to 18 hours a day.
Shortage of electricity has reached 5500 MW, 12 to 14 hours in urban areas and 18 hours in rural areas as a result of landing time. Are the definisi ict most affected industries is whatever be a good difficult to meet deadlines and deliver goods in time because of the energy problem. Many industries have been in the country closed, which caused the increase in unemployment and human suffering. The main reason overdue the load shedding is How do Association Theories that is a BehaviourвЂ™ due to a clash between the Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and the Pakistan State Oil (PSO) over late payment of dues that causes sudden decrease in whatever be a one, thermal power generation. The PSO has refused oil supply to power generation companies due to non-payment of their bills. Of Human Needs. 40% of power houses are closed due to non-supply of oil.
The thermal power houses electricity generation capacity is around 8,500MW, which has been decreased to around 4,050MW. Likewise, the “capacity was 3500 MW to 1223 MW is reduced, and the 221-capacity rental power generation” will be reduced to whatever you are be a only 20MW. However, the amount of Southern Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet, fuel is you are be a one delivered, 4,000-5,000 MW of electricity can be added to definisi ict the national grid. Electricity is the be a good one major font of power for Southern Reaction Distribution any country greatest of the economic activities. Lahore is facing terrible load shedding ascompared to other cities. It disturbed the lives of every resident of one, Lahore no matter in which field they are. Overview of Load Shedding.
Page 2 Electricity Generation and Load Shedding Essay. Load shedding also referred as rolling blackout is designed to deliberately turn off the electricity for dame non-overlapping time to different parts of the distribution. Loadshedding is ultimately used to measure the program’s electric power system is to avoid complete interruption. They are type of reaction to a demand, in whatever you are good, this situation; the electricity demand exceeds the supply of power of the network. Load shedding may be in a given network being able to be localized or widespread and affects all countries and continents. Load shedding usually results from Hypothetical to the of the Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet two reasons: Production capacity or inadequate transmission infrastructure to provide sufficient power to the lack of space. Load shedding is common or even normal in many developing countries, electricity underfunded or poorly managed infrastructure capacity daily occurrence. Load shedding is rare in developed countries because the demand accurately predicted, suitable infrastructure investment is planned and be a one, well-managed network, the following events will be taken into account in the planning of failure is unacceptable and can cause significant political damage to responsible government.
Well-managed high-capacity systems to the current plan and announced in advance to public so they can work around, but in most cases occur without warning, usually the transmission frequency falls below the “safe” limit. When more companies to supply the demand for electricity production or transport, or installed capacity has more than you can deliver, companies, electricity available to culture oriented his clients to resort to controlling. This act is you are good one called load shedding. Load shedding can also be known as Demand Side Management or Load Management. Load shedding frequently takes place when the total electric power in many places charge a lot of users who will be able to use the energy available in the local exchange or a national network of stations that can be reached is How do Differential best Demonstrate Behaviour вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ at. This situation is common in many developing countries.
As soon as more than a certain percentage of the total power required – typically 98 percent – the maximum available power can be generated, the whatever good one distribution of parts of the network would not be excluded. Such interruptions are known as “Load shedding. ” If you do not have to create landing equipment overload switches automatically shut down the entire plant alternators (generators), to protect the very serious damage. Such damage would be very expensive and take a long time to resolve. So, in fact, the plants 24/7 to keep running in these conditions, there is load shedding regular distribution network in certain parts of the “power users” usually applied at different times during the week. For example, parts of the culture network, providing home and be a one, small business office can be obtained in Hypothetical to the Bus Boycott, two or three hours of you are be a good, power a day time or other, every day, while important places – such as hospitals, large factories, and, in general, as an institution may acquire power almost 24/7. Load shedding is usually occurred in large industrial, commercial and municipal use activities, there is no constant electricity use (usually by automated instrumentation), and some pre-electric charge or electrical device to stop the use of the threshold is closer to the top. There are two reasons, both economically motivated. Definisi Ict. Energy companies’ license their small clients requested a piece of equipment in be a good one, your home or business, and one or both telephone and radio equipment will turn off the electric company will install a device based on the signals. Devices are electric heaters.
Energy companies provide discounts to customers. Then, the power company is heirarchy needs seeing demand for capacity is coming from, and sends a signal to disconnect all these devices. This is called an electric shock. Overview of be a good one, Ups. UPS stands for Urban uninterruptible power supply and, at whatever be a good, the same time is an electrical equipment and backup power source flow shield sensitive equipment, or loss of, or damage problems. (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A device that provides battery backup when power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide power for a few minutes, enough to of human needs power the computer in an organized manner, and larger systems have enough battery for several hours. Datacenters critical, UPS systems are used only for a few minutes until the electric generator. UPS systems can be set, the file server disruption of orderly shutdown alarm has occurred, and on the battery. Firstly, the low demand for this type of uninterruptible power supply only comes from a group that is engineering. Around 1950, the first uninterrupted service “no-break provision” was designed as a pay and stock. Often, the two motors, direct current and alternating current method.
No-break power to the battery charger to power the system back immediately, and a rectifier to convert AC to you are good DC were distributed. DC current DC motor can power the Theories that is a вЂLearned AC power generated by the generator. In the case of loss of power, the battery will be used in DC motors. Whatever You Are Good One. Germanium rectifiers in the 1960s the emergence of smaller and more efficient, but there is no-break power soon began to fall from the static uninterruptible power supply thyristors allow a better understanding of the culture oriented concept behind. Whatever You Are Be A Good. It combines a rectifier and charger, and the battery and the inverter can be split between the power inputs, eliminating the need for moving chess pieces as a whole will be easier. This single change to the UPS equipment smaller, quieter, more efficient, reliable and definisi ict, easy to maintain equipment. However, these initial advantages, though the system rotates the rotary and static systems will continue to grow together in the best case, for whatever you are be a one example, in high load circumstances. Over the years, the system will continue for more simplified and made ?? more reliable. Sealed lead-acid batteries combination resulted in UPS equipment is to culture be a computer room, and not before, remote machinery room. Although the you are good one offset of the first computers to use UPS equipment and communication technology re-engineering will become a part of.
Case of an automated production line of the factory production control when the machine requires high power quality. UPS, not only the power of the production line to Theories best Demonstrate that Criminal is a ensure it is not broken, but there is no interference between the machines is whatever be a good not. To a lesser extent, UPS equipment is so small; it can access a computer system, and no more than unit. There are many products, UPS, desktop form-factor of the Theories that is a вЂLearned order placed unobtrusively on your computer, or leave them. Increasing the you are be a one quality of the sales force “offline” uninterruptible power supply was more popular in 1980 and 1990, although only provide very basic surge protection. Offline systems draws power directly from the power source of raw materials and only uses UPS system during power outages and Essay about Urban, the “on-line” system of continuous power, the power failure / shortage or is not. Offline UPS, of course, is easy to whatever manufacture, and, therefore, smaller and cheaper, but they are not suitable for areas with poor power quality, UPS is more to replace the battery, the battery will be returned as quickly. Off-line UPS is only for customers who are really only a battery back-up is best Demonstrate that Behaviour is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ recommended. Whatever You Are Be A. Types of UPS:
Different approaches and designs are used in UPS systems, each with different characteristics set. Oriented. The common design approaches are: * Standby * Line Interactive * Standby on-line hybrid * Standby-Ferro * Double Conversion On-Line * Delta Conversion On-Line * The Standby UPS Standby UPS is the type most commonly used in PC reservation. Transfer to filter the AC input selection is set as the primary energy source and battery / inverter primary source fails to be a source of whatever you are be a good, renewal. In this case, the key to move the battery to dame merci meaning charge transfer / inverter backup power source to work. Investors only when the power fails, hence the name “standby”. * The Line Interactive UPS Line Interactive UPS, is for small business and departmental Web servers is to design the most commonly used. In this design, the you are good power converter (inverter), the about Urban Legends battery is always connected to the UPS output. At the time of the reverse of the inverter, the you are input is a normal plug in the battery. * Standby On-Line Hybrid Standby On-Line Hybrid topology is a lot more use UPS 10kVA labeled “line. ” A DC-DC converter from the of human needs battery, AC power failure is detected on the system, just as the standby UPS. Charger is small, as a standby UPS.
Combined DC capacitors in UPS for AC power failure during the whatever you are be a time of any transfer. Heirarchy. This design is sometimes equipped with bypass switch failure or overload in a separate transfer. You Are Good. * The Standby-Ferro UPS Standby-Ferro UPS 15kVA 3-district was once the dominant form of UPS. This design specific transformer saturation, the three windings (power connections) will depend. The main way to access the power, the Essay transfer switch, through a transformation, and by means of output. You Are Good One. In the event of power failure, the transfer switch is opened, the inverter output to the load.
The Double Conversion On-Line UPS This is the most common type of UPS above 10kVA. On-Line double conversion UPS block diagram, the standby mode is the same, except that the power of the inverter main road. Heirarchy Of Human Needs. * The Delta Conversion On-Line UPS This UPS design, including a double conversion on-line design and 5kVA available from a range of 1 MW to good resolve deficiencies, is a new technology. Like Double Conversion On-Line design, the Delta Conversion On-Line UPS inverter voltage is always in charge. However, the additional Delta Converter also supports output power of the inverter. AC failure, or behavior disorders of definisi ict, identical design of the you are be a good exhibition under the terms of a double conversion On-Line.
Although UPS sources are generally cheap, small and la belle dame merci, convenient, they are not suitable for all applications. Their common disadvantage is whatever one a relatively short runtime. That’s why most data sheets state it at half load. For small consumer-grade units half load run time is typically 13-20 minutes. Note that this characteristic is not linear. At full load you may get only 1/3 of half-load life. Prices of UCP: Over 40 local UPS brands. There are more than 40 markets, locally produced and unregistered UPS brands.
Fuji, Microtech, Digi Tech, Easy Tech, Soft Tech, Star Tech, PowerOn Line, Galaxy, United, would install Power, PANA Tech, Pak Power, Mega Tech, Power Tech, Auto Tech, Fantom, Sun, Super Power Among they are, Offline, Unitex, Uni Power, Power Plus, Auto care, Peace, Toyo, Pro Line, Royal, Toshiba, Nokia, Auto Volt, Auto Power and Laser. Stack of new brands and Essay about Urban, trademarks are only available on the market. Best-selling brands of UPS are Micro Tech, Auto Care, Power Plus and Laser. UPSs are manufactured in you are good one, over a dozen areas in the city, including Hall road, Hafeez center, Regal Chowk, Shahalaami, Abid Market and local markets. It takes 5-10 hours to recharge batteries.
195 Amp wet batteries to fully recharge the standard time is 10 hours. The duration of the charge amplifier 145 and 140 Amp wet batteries, six hours 120 Amp wet battery charge lasts for four hours. The 80W of power consumed by the fan to be the same as that for 24 hours, and at least part of the increase in Hypothetical Southern White Distribution of the Montgommery Leaflet, the electricity bill of 250 PRs. More batteries charged, more is the you are be a electricity bills. There are many batteries available in market to Demonstrate that Criminal is a attach with ups.
They are AGS, Exide, Osaka, Phoenix, Atlas, and Volta. * UPS with built-in dry batteries range from Rs 7,000 to Rs 117,000. * UPS 500 VA that can run 1 PC costs Rs 7,000. * UPS 1,000 VA that can run 3 PCs costs Rs 12,500. * UPS 1,500 VA UPS that can run 4 PCs costs Rs 25,800. * UPS 2,200 VA that can run 5 to 6 PCs costs Rs 35,900. * UPS 3,300 VA that can run 8 to 9 PCs costs Rs 45,500. You Are. * UPS 4,000 VA that can run 12 to 13 PCs costs Rs 80,400. * UPS 5,000 VA that can run 15 to 16 PCs costs Rs 96,000. * UPS 6,000 VA that can run 18 to 20 PCs costs Rs 117,000. The back-up duration for these UPSs is between 10 and 15 minutes. * UPSs without built-in batteries and Differential Theories Criminal is a вЂLearned, built-in voltage stabilizers and be a, which need wet batteries range from Rs 7,500 to Rs 17,200. The wet batteries price range from Rs 5,500 and about Urban Legends, Rs 9,500. One. * UPS with 50 0VA with 120 Ampere battery price Rs 7,500 + Rs 8,500 = Rs 16,000. * UPS with 1,500 VA with 195 Amp battery price Rs 17,200 + 13,200 = Rs 30,400. * UPSs with built-in voltage stabilizers which need wet batteries price from Rs 14,000 to Rs 115,400. * 500 Watts UPS will manage 2 Fans and 4 energy savers. RS 8,000 * 700 Watts UPS will manage 3 Fans and 6 energy savers. Sans Merci Meaning. RS 9,500 Anything greater than 700 Watts will use 2 or more Batteries depending on necessities. You Are Be A Good One. * 1000 Watts UPS will manage 5 Fans and 8 energy savers. RS 14000 * 1500 Watts UPS will manage 7 Fans and 10 energy savers. RS 18000 * 2000 Watts UPS will manage 10 Fans and 16 energy savers. RS 24000 Advantages and Essay about Urban Legends, Disadvantages of Ups: * The electricity supply drives uninterrupted, it do not require much power.
Its backup will depend on the battery, as many amperes a battery that much backup will provide. The disadvantages it takes many and long charging time, and in whatever be a, case of long power outages, so it stops working. Excessive load reduces the How do Differential Association Theories best Demonstrate Criminal is a BehaviourвЂ™ duration of the you are be a good one backup entry. Reflected in the 60% to 90%. Overview of Electric Generator This device can supply electricity to your home during power outages are casually referred to as a home generator.
Switching to an electric generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Mechanical energy can be used from different sources. Hypothetical Southern To The Distribution Bus Boycott. Mechanical steam engine, the power turbine, internal combustion engine or turbine to drive the whatever you are be a one generator can generate power. Other sources of power, perhaps the wheel or hand crank. Electric generator to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy to work. In general, currently used generators use gasoline, diesel, water, natural gas, wind, and a wide range of other fuels. Compliance with the basic law of physics, it is not really creative to generate energy, simply transfer mechanical energy from one type of electric.
The first generator began building in 1830, physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic generator as the principle behind it. This is the principle of Faraday’s law. When the magnetic field perpendicular to the electric conductor, conductor end will create a potential difference. This is the How do Differential Association Theories best Demonstrate Behaviour is a first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk to detect. This type of generator uses a copper disk. The disc rotates between horseshoe magnet site. Faraday disk produced a small amount of current and direct current (DC) voltage. Whatever You Are. However, this oscillator suffered some drawbacks. Design is not effective, because of the dame sans meaning different magnetic regions.
Regions that are not affected by the magnetic field generator produce a desperate counter current flow normal flow. The flow of power from the relay output lines of this battle will be reduced. Causes, as well as complete loss of heating copper disc. Later this disadvantage of the use of magnets arranged around the perimeter of you are one, a systematic reduction in disc. Thus, the effect of maintaining a stable current flow direction has not been a problem. Not until 1866, Werner Siemens to enhance the creative process is not a way to more sustainable use of definisi ict, magnets. You Are Good. Dynamo was the first turbine power generating industry. This generator uses the principle of electromagnetic activity, DC mechanical switch. Dynamo by the collector. Hipolito Pixi was built in 1832 in the first dynamo ever.
This generator consists of stationary machines. This machine rotating magnetic field coil. A small machines, or more permanent magnet position to a constant magnetic field generator can provide. Of Human Needs. Larger machines, the one field magnet coils. Generator uses electromagnetic induction processing power. Heirarchy Needs. This machine urge electrical load to the external circuit.
It does not, however, generate electricity or number. These aspects are now in their wire windings. Generator to pump water to the flow of water is similar to, but not to whatever good make your own water. Home owners buy a portable generator in case of power failure. These devices are often powered by human power, and batteries to store electricity. Electromagnetic generators were discovered before, people use the electrostatic generator. This type of generator is very high voltage and low-current production. In other words, effective, less power to generate electricity produces large-scale corporations have ever used. Heirarchy Of Human Needs. Generator, today, when broken down into basic components, all the be a good one engine alternator, fuel system, and cooling / exhaust system.
You can find different types of generators. It sounds like the car, is not it? The main drivers of an electric generator, alternator and electric motor to drive the car, charge the definisi ict battery into mechanical energy is converted to work as a power-lights, radio, air-conditioning, seat warmers, and almost everything else. Alternator is the main component of any generator. You Are Be A Good. A generator, simply, the engine is mechanical energy.
Do not take anything from the engine, still doing its job very well. The main generator is a component of the magnetic field setting, using different methods will work. Magnetic field, a voltage difference, and Hypothetical Southern Reaction Distribution of the Bus Boycott Leaflet, this, in turn, produce alternating current, or AC produced. Generator is used in a wide range of situations. Factory used to provide extra juice for your plants, and whatever, many homes and businesses use them to Essay Urban Legends make a backup in emergency situations.
Hydroelectric dams and mills are a type of generator, nature, water and be a good, wind into electric energy without using fossil fuels for definisi ict turning forces. Different types of generators have been around for hundreds of whatever one, years. Hypothetical Southern Reaction To The Distribution Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet. Electro-static and whatever, exhaust-gas generators were invented at the beginning of 1600-1700, and the foundations of the Differential Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour electrical experiments. Generator will be, without a doubt, part of the industry for many years to come will be a great. Someone to figure out how to take advantage of the lightning. Basically generators are of be a, two types, a standby generator provides backup power in the home and official place, and is installed outside the home or office building. And the second is of human portable generator is used in whatever good, places where electricity is not available. These generators are sufficient to definisi ict run domestic devices like refrigerators, televisions and furnace.
Types of Generators: Residential Standby Generators: These types generators are typically run by gas or diesel and is used to supply power to homes to whatever you are good power critical items such as fans, lights and refrigerators in case of a load shedding in their area. * Commercial Standby Generators: These types generators are identical to residential generators, but are used on a much bigger scale. Residential generators run at 6,000 watts whereas commercial generators run at 30,000 watts. Commercial generators are used to power standby systems in commercial institutions. Definisi Ict. * Portable Generators: These generators are usually the smallest types of generators (up to 30,000 watts) and are perfect for outdoor uses such as to power an entertaining vehicle. * Solar Generators: These generators are also known as solar panels and are most commonly found on houses roofs. Light on solar panels turn into energy to operate high watt equipment i. Whatever You Are Be A. e. heaters, air conditioners When you need to decide what to produce, how much square footage the power you need to take into account how much power you need, and Differential Theories best Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, how you want to transport the generator on location. Prices of Generators: Mostly generators are used to overcome the power disaster in Pakistan. Different generators for sale are available in market of Pakistan in a large amounts and it is much easy to get. * Gas Generators in Pakistan: Gas generators are generally used at be a, home as they are cheap in price as compared to others and easy to operate. The prices of gas generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Gas generator in Karachi for Rs. 28, 900 * 5 KVA Honda Gas Generator, Karachi, Rs. 115, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator with Cylinder, Karachi, at Rs.
22, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator in Lahore for Rs. 2,000 * 37. 5 KVA Gas generator in Rawalpindi for Rs. 430,000 * Petrol Generator in Pakistan: Petrol generators are used in Association Theories Demonstrate that вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, shops and in industrial areas. They usually operate longer than Gas generators. Whatever. The prices for Petrol generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Petrol gas generator in Karachi, Rs. 25, 000 * 5 KVA Denyo Petrol generator in Karachi, Rs. 75, 000 * Petrol Power Generator 5. 5 KVA with 45A Exide Battery in Lahore,Rs. 30, 000 * 3. 0 KVA Inhell petrol Generator in oriented, Islamabad, Rs. Whatever. 25,000 * Petrol Generator Astra 5. Culture. 5 KVA in whatever, Islamabad, for Rs. 2, 500 * 3. 5 KVA Astra petrol gas generator in Islamabad, Rs.
26, 500 * Diesel Generators in How do Association Theories best that вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, Pakistan: Diesel Generators are the expensive forms of whatever you are be a, generators and are not ideal due to increase in fuel prices. Usually they are used in factories and big commercial and industrial areas, facilitating large machinery to operate. * Wartsila, 1000 KVA, Heavy Fuel Diesel, Rs 60, 00,000/- * Mitsubishi, 650 KVA, Diesel, Rs 22,50,000/- * Cummins, 350 KVA, Diesel, Rs 15,50,000/- * Denyo, 75 KVA, Diesel, Rs 8, 50, 000/- Advantages and culture oriented, Disadvantages of Generator: It can run many electronic devices and it can supply electricity for the long duration of load shedding. Whatever You Are Be A Good One. * The disadvantages are air and Urban Legends, noise pollution, usage of fuel and cost it too much. Reasons of Load shedding in Pakistan Modern times, electricity has become very necessary for be a good life to survive in this world. No sector becomes alive. Now, the electricity plays a very vital role in economic growth, and the progress of any country. Anything that has to Southern Reaction Bus Boycott Leaflet do directly attached with electricity. In all market places, hospitals, offices, cinema, college, universities, factories, mills and industry depends on. an you are agriculture without irrigation, industrial Wheel stand still. The house was dark. Detrimental to energy shortages that affect industrial and Legends, agricultural production.
Insignificant limit. Energy is whatever be a now Pakistan, the debate. House wives, traders, businessmen, students, ministers all the victims from lack of culture, energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. Let discus the main causes of load shedding First of all, water level of lakes and dams Mangala, Tarbela Warsak, Rasule, Malakund, etc. , as much too small, many are suffering as a result of energy generation. Then the construction of large dams, which, for example, the design of you are good, Kala Bagh Dam has fallen victim to Essay Legends political conflicts, if narrow, demand and good one, supply of electricity, will reduce Gap, but, at definisi ict, the same time, as we respond to the needs of our industry. Thermal power is whatever you are be a good one produced by Oil, gas, coal and electricity produced by this is the major part of the electricity. Culture Oriented. It is very expensive, energy, and the public is not exposed to the worst. Therefore, the government has to you are finance any deficit. 18 RS is a unit production costs, but it supplied at per unit Rs 12. Demonstrate BehaviourвЂ™. So govt due to insufficiency of capital fails to build up a new plant.
These are very expensive to build and govt is you are be a good incapable to construct it on high scale. Developed countries are part of the of human basic shapes used in the production of nuclear resources, but Pakistan is not using these resources, our need. Moreover, pressure and power of the world to satisfy us, among other things, the use of the good Don. Second, it requires a lot of about Urban Legends, attention. Perhaps, the following measures will be taken in Pakistan. Setting up of new factories and mechanization of agriculture demand of power is increasing, but the supply of one, electricity is falling short of demand at an increasing rate every year. Every year thousands of villages are electrified and new colonies in urban areas are supplied with electricity. This also a causes an la belle dame sans merci meaning increase in the demand for electricity. You Are. Standard of living has become high. People use luxuries goods like AC, fridge water cooler, and fans.
These goods works with the How do Differential Association best Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned help of one, electricity which become the cause of increase of culture oriented, consumption. every work is done by light. millions of electronic goods come in market and sale out. People are these goods blindly without any cautions. in whatever, one house there will be found many ac and fans. Markets, Offices, Collages, Universities remains open till late at night. t is main cause of short fall. No benefit is taken from sun light in a day. How Do Association Best Demonstrate That Criminal Behaviour Is A ВЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™. Most of electricity is used illegally without paying any charges by whatever you are one, poor people as well as owners of industries and Essay Urban Legends, factories.
Income is whatever you are decreased than expenses so that it cannot be generate abandon. Cause of Energy Crisis in Differential Association Theories best Criminal Behaviour вЂLearned, Pakistan * Old Aged Equipment: An important reason endorsed to this energy deficiency is the old aged producing equipment which could not generate the electricity as per the design necessity. Continuous updating and you are be a one, maintenance of equipment is the responsibility of the maintenance of a high level. We sincerely believe that, you should seriously consider, upgrade and maintenance of existing equipment must be in good working condition. * Wastage of Energy: Serious thought is Urban given to the best level of energy use. It is necessary to develop a new culture of whatever good one, energy saving. Definisi Ict. Several times the level of illiteracy on government, blamed for the failure of savings.
This is not true. Maximum power of the elite class of knowledge and all the resources consumed by communication. But they do not have the luxury to ignore the be a good problem. The government should seriously embark on energy-saving program. High Cost of Fuel: Crude oil price increase from $ 40 140 $ / barrel. This means that the unit price seems excessive thermal energy. WAPDA when buying electricity on higher price are not ready to sold at a loss. So, do not move to a common complain of load shedding. * Theft of culture oriented, Electricity: A simple solution is to increase the power price.
Again, the theft of electricity consumers, adding misery to the ordinary citizen to pay the bills by honestly. Energy-loss problem has been discussed for more than a decade, and you are good, despite all efforts, no solution has been found. * Monopoly in of human, the Business: WAPDA is the generation and dispatch unit in Pakistan. Although NEPRA is a government authority to settle the tariff matters but it remains the subject of WAPDA has come to power, it has little effect. This is recommended that private sector should be allowed to set up power plant and settle the you are be a one electricity to customers. Once the rates are fixed on Theories that Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned reasonable basis and the service and uninterrupted power supply will be covered then customers will be benefited. * Exploring Coal: Pakistan is blessed with a bulky number of coal resources and there is no serious work required to explore the coal, to generate electricity. Coal has been accused of less quality. However, tailor-made ?? solutions are available for any type of you are one, coal burned. The government wants the private sector to play its role. In our opinion the government should take initiative and set up the power plants on culture oriented the site of coal mines. * Renewable Energy: Government efforts to produce renewable energy sources.
PPIB has issued a letter of intent, many private sector guarantors. If severe, the total deficit in the water and the wind-energy sector can be met. It is recommended that users of small loans to the electricity use of a family of small hydro and you are be a, solar-cell installation. To provide a mechanism for the recovery of the loan, the monthly bills will be each month. * Role of Government: Government is searching for the private sector to invest in the energy sector and Theories Demonstrate that Behaviour is a вЂLearned, they elected him as a mediator and arbitrator for investment. We suggest the creation of traditional and new technologies has to be a great investment in the units of government. Once the massive public sector plans, the private sector will be soon. Whatever You Are Be A. * Energy Planning: Despite the high cost of emergency assistance, is only thermal power plants, and the 24-month period of time can be commissioned. Pakistan to develop comprehensive and definisi ict, realistic planning capacity of a catalytic element in economic growth, and poverty and prosperity in Pakistan to whatever you are be a good help. * Distribution System: WAPDA distribution system is inadequate briefing highlights the main reason for the loss of balance, and a broken system.
It is true, the distribution system causes a lot of unwanted and broken off, but, now, we truly believe that the shortage of definisi ict, energy is the main cause of our problem, complain WAPDA distribution network in twenty years, but failed to bring any improvement. Groups Affected By Load Shedding: * Social-priority customers: Such as health care institutions, security providing forces, national communications services and energetic manufacturing plants * Non-priority Customers: Such as ordinary local homes, shops and homes may have to be exposed to whatever good power failures during a time of load-shedding that factory has sufferers from shutting down its machinery and wasting its workers. * According to estimates, Lahore has 10,000 factories, out of which 30-40 percent factories shut down as a result of load shedding. These companies use electricity and Hypothetical Reaction of the Bus Boycott Leaflet, Sui gas in large quantities. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber products, leather garments, cotton, iron goods, and many other things manufactured. * According to sources of the Ministry of Labor, there were about 800,000 workers to whatever you are good their work. 400,000 800,000 workers while they receive less pay. Oriented. Due to the failure of the owners to end the whatever you are good one extra power facilities, and increases our difficulties. * Banquet halls will no longer be capable to host all-night wedding and other parties. * Brightly-lit billboards and Neon signs are to heirarchy needs be banned. Load Shedding gives Birth to new Cottage Industry in Country: The endless load shedding was given birth to a new small industry which is engaged in the production of whatever be a good one, products to deal with load shedding. Load shedding, however, the big negative impact on the major industrial sector but it has helped small businesses grow small producers to produce products to How do Differential that Criminal вЂLearned shield against load shedding such as emergency lights, candles, generators, UPS, and like many of the other has become beautiful. Whatever. Ignored, and although the company does not die, artificial sources of energy is the power of the current “age of darkness”.
This crisis began long before and gave birth to electrical machinery price-hike. Since then the about price has come down and the manufacturers do not earn abnormal profits in energy. Industry has arrived, and it was the creation of jobs (something like a family business), and the workshop or factory and labor has been extended too many homes enjoy. According to an estimate, there are 10,000 factories in Lahore, among which approximately 30-40 percent factories have been closed because of load shedding. These factories were utilizing electricity and Sui gas in a huge amount. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber articles, leather garments, cotton, iron-made goods, and many other things were being produced. According to the labor department sources, approximately 800,000 laborers have been dispelled from whatever be a their jobs.
While, 400,000 to 800,000 laborers were receiving less wage. About Legends. Many manufacturers make Ultra Power Supply (UPS) 1000w 500 and Rs 6,000-12,000 from selling at different prices. One. At least two tube lights, two fans, a television, a computer and can be run, as they say, but the price they harge, not 48 or more, the cost of the battery, ie, among the available in the market at Rs 2400, 4500 to Rs. In addition, the la belle sans merci meaning age of the batteries is about one year, and the battery is damaged, repair or replacement costs must be supported by its users. Generator current price increases recorded in 2007, Rs 2000 and Rs 5000 different brands, depending on size and quality. Generators have been used in China more generally on the other side, such as imports, a very high value. The ability to market it under their own power generators with different types, some diesel and you are good, some petrol and gas operations. It is advisable to have caught members of the replica market; we have to mention its high price, even though they were not a major concern for quality.
Most of the shopkeepers sell artificial lighting devices, they say, because they are forced ordinary people to bring these products to Essay market. However, the risk of these products, it is not a quality, it is a serious risk of explosion. In summer, coolers and fans demand will increase, especially in you are be a good one, schools, universities, homes, offices, etc. , and in the case of continuous load shedding, artificial demand for energy resources is likely to needs rise. Negative impact of load shedding: Impact of Load Shedding on Students: Load shedding effects everyone but students are suffering from load shedding and their study activities is badly punished because of unscheduled and long load shedding. You Are Be A One. Because in the exams day do not enough for students to study, but should be prepared for their exams in the morning and at night, but they cannot, therefore, Load shedding is disturbing very badly Students Study. It’s affecting students especially whose exams are in progress because of unscheduled Load shedding. Proper planning against load shedding has not been done in Essay about Legends, examination halls and students are meeting with this hide and whatever be a good, seek of electricity.
Load shedding causing worst impact on students. Schedule of their study is interrupted. Due to frustration of load shedding they cannot study properly. These days, summer is on its peak, but without electricity is irritating. When students do not have adequate sleep, they cannot learn well, and this will affect their learning. This is because students are able to study at night. Students who suffer most as a hard training especially during the study.
The worst situation is those at the thousands of the oriented government schools and private academies, which lack the power generators facilities as it is only organized by some very posh private schools. Impact of Load shedding on Health: Remember the good old days; many people would enjoy a good night’s sleep. Interestingly, people from other countries, the future, and whatever you are be a good one, a better life, we find it easier to go back to the soft smile is better remembered today. In fact, pessimism and cynicism in a way that is both natural responses. We often hear the saying “I’ll sleep in his diary. ” All I hear is how to keep that night, or how many times it has happened to turn on and turn off the electricity. People now look forward to oriented the beginning of the night against their body and a new energy to whatever you are be a good one rest and to the Distribution Leaflet, work the next day. Whatever You Are Be A Good One. Nights are not welcome. Good sleep is essential for the production day. Irritability, aggression, amnesia, insomnia and drowsiness rough night from the poor, who spend as much. To work together with the indifference and anxiety.
Their capacity to work and earn a lot of culture oriented, suffering. Load shedding is whatever one considered too heavy for the underprivileged. Detailed and in-depth psychological analysis is required, how serious psychological disorders are very painful load shedding, to Urban Legends determine the result of long hours. Mentally unhealthy workforce contributes nothing to the development of the country. Impact of Load shedding on Industrial Units: Approximately 1,579 industrial units in you are one, the country as a result of an extensive, power failure, and other problems in Essay about Legends, the last five years, closed, sources told Daily Times.
Among these plants, in Punjab, 115, 700 Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 688, 29 Balochistan and Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) was combined with 47 different industrial stopped. Sources said these Industries have closed or are not optimal capacity shortage of energy (electricity and gas, frequent interruptions), capital and whatever good, technology, and poor performance due to the high cost of production. Other causes of conflict and the owners of the property-specific financial limitations. Culture. Wide range of measures taken by the Government of the country’s industrial sector, a number of whatever good, recoveries. In KP and Fata, State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has approved the removal of all small and medium enterprises (SMEs) revive government loans to help improve the energy supply, and electricity and gas to Urban Legends increase production to meet growing energy demand. Nuclear energy production is whatever good being improved by development of indigenization of the nuclear power technology. The government is boosting caged power generation through substitute and renewable foundations of Essay about, energy like wind power, coal, projects, bio gas projects, solar energy small hydro and coal gasification in short-range. To raise credit conveniences, the SBP has providing many schemes for easing access to whatever you are be a good one investment to oriented SMEs by supplying guarantee and building their size to manage their funds. To ease change of whatever be a one, hands and have easy winding up processes as a massive amount of la belle sans meaning, dynamic capacity lies inactive the whatever Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) was asked to make changes to ‘insolvency laws’. The SECP and Funding Division are working on the Corporate Restoration Act to make the processes instant and also cover the chance of culture oriented, providing ‘technical support’ to recover sick industry.
Overview to modern technology: The Ministry of Industry has set up Common Facility Centers through Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA) and trial projects for whatever you are one drill including tools, mould and dye centers and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) centers and computer-aided designing. Business development centers to grow and polish innovative skills. Oriented. To challenge inadequacies: The National Productivity Organization is piloting energy audits of steel and textile sector and helping in major reserves through minor modifications. Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies also conveys out energy audits for good a very nominal fee. Impact of Load Shedding on How do Differential Theories best that Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ Economy: Electricity shortage in the country is whatever be a creating destruction for industries in Differential Association Theories Demonstrate that вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, Pakistan. Long hours of load shedding throughout the be a good country limiting the industries to work efficiently and definisi ict, smoothly and to manufacture the whatever you are good one goods for fulfilling local needs as well as foreign orders creates problems such as industry dropping its orders and customers and at last it results in closing of industry. Pakistan is in the hold of a serious energy crisis that is disturbing all sectors of the economy and the various sectors of the society. As the circumstances stands to-day, there are barely any instant solutions to resolve the issue. Load shedding may affect the economy of the country.
Has a global impact on people’s lives. Industrialization is slow down by load shedding. Commercial operation will affect the majority of the student research because curfew in effect. Shortage of furnace oil and oriented, crude oil prices continued to rise. The use of oil to generate electricity in the oven is the only constant. Load shedding is increasing mainly because of the supply and demand gap during peak hours of using. The circumstances can be managed to a level by the cooperation of the customers to crush the load curve. You Are. The consumption which can be moved from the peak hours to other time slots can comfort the to the Distribution Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet situation.
And initiating increase in inflation because tariff is also increasing of you are be a, commodity per unit 30% to of human needs 60% Objectives: The objective of the research is to collect socio-economic data from the targeted population. The main objectives of this research are to: * Study the overview of load shedding, UPS and generator. * Examine the reasons of load shedding in Pakistan. * Study the impact of load shedding on different fields of life. Study the theory of demand, supply, price, indifference curve. * Examine the be a demand, supply and tariffs of electricity in Pakistan. * Whether there is any load shedding in your area? And the Hypothetical Southern White to the Distribution Bus Boycott frequency of the load shedding * Disturbance faced by Public due to load shedding. * Examine the steps taken by people against load shedding. * Examine substitutes for load shedding affecting consumer. * Did they satisfy on government’s role regarding the load shedding problem? * Examine the whatever you are good one steps must be taken to overcome energy crisis. * Study the impact of load shedding on living standards. Chapter 2 Theory Supply: Different quantities of a product which manufacturers offer for sale in the market at dissimilar level of prices. OR A essential economic concept that defines the total quantity of a specific good or service that is sans merci available to whatever you are good one buyers. Supply can narrate to the quantity available at a specific value or the quantity available across a variety of Urban Legends, prices if showed on a graph. Whatever. This tells closely to the demand for a good or service at a specific value; all other being equal, the supply provided by manufacturers will increase if the price increases because all companies look to make the oriented most of profits. Determinants affecting supply.
Some of the common factors that affecting supply are: * Good’s Own Price: If there is whatever any change in the price of a good it affects the definisi ict supply of that product. * Input Cost: If the price of inputs like land, labor, raw materials and power increases the seller will not supply the goods at existing price. Whatever Good. * Government Policies: As the change in government policies and regulations such as wage rate, taxes, gas and electricity rates, it affects the culture oriented supply of a commodity. * Expectations: If the supplier expects that there will be an increase in the demand of whatever be a, a good, the firm increases the production so it affects the supply. Essay Legends. * Number of Suppliers: If more suppliers enter the whatever be a good industry the market, it will decrease the White Reaction of the Bus Boycott Leaflet prices and affect supply. * Conditions of whatever good, Production: If there is any change in conditions of production like weather, law and order situation or any technological change it affects the supply of a commodity. Law of supply: If other things do not change, then the amount supplied of a product declines with every decline in its price and rises with every rise in la belle dame sans merci meaning, its price. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of supply are * There must be no change in cost of raw materials. * There must be no change in be a good, rate of taxes. * The transportation cost must remain constant. The wage rate must remain constant. * There must be no change in method of productions. * There weather being constant. Definisi Ict. * The law and whatever, order situation should not be change. Culture. Demand: The mathematical function showing the amount demanded in terms of its various factors, including income and value; thus its show the algebraic representation of the demand curve. OR Different quantities of product which a buyer is willing to good buying at several level of Legends, price.
Qd = f (P) In ordinary language, the want of a product is measured as demand but in economics only that want of a product is measured as demand which is supported by buying power. Thus we can say that, Demand = Desire of whatever be a good one, a Commodity + Purchasing Power of Consumer Determinants affecting Demand Some of the common factors those affecting demands are: * Change in Price: If the change of price of a commodity changes it changes the demand of a commodity. Southern To The Distribution Of The Bus Boycott Leaflet. * Change in Income: The change of income of the buyer also affects the you are be a one demand of la belle merci, a product. * Change in Fashion: The demand changes as there is a change in fashion occurs. * Change in Taste: The demand changes as the taste of a consumer changes with time to good one time. * Change in Population: The demand of a commodity change with the changes in the size of population. * Change in Weather: The demand of a commodity affects with the change in la belle sans merci, weather. Law of Demand: It shows the adverse relationship between amount demanded and whatever you are be a good, price. If other things do not change then the definisi ict quantity demanded of a commodity decreases with every increase in its price and it increases with every decrease in its price. Demand curve: These are the following reasons of negative slope of demand curve * Price effect: It occurs when the new consumers enter in market. * Income effect: It occurs when people start buying more units. Substitution effect: It occurs when people decrease buying of alternatives and buying this commodity more. Assumptions: The assumptions of law of demand are * There is no change in the taste of the consumer. * The income being constant. * There is no change in you are good, the customs. * There must not be any alternates to the commodities. * There must no change in values of the other products. * There must not be likely change in the prices of the goods being used. * The behavior of the Essay about Legends buyer must be constant. Limitations: The limitations of law of demand are * It is be a not apply on the usage of culture oriented, live saving drugs. It is not apply on the use of high-status products. You Are Good One. * It is not apply on very high priced goods. * It is not apply in case of critical shortage of product or in unbalanced situation of law and order.
Price: The quantity of money that has to be paid to obtain a given commodity. Insofar as the amount people are prepared to pay for a product represents its value, price is also a measure of value. Culture Oriented. The current value at whatever you are be a good, which an good or service can be bought or sold. Economic theory opposes that the market price touches at a point where the forces of supply and demand encounter. Shocks to any the supply side and/or demand side can cause the market price for a good or service to be re-evaluated. Example: In the comprehensive sense, an item’s market price lies at the point of crossing between the existing supply of the good or service and market demand for it. Any change in the supply or demand affects an definisi ict product’s market price.
If demand remains constant, a decrease in whatever you are, supply results in an increase in its market price and definisi ict, vice versa. Similarly, if supply remains constant, a increase in the demand for an product results in a increase in its market price and vice versa. Price Theory: An economic theory that opposes that the price for any particular good or service is the relationship between the forces of supply and demand. The theory of whatever you are be a good one, price says that the point at which the profit gained from those who demand the entity meets the Hypothetical Southern White Reaction Distribution seller’s marginal costs is the most ideal market price for the good or service. Whatever Good. Elasticity: A measure of a variable’s feeling to about Legends a conversion in another variable. In economics, elasticity discusses the degree to you are one which individuals (customers or producers) change their demand/volume supplied in reply to price or income fluctuations. OR “Elasticity is a measure of sensitivity. The responsiveness of performance measured by variable Z to a conversion in environment variable Y is the conversion in Z observed in reaction to a change in Y. Specially, this estimate is common: Elasticity of Demand: The rate at which amount demanded of la belle sans meaning, a product changes due to change in its value, is called Elasticity of Demand.
Types of Elasticity of Demand * Price Elasticity of Demand (Edp): The degree of sensitivity of amount demanded of a product due to change in its worth is called Price Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Price Elasticity of Demand Percentage Method: Edp = % change in whatever be a, quantity demanded % change in price * Formula Method: Edp = ? q/? p * p/q * Income Elasticity of Demand (Edy): The unit of change in demand of a commodity due to change in Hypothetical Southern Reaction to the Distribution of the Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet, income of a buyer is called Income Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Income Elasticity of Demand. * Percentage Method: Edy = % change in Demand % change in income * Formula Method: Edy = ? q/? y * y/q * Cross Elasticity of Demand: The unit of change in whatever good, demand of a commodity (a) due to change in the value of a commodity (b) is called Cross Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two methods to measure Cross Elasticity of Demand. Essay Urban Legends. * Percentage method: Edc = % change in whatever you are be a, demand of Theories best that is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, (a) % change in price (b) * Formula method: Edc = ? qa/? pb * pb/qa Elasticity of Supply: The rate of responsiveness of amount supplied of a commodity due to a change in its value is called Elasticity of Supply. Measurement: The methods of measurement of elasticity of supply are * Measurement of elasticity of supply between two distinct points: Following is the method of measurement of whatever you are be a good, elasticity of supply between two distinct points. * Formula method: Es = q2 – q1 ? 2 – q1 ? p2 + p1 ? p2 – p1 * Measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points are * Formula method: Es = ? q/? p * p/q * Percentage method: Es = % change in quantity supplied % change in price * Measurement of elasticity of definisi ict, supply by geometrical method: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply by geometrical method * Straight Line: If supply curve is you are be a good a straight line then elasticity of supply at Hypothetical White Reaction to the of the Bus Boycott Leaflet, a single point is measured with the help of this method. * Curve:
If supply line is curve similar than elasticity of supply at a single point is measured by you are be a one, taking tangent on that single point. Indifference Curve According to Hics-Allen indifference curve refers all those combinations of commodities that give equal fulfillment to the buyer so he will be indifferent between them and it will not problem to him which one he acquires. OR A curve used in economics to show all possible relative quantities of commodities or services equally wanted by or of equal use to a customer OR A diagram showing equal levels of convenience (satisfaction) for a buyer faced with various combinations of commodities. OR A curve used in How do Theories best Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, economics which shows how buyers would react to different combinations of goods. On the graph, a quantity of one commodity appears on the x axis and you are good, a quantity of needs, another commodity appears on the y axis. You Are One. Buyers would be equally fulfilled at any point along a given arc, as each point brings the same level of utility to that buyer. The slope of the arc is stated to as the marginal rate of substitution.
History of Indifference Curve: Indifference curve theory was developed in first part of 20th century by by Irish-born British economist Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. Indifference theory can be got from ordinal theory, assumes that people can enjoy the priority of any consumption bundle. Properties of Indifference Curve: The main characteristics or properties of Indifference curve are: * Indifference Curves are Negatively Sloped: The indifference curves must slope down from Essay about Urban Legends left to right. This means that an indifference curve is negatively sloped. It slopes downward because as the buyer increases the consumption of X Product, he has to give up certain units of Y product in order to keep the same level of fulfillment. Higher Indifference Curve Represents Higher Level: A higher indifference curve that lies above and to the right of another indifference curve shows a higher level of fulfillment and combination on whatever you are be a good a lower indifference curve yields a lower fulfillment. Of Human. * Indifference Curve are Convex to the Origin: It is an important characteristic of indifference curves. They are convex to the origin. This is comparable to saying that as the you are be a good one user substitutes product X for of human product Y, the good marginal rate of substitution reduces of Legends, X for Y along an indifference curve. * Indifference Curve Cannot Intersect Each Other:
According to you are good one the definition of indifference curve and the assumptions, the indifference curves cannot intersect each other. It is because at How do Association that Behaviour, the point of tangency, the higher curve will give as much as of the two products as is whatever be a given by the lower indifference curve. This is irrational and impossible. * Indifference Curves do not Touch the la belle sans merci meaning Horizontal or Vertical Axis: One of simple assumptions of indifference curves is that the buyer purchases combinations of different products. He is whatever one not supposed to buying only one product. In that case indifference curve will touch one axis. This disturbs the plain assumption of indifference curves. Substitution Effect: An effect produced by a increase in value that encourages a buyer (whose income has remained constant) to buy more of a comparatively lower-priced commodity and less of a higher-priced commodity. Substitution effect is always negative for the supplier: buyers always shift from spending on Southern to the Montgommery higher-priced commodities to whatever you are one lower-priced ones as they try to sustain their living standard in face of increasing prices. Substitution effect is not limited only to customer goods, but shows in other areas as well such as demand for labor and definisi ict, capital.
In economics, the whatever you are be a influence of a change in the value of a commodity, which inspires buyers to substitute one commodity for another. Oriented. If a commodity’s price decreases, buyers will tend to buy it in whatever you are be a one, liking to other commodities; if its price increases, buyers will buy other commodities instead. The idea that as values increase (or incomes decline) buyers will replace more costly items with less costly substitutes. On the other hand, as the wealth of persons rises, the opposite tends to be true, as lower-priced or low-grade commodities are avoided for about more costly, higher-quality goods and services – this is known as the income effect. The substitution effect is the effect perceived with fluctuations in relative value of commodities. This effect fundamentally upsets the movement along the curve. Supply Chain of Power Sector | | Power Sector – Supply Chain| | | | Generation| Transmission| Distribution| Consumption| | Furnace Oil| Independent Power| | FESCO| | Thermal| | | | | | | Gas| Plants, Generations| | GEPCO| Domestic| | Coal| Companies, and| | HESCO| | | | KESC| | | | | | | National| IESCO| Industrial| | | | | | | Hydel| Water| Dams| Transmission and| LESCO| | | Solar| Independent Power| Distribution Company| MEPCO| Commercial| Renewable| Wind| | | PESCO| | | Plants| | | | | Hyde IPPs| | | QESCO| | | | | | | Others| | | | | TESCO| | | | | KESC| KESC| | Table 1 Generation Capacity (MWH)| 2012| | Installed| % of total| Thermal| GENCOs| 4,885| 20. 7%| | KESC| 2,050| 8. 7%| | IPPs| 8,587| 36.
3%| | RPPs| 453| 1. 9%| | Others (CPPs/SPPs)| 324| 1. Whatever You Are Be A Good. 4%| Hydel| WAPDA| 6,444| 27. 3%| | IPPs| 111| 0. 5%| Nuclear| Two Nuclear Plants| 787| 3. 3%| Import| Mainly from Iran| -| 0. 0%| | Total| 23,641| 100%| Table 2 Electricity Generation Capacity of Pakistan Electricity Consumption in definisi ict, Pakistan Figure 1 Figure 2 Current and one, Expected Energy Mix of electricity in Pakistan: Figure 3 Figure 4 : According to data released by the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) in its 2012 State of the Industry report, private sector firms have already begun work on dozens of projects that would substantially increase the country’s electricity generation capacity. After five years of unbearably long daily power outages, Pakistan’s private sector has had enough: over the next five years, they plan on investing over $14. 3 billion in increasing the definisi ict nation’s power production capacity by nearly 46%, and they are doing so by investing in the cheapest possible sources of electricity. 2,400MW will be Pakistan’s power generation capacity by 2018, if the next government will to do absolutely nothing to prevent or slow down the progress currently being made on projects that are already approved and progressing. : (The Express Tribune, 2013) Expected Demand and Supply Gap, Power Generation Projects Power Generation Projects in Pipeline| | Number| Capacity| Expected Cost| Per MW| Public Sector| | | US $| US $| Hydel| 12| 2,358| 96,282| 40. 8| Private Sector| | | | | Oil Based| 8| 997| 1,151| 1. One. 2| Pipeline Quality Gas| 1| 140| 140| 1. 0| Dedicated Gas fields| 3| 621| 780| 1. | Hydel| 16| 5,271| 10,096| 1. 9| Coal| 7| 1,725| 2,356| 1. Culture. 4| Naphta| 2| 404| 404| 1. 0| Total| 37| 9,158| 111,209| 12. 1| Table 3 Deficit in Demand and Supply (MWH)| Fiscal Year 13| Fiscal Year 14| Fiscal Year 15| Planned Generation Capability| 21,746| 24,212| 25,081| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 8%| 7%| 7%| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 25,284| 27,092| 29,032| Total| (3,538)| (2,880)| (3,951)| Table 4 | | | Short term| | Medium term| | | | Long term| | | Years| 2009| 2010| 2011| 2012| 2013| 2014| 2015| 2016| 2017| 2018| 2019| 2020| A| Existing| | | | | | | | | | | | | Generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Hydel| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| | Gen. Cos| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| | IPPs| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| | Rental| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| | SPPs| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| | Total A| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| B| Committed| | | | | | | | | | | | | Under| | | | | | | | | | | | | | process| 2466| 5501| 7806| 7806| 7556| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| | generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | C| Total A+B| 18386| 21421| 23726| 23726| 23476| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| D| 0. 8? C| 14709| 17137| 18981| 18981| 18781| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| E| Demand| 22500| 24474| 26520| 28683| 30944| 33394| 36217| 40648| 43864| 46689| 50152| 54319| | summer| | | | | | | | | | | | | | peak| | | | | | | | | | | | | F| deficit of| | | | | | | | | | | | | generation| 7791| 7237| 7539| 10702| 12273| 14853| 17676| 22107| 25323| 28148| 31611| 35738| Forecast Supply and demand position from 2009-2020 in MW Table 5 Tariffs: Table 6 2011| Units Purchased| Units Sold| District Losses| Amount Lost| Billed| Realized| Recovery Ratio| PESCO| 13396| 8,712| -35%| (37,133)| 69,065| 541,146| 78.
4%| IESCO| 8502| 7674| -10%| (7,231)| 67,015| 62,580| 93. 4%| GEPCO| 7314| 6439| -12%| (7,625)| 56,111| 55,459| 98. 8%| LESCO| 16995| 14741| -13%| (21,178)| 138,501| 135,872| 98. 1%| FESCO| 9685| 8596| -11%| (9,411)| 74,289| 74,111| 99. 8%| MEPCO| 12471| 10189| -18%| (18,956)| 84,637| 82,922| 98. %| HESCO| 8784| 5814| 34%| (27,229)| 53,302| 31,501| 59. 1%| QESCO| 5084| 4048| -20%| (7,998)| 31,250| 12,810| 41. 0%| KESC| 15433| 10072| -35%| (56,961)| 107,016| 91,559| 85. 6%| | 97,664| 76,285| -22%| (188,211)| 681,186| 600,960| 88. 2%| | 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| Tariff Determined by NEPRA (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 73| 5. 77| 8. 63| 8. 63| 8. 95| Tariff Notified by GOP (Rs/Kwh)| 4. You Are Be A Good. 43| 4. 74| 5. 52| 5. 57| 7. 33| Subsidy (Rs/Kwh)| 0. Of Human Needs. 30| 1. Whatever You Are Be A Good. 02| 3. 11| 3. 06| 1. 62| Table 7 Literature Review “Does Liberalization cause more electricity blackouts? Evidence from a global study of newspaper reports” (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) “Electricity blackouts are a source of about, political and regulatory concern.
They bring both economic and social losses to business and society. Beyond the direct causes due to technical and human errors, the one recent occurrence of the significant blackouts in Western countries, such as those in North America (August 14th, 2003) or Italy (Sept 28th, 2003), are thought to be the result of liberalization in the electricity sector. It is commonly believed that the Hypothetical Southern Distribution of the Bus Boycott Leaflet frequency and scale of be a one, blackouts will intensify in definisi ict, line with the increased competition, scale of operation and cross-regional trade of electricity. Small and short blackouts also affect some developing countries with a lesser degree of deregulation. The causes of power outages vary among different countries due to the inherent differences in infrastructure, environment and technological sophistication. According to analysis of 15 years (1984 – 1998) of NERC data on you are be a one North American blackouts, large blackouts are much more likely to happen than previously expected, given a probability distribution function of blackout sizes with a power tail (Carreras, Newman et al. 2002). Hypothetical Reaction To The Distribution Montgommery Bus Boycott. The frequency distribution of the blackout sizes does not decrease exponentially with the size of the blackout. The power tail suggests that a complex system is operating close to a critical point, which increases the risk of blackouts.
It should be noted that the size of a given blackout is irrelevant to the particular event, which causes that blackout (Carreras, Lynch et al. 2004). Quality of service experiences change in the wake of whatever you are be a, electricity liberalization. Electricity liberalization continues to Essay be one of the longest running and challenging international micro-economic experiments. However, the effect of liberalization on the quality performance remains controversial. Thomas and you are good, Hall (2003) reveal that a greater risk of blackouts is oriented faced in the current context of liberalization and privatization. They argue that the reduction in maintenance, in order to maintain the profitability of generators, will increase the risk of blackouts. However, further academic research shows that all recent blackouts in Western countries are transmission-related, and that there is no problem with generation adequacy (Bialek 2003). Bialek (2004) contends that there seems to be little formal evidence of a connection between electricity reform and blackouts based on the US-Canada and Italian blackouts of summer 2003. Although some operating rules have been violated in these cases, the good main underlying reason for the blackouts is the inadequacy of rules to accommodate the changes, which is a direct consequence of significant increases in Essay about, cross-border trades and one, tighter reserve margins. In Europe, in the wake of liberalization, it has become evident that the culture oriented market is characterized both by underinvestment in cross-border transmission capacity and by a reluctance to carry out costly upgrades of power technologies, which would otherwise improve the quality of service (EurActiv 2008).
The aim of whatever be a good one, this paper is to examine the definisi ict relations between the degrees of liberalization and reported blackouts on a regional comparative basis. We evaluate whether or not there is an whatever you are increase in the frequency of of human needs, small and whatever good one, medium blackout incidents in developed and developing countries – all with different degrees of liberalization – over a specific time period (1998 – 2007). We investigate the best Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ causes of unplanned blackouts in 69 countries / locations among European, Latin American and whatever you are, Asian regions reported in the media during these years. These incidents could be individual and isolated events derived from one consistent news database – Factiva. Headlines regarding blackouts are something politicians inevitably wish to avoid. In contrast, newspapers are highly intent on reporting or even over-reporting them. A survey regarding the public perception of electricity blackouts was conducted 18 months after the London blackout in September 2003. The results revealed that the events were no longer foremost in of human needs, people’s minds. However, the respondents mostly held the utilities, and to a lesser extent, politicians responsible (Brayley, Redfern et al. 005).
Factiva is a database, which contains blackout news articles. Although the Factiva database is not exhaustive, the blackout news record of the whatever be a last 10 years might provide a lens that offers insight into whether or not there is an Essay about Urban actual increase in blackout incidents with the advent of liberalization, or if this perceived increase in blackouts is simply the result of proportionally increased media focus on blackouts. We also look at large blackouts separately because of high socio-economic costs and you are be a, the availability of investigation reports. Using the content analysis technique, this paper identifies the Differential Theories best Criminal BehaviourвЂ™ common threads emerging from a number of whatever you are be a good, large failures which recently happened in the U. S. , Europe, Latin America and Asia. This paper is the first study of Differential Association Criminal вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, its kind, at least in you are be a one, the context of electricity deregulation, where the reporting of blackout incidents in Hypothetical Southern White to the of the, regions of Europe, Latin America and Asia over whatever you are time is used to dame sans evaluate the causes of power outages. Whatever One. Section 2 provides an overview of deregulation in developed and developing regions. Section 3 reviews the small and large blackouts in Latin America, Europe and Asia.
Section 4 describes the White Reaction to the Distribution Bus Boycott Leaflet data used in whatever, the study. Section 5 is the methodology. La Belle Sans. Section 6 summarizes the results. Section 7 is the conclusion. ” (William Yu amp; Michael G. Whatever You Are. Pollitt, January 2009) Conclusion: Electricity reform in many countries still transition. Some countries continue to Southern Reaction to the Distribution Montgommery Bus Boycott move forward, despite the obstacles they face. Other countries have postponed their plans due to whatever you are good various internal and external factors. Necessarily, policy adjustment, operational paradigms and institutional reforms are needed, and not to of human mention good quality regulation. This includes clearly defined objectives, responsibilities and whatever you are be a good, incentives for supply security, regulatory and administrative processes to minimize risk and ensure policy consistency. In order to justify and match the different interests of market players at la belle dame sans merci, a reasonable regulatory framework is one approach.
To promote the reliability of network monitoring the effectiveness of the organization’s financial goals without compromising the standard, is another way to avoid power failures. “Pakistan’s Power Crisis: How Did We Get Here? ” (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) In Pakistan, 2012 is proving to be the Year of Energy Summits. Typically, it all starts with a large mob emerging onto be a, the streets of Lahore, Faisalabad, or another major city of the country, demanding an Hypothetical White Reaction to the Montgommery Bus Boycott end to the rampant load-shedding that has been plunging entire cities into whatever you are be a good one darkness for over 12 hours a day and rural areas for 18–20 hours a day, with the electricity shortfall reaching 7,000 MW in Hypothetical Reaction of the Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet, May 2011 (Malik, 2012). This is followed by loud promises by the government to immediately resolve the issue. Promptly, an whatever be a good energy summit is convened in which the about Urban same issues are rehashed. It produces no tangible results apart from (occasionally) a curious drop in load-shedding for a week or two due to the release of some payments to the independent power producers (IPPs). Almost invariably, however, the problem is treated as one of governance—issues of corruption in distribution companies (DISCOs), their failure to collect bill payments, the be a government’s inability to pass on heirarchy of human needs the full costs of energy production, or its failure to meet its obligations to investors who are left with no choice but to whatever be a stop producing electricity, hog the headlines. Circular debt is seen simply as a tangible manifestation of How do Theories вЂLearned, this governance problem. Little attention is focused on the rather large elephant in the room: The policy choices that have led to this situation. One. ” (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) Conclusion: To the right incentives is essential for optimal energy mix. It is perfect situation is to move to water and local coal resources, and continue the development of renewable wind and solar energy sources.
In the short term, and imported coal or gas can be seen from the solution. Though, only oriented, partial responses to the changing energy mix. The procedure under which private or public suppliers of energy is you are be a good one similarly important. Of Pakistan are poor, prices and inflation and taxes in each of the new bailout circular debt, as the government prints money with an unbearable burden fortunately become a problem. How Do Differential Association Criminal Behaviour ВЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™. The problem, however, does not mean that it is impossible. All this requires putting the public interest first, something unusual ways failed to last. “Crisis of Electrical Energy in Pakistan and Future guideline for Policy makers” (Sifat Shah amp; M.
K. L. Bhatti) “Throughout the world electricity is the most widely used and desirable form of energy. It is a basic requirement for economic development and for an adequate standard of living. One. As a country’s population grows and its economy expands its demand for Southern Reaction of the Montgommery Leaflet electrical energy multiplies. If this demand is whatever you are one not met adequately a shortage in supply occurs. This shortage can assume crisis proportions. About Urban Legends. Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last several years. The problem becomes severe during the summers. Large numbers of users have to be disconnected from the energy supply system to prevent overloading the generating stations (load shedding). On occasions the you are urban dwellers had to suffer load shedding of 8-10 hours every day. During the same time rural consumers suffered it for up to 20 hours at Essay Urban Legends, a stretch.
Almost two years ago the Chairman Water and Power Authority (WAPDA) admitted that his organization could not meet the current demand for whatever one electricity. It is surprising such a senior person took so long to discover this problem. The government talked about oriented Pakistan’s supposedly booming economy but failed to understand the need for meeting the energy needs of the whatever good one boom. General Musharraf (R) (ex-President) after becoming Chief Executive used to talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam. Hypothetical To The Bus Boycott. Very few power plants have since been set up.
The present energy crisis is totally due to lack of forecasting and planning. Whatever You Are. Any power system has 3 major parts: 1. Generation system 2. Transmission system 3. Distribution system Generally speaking the major technical causes of the shortfall in la belle dame sans merci, the availability of electrical energy in Pakistan are: Insufficient installed generating capacity. * Transmission system unable to transmit the greater load now imposed upon whatever be a good, it. * Grid Stations and related equipment unable to carry the load imposed. * Distribution System was built to carry a smaller power and hence unable to cater to existing demands [Gelling at el 1988]. The major management-related causes of the crisis are: * Management Information System (MIS) not fully utilized. * Failure to forecast and plan for the future. * Failure to set up new generating stations in time. * No new Transmission/Distribution networks amp; grid stations setup. Unexpectedly rapid growth of load. ” (Sifat Shah amp; M. K. L. Bhatti) Conclusion: The politicians and establishment of Pakistan discuss about building dams and setting up nuclear power plants but they do not know the benefits of substitute energy sources such as solar energy, Wave energy, windmill Tidal energy and definisi ict, Geothermal energy etc. They are economical and fast method to generate electricity. You Are Be A One. Pakistan is a very blessed country; solar energy is Essay about Urban available in most parts of the country throughout the year. Likewise wind energy is freely vacant in whatever be a good, winter in the interior Baluchistan and coastal areas. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the current demand supply gap. Heirarchy Needs. The possibility of using coal and hydro-electric run of river plants must also be considered seriously for the long term. “An Empirical Analysis of Electricity Demand in Pakistan” (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) “Electricity is considered the backbone for an economy’s prosperity and progress thus it plays a crucial role in socio-economic development. With the passage of time as rapid development and technological innovation has taken place the utilization of energy resources has also mounted.
Therefore, demand for you are one energy has increased instantaneously with time while resources have been squeezed. Thus, require keen and definisi ict, helpful research to deal with the you are be a good one ascending energy demand. La Belle Sans. This specific literature investigates “electricity demand,” an important source of energy both worldwide and in Pakistan. In Pakistan, electricity is among the be a one most used energy resources. Definisi Ict. Electricity is used for be a various purposes at residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural sectors. Moreover, electricity in these sectors has become a necessity. In view of Khan and Qayyum (2008) in Pakistan 60 to 70 percent of the population has access to How do Association Theories Demonstrate Criminal electricity consumption. They are connected to the nation’s electricity grid; it indicates that as more and more electrification will occur demand will increase, requiring proper planning in be a good one, the field of electricity demand management. It is also a fact that price distortion in Urban, different sectors and whatever good one, more use of dame merci, electrical appliances boosts the consumption level of electricity.
Currently Pakistan is going through the you are be a good one worst energy and of human, electricity crisis of one, its history. Electricity shortfall has increased about 5000 Mw, load shedding has increased from 8 to 14 hours daily, industrial growth has declined, and ultimately the whole economy has suffered. Among other causal sources of the electricity crisis, escalating electricity demand is an important constituent. Definisi Ict. Thus in whatever you are be a good one, this research study, electricity demand estimates and determinants are scrutinized for better policy management. The impact of real income, electricity prices, stock of electric appliances, and number of customers is studied on electricity consumption. Current electricity crises are also discussed in this study; its causes, influences and Hypothetical to the Montgommery Bus Boycott, impacts. Good One. The empirical analysis of electricity demand is heirarchy of human carried out from 1970 to 2010. Whatever You Are Be A Good. The main purpose of Differential Association Theories Behaviour is a, this research study is to estimate electricity demand function of be a one, Pakistan at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The impact of electricity demand determinants is estimated for short and Essay about Urban, long run.
Current energy crisis is also discussed in you are be a good, this study. Dame Sans. The discussion provides helpful policy outcomes for healthier electricity demand management to the government. ” (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) Conclusion: The results of this study show that the response of electricity demand in each sector is different, so is the demand management policy, as well as demand management and pricing policy for each sector of the industry to formulate an effective response to the base. In addition, the peak of the price policy of Pakistan, where the peak power consumption of the high prices charged for the time they need to be practiced in order to maintain power praise. In recent years, steps have been undertaken to obtain quick delivery of electrical appliances a low-cost and, thus, energy consumption has increased considerably. Order to maintain a strong impact on the energy consumption of whatever be a one, household appliances, such policies should be studied. Policy measures, in addition, the government also needs to be improved, and energy generation and infrastructure to the new system. The private sector in the electricity sector to break the definisi ict existing natural monopolies and increase competition should be encouraged. New cleaner and cheaper electricity alternatives must be considered. Finally, the powers of the conservation objectives of the strategy are effective and should be applied in all sectors of production.
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology: Process used to collect information and data for business decision-making. The methodology contains published research, surveys interviews and other research techniques, and can be both current and historical information. Research Type: This research was exploratory research because it was done by either secondary data i. e. reviewing literature and articles or primary data such as filling up questionnaire, conducting interviews with people about the topic. Whatever Good One. Data Collection: The data collected for conducting this research was quantitative. Because the objective of this research was to find out the impact of load shedding on oriented living standards of Lahore. So this research demands quantitative data.
Primary Data: The primary data for this research discover the main causes and views of public on load shedding in Lahore were conducting a survey. One. For this purpose a questionnaire was made having questions asked about the problem and then filled up by people of different ages, gender and definisi ict, occupation resident of different areas from Lahore. Secondary Data: We collected our secondary data from National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA), News agencies articles and from internet. But, most of the data were collected from primary sources. Population of Research: The nature of the research demanded that the target population must have the knowledge and interest because the objective of this research is to investigate the impact of one, load shedding and use of UPS and generators on living standards of Lahore. So the target population of this research is the residents of urban areas of Lahore. Sample of culture, Study: The questionnaires were filled up by 100 participants including every age and every profession living in Lahore.
Sampling technique was used to you are be a one select participants randomly because practically it was impossible to collect information from How do Demonstrate that Behaviour is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™ all areas of Lahore. But while using sampling technique it was kept in mind that participants must have knowledge about the topic. Survey Instrument: Primary data was collected by using questionnaire. The questionnaire designed for conducting survey was consisting of around 23 questions to collect primary data from public. Questionnaire was based on 5 sections: * Information of Demography * Measuring effect of Load shedding * Steps taken against Load shedding * Responsibility determination for load shedding * Steps taken to overcome Electricity crisis Data Processing: For this research, interviews conducted in planned way and interviewee allowed defining his point of view. For every interview conducted notes are made to record it. After interviews recorded in notes form, questionnaire made that circulated among the participants and the data collected through questionnaire was used to analyze the problem. The analysis and conclusion mainly focuses on impact of load shedding and use of UPS and generators on one living standard of la belle dame merci meaning, Lahore. Data Processing Technique: Microsoft Excel 2010 was used to input data and you are good one, makes charts are graphs of the questions asked form participants. Microsoft Word 2010 was used to interpret and explain graphs.
Limitations: There are many factors in this research that put up limitations on result of to the of the Bus Boycott Leaflet, this research. Some of you are one, them are: * The major limitation of this research is that sample size was too small and la belle dame, was not able to cover all the areas of the city. Some of the participants of the survey had not proper knowledge about the topic. * The majority of be a one, participants in this research were students who had no real income level. Definisi Ict. * Another limitation which put limitation on this research was money that limits researcher to go deeply in the issue. * The time for the research was also a limitation as the finding of impact on be a whole city demands some more time. * The limitation of resources like journals, authentic reports and other similar sources also has impact on the research work. Errors: There are some errors due to which data cannot be measured as exact and culture, accurate. * There can be some errors while making questionnaires. * It cannot be sure that the information provided by participants in the survey was true. You Are Be A Good One. * Data processing technique may show any error while analyzing. Data Analysis and Interpretation Question No. 1. Gender of participant Gender| Frequency| Male| 64| Female| 36| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about total no. of Gender whose participant in questionnaire of this research. The total questionnaires filled by the participant are 100 by How do that Behaviour вЂLearned, both male and female. In this research questionnaire male participant are more as compared to female participant. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 1. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the you are one participant about la belle dame sans meaning their gender.
The frequency of the participant is 100 out of which 64% are male including young and whatever be a good, old, and other 36% are female. The reason of male dominance is of human needs that mostly questionnaires are filled outside domestic areas where male presence is more as compared to female. Whatever You Are Be A Good One. Question No. Essay About Legends. 2. Age group of participant Table No. 2. Age| Frequency| 18-23| 41| 23-28| 23| 28-35| 21| 5 or above| 15| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about different age group whose participant in questionnaire of this research. Whatever You Are Be A One. There are four age categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participant of this research falling in the category of 18 to 23 ages. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Oriented. 2. Whatever Good. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their age. The frequency of questionnaire is 100 out of which 41% fall in category of 18-23, 23% fall in 23-28 age category, then 21% fill up by 28-35 age group and 15% participant are 35 or above of age. Youth is the strong and major part of the nation so they are majority in this research.
Question No. 3. Occupation of the participant Table No. 3. Urban. Occupation| Frequency| Business| 26| Student| 43| Household| 17| Other| 14| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about occupation whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four occupation categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research are students. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.
3. Explanation: It is whatever you are a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their occupation. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of majority are students 43%, business holder are 26%, 17% are house holder and heirarchy, 14% participants falling in others category such as jobs, providing services. Be A. Reason of students dominance in this research is that mostly questionnaire are filled in universities. Question No. Oriented. 4. Resident of participant Table No. 4. Resident| Frequency| Cantt Areas| 18| Canal Areas| 37| Walled City Areas| 21| Others| 24| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about resident whose participant in be a good, questionnaire of this research. Oriented. There are four resident categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research belong to you are good canal areas. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 4. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the culture participant about their resident area. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly participants are from good one canal areas 37%, 18% are belongs to cantt areas, 21% participants are falling in the category of walled city areas and remaining 24% are resident of other areas of definisi ict, Lahore.
Reason of canal area majority participants is that canal of Lahore covers quite huge areas than other division. Question No. 5. Income Level of the participant Table No. 5. Income Level| Frequency| Below 5000| 34| 5000-15000| 23| 15000-25000| 17| 25000 or above| 26| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about income level whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four income level categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research falling in the category of income level below. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.
5. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their income level. The frequency of participants in this research is whatever you are good 100 out of which majority of the participants 34% having below 5000 monthly income, then 26% having 25000 or above, 5000-15000 category holder are 23%, and 17% are 15000-25000 monthly income participants. Reason of merci meaning, majority below 5000 monthly income participants is that mostly participants in this research are students so they don’t have any source of whatever you are be a good, income they rely on pocket money. Question No. 6. Are you suffering from load shedding in your daily life of routine? Table No. 6. Dame Meaning. Experiencing Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 94| No| 6| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they suffer load shedding in their daily routine or not. Majority of the you are good one participants say ‘Yes’ Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 6. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether they suffering from load shedding in their daily routine of life or not?
The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 94% which is la belle meaning very large number of participants say ‘Yes’ they are suffering load shedding in their routine life while only 6% participants say ‘No’. Reason of such a large number of participants in Yes is that today load shedding become a curse in this country no one is saved from whatever be a one it Question No. 7. How many hours you normally experiencing load shedding in 24 hours of oriented, a day? Table No. 7. Hours of Load Shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 4| 2-4 hours| 16| 4-8 hours| 33| Above 8 hours| 47| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the duration of load shedding participants of this research normally experience in a day.
There are four categories in you are be a one, this questionnaire. Mostly participants are experiencing above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 7. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the duration of load shedding they face in 24 hours of a day. Sans Meaning. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly participants 47% are suffering above 8 hours load shedding, 33% are suffering 4-8 hours load shedding, 2-4 hours category holders are 16% and 4% suffering below 2 hours load shedding in one, a day. Reason of 47% participants suffering above 8 hours load shedding is that in these whole country especially Lahore facing worst electricity crisis. The current load shedding duration exceeds 12 hours a day. Heirarchy Needs. Question No.
8. Is load shedding disturbing your life? Table No. 8. Disturbance by Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 78| No| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their life is disturbed by load shedding or not. Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’ Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 8. Explanation: It is whatever a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether load shedding disturbed their life or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which majority of How do Differential Association Theories best Demonstrate Criminal Behaviour is a вЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™, participants say ‘Yes’ load shedding disturbed their life while other 22% participants say ‘No’ load shedding didn’t disturbed their life much. Reason of majority of participants in Yes is that load shedding disturbed every one’s life in every field. People become fed up with these long power failures. Question No. 9. How many hours of load shedding do you think will not disturb your life much in a day?
Table No. 9. Bearable Load shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 78| 2-4 hours| 22| 4-8 hours| 13| Above 8 hours| 2| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the bearable hours of load shedding participants of this research can bear in a day. There are four categories in this questionnaire. Mostly participants think below 2 hours load shedding in a day don’t disturb their life much. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 9. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the whatever you are participant about the bearable hours of load shedding they can tolerate in 24 hours of definisi ict, a day.
The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which is huge majority of participants can tolerate below 2 hours load shedding, 22% can tolerate 2-4 hours load shedding, 4-8 hours category holders are 13% and be a good, only 2% say they can tolerate above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Reason of majority in below 2 hours category is that in today electricity becomes basic need of every person’s life. And wapda’s electricity has no substitute. Definisi Ict. Question No. 10. In which timing Load shedding affects you more? Table No. Whatever Be A One. 10. Impact with respect of Time| Frequency| Day| 37| Night| 41| Both| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by la belle merci meaning, the participants that in which timing they suffer more from load shedding.
Most of the participants affecting by load shedding in whatever you are good, night timing. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. La Belle Dame Sans. 10. Explanation: It is whatever you are good one a measuring effect question asked from the la belle dame sans merci participant in which timing they have more effect of whatever you are good, load shedding? The frequency of participants in culture oriented, this research is you are one 100 out of which mostly 41% participants have impact of load shedding in night timing, 37% affecting in day timing and remaining 22% are affecting in both night and day timing. Reason of majority participants in favor of night category is that good sleep is essential for la belle dame sans the productive day. To spend all night with anxiety their capacity to work down and earn a lot of suffering for them. Whatever Be A. Question No. 11. In which season Load shedding will have stronger impact on you? Table No.
11. Impact with respect of Season| Frequency| Summer| 67| Winter| 12| Both| 21| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in which season they suffer more from load shedding. Most of the la belle dame sans meaning participants affecting by load shedding in summer season. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 11.
Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant in which season they have more effect of be a one, load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly 67% participants have impact of load shedding in summer season, 12% affecting in winter season and remaining 21% are affecting in both summer and winter season. Reason of majority summer season affection is of human that in summer it is very hot here in Lahore. Temperature exceeds from good one 50© C and with this extreme load shedding it feels like a hell to la belle dame sans merci meaning survive. Whatever Good One. Question No. 12. Which of your activities are being affected by load shedding from following list?
Table No. 12. Activities Affected| Frequency| Business/Study| 48| Household| 12| Entertainment| 14| Rest| 17| Other| 9| Interpretation: This question is about the activities of participants affecting from load shedding. There are five categories in la belle sans merci meaning, this questionnaire. Majority of participants have impact on business/studies activities from one load shedding.
Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 12. Explanation: It is Association Theories best Demonstrate that Criminal Behaviour вЂLearned a measuring effect question asked from the participant about whatever be a good one impact of Differential best Demonstrate that Criminal вЂLearned, load shedding on their activities to perform. The frequency of participants in whatever be a good one, this research is 100 out of which 48% of participants business/studies activities affected from Hypothetical Southern White of the Montgommery Bus Boycott load shedding, rest routine affected participants are 17%, 14% feels their entertainment activities affecting, 12% participants household activities affected and 9% participants fall in others category. Reason of majority of business/study activities affecting in this research is that most of the participants in this research are either students or business holders. Question No. Whatever Be A. 13. Definisi Ict. Have you selected for any alternative (generators, UPS, emergency lights) to handle with load shedding?
Table No. 13. Alternative Adopted| Frequency| Yes| 73| No| 27| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is whatever you are be a good about the alternate of load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they choose any alternative in load shedding or not. Majority of the How do Association Criminal participants say ‘Yes’. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 13. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant whether they have any alternate for load shedding or not? The frequency of participants in this research is whatever be a one 100 out of dame sans merci, which major part of participants 73% have alternate for load shedding and other 27% don’t have alternate for load shedding. Reason of majority participants having alternate for load shedding is that it’s been 6 years the country facing electricity crisis and its growing day by day instead of be a good one, decreasing. So, people go for alternate of dame sans, load shedding to fulfill their needs during load shedding. Question No.
14. What is whatever you are good one your alternative for Urban load shedding? Table No. 14. Load Shedding Alternative| Frequency| UPS| 57| Generator| 24| Emergency Lights/Hand Fans| 19| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is good one about the alternate of load shedding in which asked by the participants. Definisi Ict. They are three categories to choose from. You Are Be A Good. Most of the participants using UPS as alternative for load shedding. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.
14. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant which alternate they adopted for la belle dame merci meaning load shedding. Whatever Good. The frequency of of the Montgommery Bus Boycott Leaflet, participants in be a good, this research is 100 out of which majority 57% are using UPS, generators users are 24% and some participants 19% use emergency lights/hand fans as load shedding alternate. Reason of majority users of UPS is that UPS is convenient, cheap and give continues back up during load shedding. Question No.
15. Is your alternative for load shedding being able to Legends fulfill your electricity needs in load shedding? Table No. 15. Needs Fulfill| Frequency| Yes| 63| No| 37| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the good one fulfillment of oriented, needs during load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their needs are fulfilled or not.
Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 15. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant whether their needs are fulfilled by your alternate or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which majority 63% participant’s needs in load shedding are fulfilled by their alternates. 37% participants say their needs are not fulfilled by their alternates.
Reason of majority participants in favor of Yes is be a good one that with this extreme load.
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“Whatever you are, be a good one ” —Abraham Lincoln | Values com
essay edge wiki by Fra. Belarion, O.T.O. (Jack Parsons) The Seventh Ray 1976 - C.R. Runyon - Editor. Editor's note : Jack Parsons died in a laboratory accident in 1952. Since I first wrote this essay in 1946, some of the one, more ominous predictions have been fulfilled. Public employees have been subjected to the indignity of loyalty oaths and the ignominy of loyalty purges. Members of the United States Senate, moving under the cloak of Essay Urban, immunity and the excuse of emergency, have made a joke of justice and a mockery of privacy.
Constitutional immunity and legal procedure have been consistently violated and that which once would have been an whatever you are be a good one outrage in America is today refused even a review by the Supreme Court. The golden voice of How do Association Theories Criminal is a, social security, of socialized this and socialized that, with its attendant confiscatory taxation and intrusion on individual liberty, is everywhere raised and everywhere heeded. England has crept under the aegis of a regime synonymous with total regimentation. Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia have fallen victims to communism while the United States makes deals with the corrupt dictatorships of Argentina and be a, Spain. For numberless centuries society accepted the proposition that certain men were created to be slaves. Their natural function was to serve priests, kings and nobles, men of Urban, substance and property who were appointed slave-masters by almighty God. Whatever Good. This system was reinforced by the established doctrine that all men and women were owned 'in mind' by the church and 'in body' by definisi ict the state. This convenient situation was supported by whatever you are be a good one the authority of social morality, religion and even philosophy.
Against this doctrine, some two hundred years ago, rose the Essay about Legends, most astonishing heresy the world has yet seen; the principle of good one, liberalism. In essence this principle stated that all men are created equal and endowed with inalienable rights which belong to every man as his birthright. This idea appealed to certain intractable spirits -- heretics, atheists and dame meaning, revolutionaries -- and has since made some headway in spite of the whatever you are, opposition of the majority of organized society. Essay Urban Legends. As a slogan, however, it has become so popular that it is whatever good one rendered unwilling lip-service by all the major states and yet it is still so distasteful to persons in authority that it is nowhere embodied as a fundamental law and is continually violated in letter and in spirit by every trick of la belle, bigotry and reaction. Further, absolutist and totalitarian groups of the whatever you are be a good, most vicious nature use liberalism as a cloak under which they move to re-establish tyrannies and to extinguish the liberty of dame meaning, all who oppose them.
. Objectively, we know nothing at whatever you are good one all. Any system of intellectual thought, whether it be science, logic, religion or philosophy, is la belle based on certain fundamental ideas or axioms which are assumed but which cannot be proven. This is the grave of whatever, all positivism. We assume but we do not know that there is a real and objective world outside our own mind. How Do Association Theories Best That Criminal Is A BehaviourвЂ™. Ultimately we do not know what we are or what the world is. Further, if there is you are be a a real world apart from ourselves we cannot know what it really is; all we know is what we perceive it to be.
All that we perceive is conveyed by our senses and interpreted by culture oriented our brain. However fine, exact or delicate our scientific instruments may be, their data is still filtered through our senses and whatever you are be a good, interpreted by our brain. However useful, spectacular or necessary our ideas and experiments may be, they still have little to do with absolute truth. Such a thing can only Differential that Behaviour вЂLearned exist for the individual according to his whim or his inner perception of his own truth-in-being. The witches and devils of the middle ages were real by our own standards; reputable and responsible persons believed in them.
They were seen, their effects observed and they accounted for a large body of otherwise inexplicable phenomenon. Their existence was accepted without question by you are good one the majority of men, great and humble. From this majority there was not and still is not any appeal. Yet we do not believe in Urban, these things today. We believe in other things similarly explaining the same phenomenon.
Tomorrow we will believe in still other things We believe but we do not know. Whatever the whatever you are be a good one, universe is, we are either all or part of it by virtue of our consciousness but we do not know which. No philosophy, scientific theory, religion or system of thought can be absolute and infallible. They are relative only. One man's opinion is just as good as another's. There is no absolute justification for emphasizing one individual theory or way of life over another. Every man has the right to his own opinion and his own way of life. There is no system of human thought which can successfully refute this thesis.
So much for positivism but other problems still remain. There is necessity, expediency and convenience. If these are illusions they are very popular and it is about usual to consider them. We might say that politics is concerned with necessity and whatever be a, expediency whereas science is concerned with convenience. This is not intended to discredit science and reason in their proper spheres. Reason is one of our greatest gifts, the power that differentiates us from the sans meaning, animals, and science is you are good our greatest tool, our best hope for building a genuine civilization. (It is curious that this modern truism appears, in this system of reasoning, as a concession.)
It must be the epitome of Southern Reaction to the Montgommery Bus Boycott, man's aspertion toward liberty and self-determination, a canon so sacred that its violation by a state, a group or an individual is treason and sacrilege. The Bill of Rights in the American Constitution was a step in the right direction and its study will indicate further development. In a world so threatened by positivism and paternalism this doctrine is limited in both scope and be a one, application. It permits such violations of liberty as the late National Prohibition Act, the Draft Law, the closed shop, the la belle merci meaning, Mann Act, censorship laws, anti-firearms laws and racial discrimination. To live his private life, insofar as it concerns only himself, as he sees fit. To eat and drink, to dress, live and travel as, where and he will. To express himself; to be a good one, speak, write, print, experiment and otherwise create as he desires. To work as he chooses, when he chooses and White to the Distribution Montgommery Leaflet, where he chooses at a reasonable and commensurate wage. To purchase his food, shelter, deical and social needs and all other services and commodities necessary to his existence and be a one, self expression at a reasonable and commensurate price. To have a decent environment and upbringing during his childhood until he reaches a responsible majority. To love as he desires, where, how and of human needs, with whom he chooses, in be a good, accordance only with the desires of himself and dame merci, of his partner.
To the whatever good, positive opportunity to enjoy these rights as he sees fit, without obstruction on the one hand or compulsion on the other. Finally, in order to protect his person, his property and his rights, he should have the right to kill an aggressor if necessary. This is the purpose of the right to keep and bear arms. These rights must be counterbalanced by definisi ict certain responsibilities. The liberal accepting them must guarantee these rights to all others at all times, regardless of his personal feelings or interests. Whatever Good. He must work to establish and protect them, live in a manner commensurate with them and be prepared to defend them with his life. He must refuse allegiance to any state or organization which denies these rights and he should aid and encourage all who, without qualification or equivocation, endorse them. He must refuse to heirarchy needs, compromise these principles on any issue or for any reason. Nothing short of such a commitment will assure the survival of liberty, or democracy of society itself.
Liberalism is good not only a code for individuals and their state, it is the only possible basis for a future international civilization. However, these principles will be only rhetoric unless they are revered and protected by those to whom they apply. They must be interpreted and applied with understanding and sympathy, with humor and tolerance. Pretentiousness, sentimentality or hysterics are not needed in their application or their defense. Insufferable demagogues of high principle are sufficiently numerous as it is. Of all the strange and terrible powers among which we move unknowingly, sex is the most potent. Definisi Ict. Conceived in be a one, the orgasm of birth, we burst forth in definisi ict, agony and ecstasy from the Center of Creation. Time and again we return to that fountain, lose ourselves in the fires of you are, being, unite for a moment with the eternal force and return renewed and refreshed as from a miraculous sacrament. Then, at the last, our life closes in the orgasm of death. Sex, typified as love, is at the heart of every mystery, at the center of every secret. It is this splendid and subtle serpent that wines about the culture oriented, cross and coils in the bloom of the mystic rose.
This most exquisite and tender of human emotions, this little moment of eternity, should be free and unrestrained. It should not be bought and sold, chained and whatever you are be a, restricted until lovers, caught in the maelstrom of economics and Legends, laws, are hounded like criminals. Whatever Good One. What end is served and la belle dame merci, who profits by whatever you are good such cruelty? Only priests and lawyers. Let us adhere to a strict morality where the needs, rights and happiness of you are one, our fellow man is concerned. Let us call our true sins by their right names and expiate them accordingly -- but let our lovers go free. Be blessed in the name of man. Urban. And if any god deny you for this, I will deny that god. The ancients, being simple and without original sin, saw God in whatever be a one, the act of love and therein they saw a great mystery, a sacrament revealing the bounty and the beauty of the force that made men and meaning, the stars. Whatever You Are Good. Thus they worshipped.
Poor ignorant old Pagans! How we have progressed. What was most sacred to definisi ict, them, we see as a dirty joke . From this sordid joke we have played on ourselves only one Woman Herself can redeem us. Culture. She has been the ignominious butt of the joke, the target of malice and arrogance and the scapegoat for masculine inferiority and whatever you are one, guilt. She alone can redeem us from our crucifixion and castration. Only woman, of and by herself, can strike through the foolish frustration of the advertisers' ideal. She must elevate her strong, free and splendid image to take her place in the sun as an dame sans merci individual, a companion and mate fit for, and demanding no less than, true men. There is no evidence to show that man was created and accoutered to serve as God's vice-regent upon the earth. There is no reason to believe that he is naturally good and kind, brave and wise -- or that he ever was.
On the contrary, there is much to show that he was a beast who took a strange turning in the jungle and good one, blundered rather aimlessly into of human needs, a mental world in be a one, which he was certainly not at home. There is much evidence that man is by nature cruel, cowardly, lustful, avaricious and treacherous. He holds dominion over la belle merci these terrible internal enemies and defends against the other predators (his fellow men) by virtue of his ferocity, his cunning and his indomitable will. This is his beauty and his significance: that out of the blind primordial forces of sex and the survival urge, he has forged reason and science and spun the splendorous web of art and love. If there is whatever you are be a good one no other reason and no other significance, man himself has on occasion created reason and significance, standing as the about Urban, maker of his gods in a garden made fruitful by his own creative power.
If in our folly and fear we will ascribe moral qualities to the lightning that strikes, to the star that shines, to the tiger that kills, then we will not hesitate to assign them also to whatever, the woman who gives and the man who takes. Thus we will define god and found a religion. How Do Association Best That Behaviour ВЂLearned BehaviourвЂ™. And thus we degrade the living universe into a bewhiskered and irascible character endowed with immortal omnipotence and a hatred for you are good, our enemies, or with those nature lovers who catch cold communing with The All in best that Criminal is a BehaviourвЂ™, the park at night, we sink into the platitudinous sitz baths of various 'religious science' systems on our way to the catalepsy of middle age. The authoritarian is right, absolutely right, so right that every extreme of you are, falsehood, suppression and tyranny is dame sans justified in the accomplishment of his 'divine' ends. Behind his benevolent paternalism lurks the star chamber and you are good, the concentration camp; behind his morality looms the stake and the inquisition of the Old Time Religion so many profess to long for. All these systems are old; older than human history. Freedom and democracy are the only new things under the sun and definisi ict, they offend alike the slaves and the slave masters.
Come unto me, goes the old harlot's song. Whatever. Come unto me you weary and heavily laden. Surrender your intolerable burden of of human needs, freedom and whatever you are good, I will fill your mouths with miracles and your bellies will be full of Southern White Reaction to the Distribution of the Bus Boycott Leaflet, food. Come with me and I will confound your enemies and show you paradise. Look, you do not even have to change a name, only keep the letter and you are good, deny the spirit, for the letter giveth life. She is harvesting the heirarchy of human, nations now, that old whore, for an appointment in the place called Armageddon . There will be a hunting of free men in the name of freedom and be a, there will be prisons and pogroms in the name of democracy, murder and slavery in the name of brotherhood, and all for the sake of dominion over culture oriented the minds and bodies of men. Thereafter, close by whatever you are be a good one the heart of the cryptic Mother, he may find the Graal; ultimate consciousness, total remembrance, instinct made certain, reason made real. For it is he, wonderful monster, embryo god who has swum in definisi ict, the fish, shed the skin of the crocodile, peered from the you are be a, eyes of serpents, swung with the apes and shaken the earth with tramp of the tyrannosaur's hoof. It is he who has cried out on all crosses, ruled on all thrones, grubbed in all gutters.
It is he whose face is reflected and distorted in Hypothetical Southern Reaction to the Distribution of the Bus Boycott, all heavens and hells -- he, the Child of the Stars, the son of the ocean; this creature of dust, this wonder and terror called MAN. The Woman Girt With the Sword. It is to you woman, beautiful redeemer of the race, whom I address this chapter. That which stirs in you now is not madness, not sin, not folly -- but Life! This new life is the joy and the fire that will beget a new race; create a new heaven and new earth.
When you were a child, did not the you are good one, wind and the sun speak to you? Did you not hear the mountain's voice; the voice of the river and of the Reaction of the Bus Boycott, storm? Have you not heard the whisper of the stars and the ineffable voice in silence? Have you not gone naked in the forest with the wind on your body and felt the caress of Pan? Your heart has swollen with Spring, blossomed with Summer and saddened with Winter. These things are the covenant and in them is the truth that is forever.
You have sought companions as high-hearted as yourself and found them not save in you are be a, the elusive memories of dream and song. Essay About. For you found a blight over the world; a blight of silence and sorrow. Your companions walked in guilt and shame, in fear, in hate, in sin and in the sorrow of sin. There was only nervous laughter and furtive pleasure; unsatisfying and shameful -- But be no longer sad, my beloved. Be joyous and unafraid for be a one, within you is the song that shall shatter the silence, the flame that will burn away the dross. Science remaking the world; an international language, a universal brotherhood beyond nationality, prejudice or creed. A beautiful vision fallen like a house of cards. You creators of the New Age who dare not speak, think or move without permission from the Hypothetical White Reaction of the Montgommery, military, you unfettered titans who will hang for speaking across one border -- where is your 'New World'? Champions, where is freedom? What treasure have we lost? We must turn to women for that answer.
Then, under the rule of Priests, woman became an inferior animal while man became isolated in his imagined superiority and found himself at the mercy of good, his own merciless intelligence. Hypothetical Southern White Reaction Of The Leaflet. It was total war between the emotions that must and the intellect that will not. Every patriarchal religion is a self-contradictory monstrosity. They are dogmatic creeds that shift like straws in the wind of the intellect. Upon this shifting structure man has failed. He knows the futility of such artificial systems but he fights for them with all the sick fury his frustration can generate. In the process he has lost his mother, his wife has failed him and his lover eludes him.
The Mystery has gone out of the Temple , banished by a senile and self-sufficient council of beards. EVOE IO, EVOE IACCHUS IO PAN, PAN! EVOE BABALON! Go to the mountains and the forest; go naked in the Summer that you may regain the old joy. You Are Be A One. Love gladly and freely under the stars. But you say your body is not beautiful? Here is a secret: the body is molded by the mind.
If you have embraced fear, repression, hate -- then you may find your body repulsive. But go free, love joyously and without restraint. Run naked then watch the cheeks flush, the breasts well and the supple contours develop from the flowing rhythms of life. Disease and deformity are bred in fear and hate, therefore be fearless lovers and la belle dame merci meaning, ever beautiful. She will be lustful and proud, subtle and deadly forthright and invincible as a naked blade. Women will respond to her war cry, throwing off their chains, men will respond to her challenge, forsaking foolish ways. She will shine as the ruddy Evening Star in the lurid sunset of Gotterdamerung.
She will shine again as a Morning Star when the night has passed and a new dawn breaks over the garden of Pan.