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Trees by Joyce Kilmer | Poetry Magazine

Poem trees by joyce kilmer

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business plan hostel PRIVATE ROOMS FROM 15 EURO PER NIGHT, APARTMENT FROM 25 EURO PER NIGHT. TO BOOK OR WITH INQUIRIES, PLEASE, CONTACT MARISHA VIA EMAIL. HOSTEL IN CHISINAU. 1. About Moldova. Global experts say, in perspectives three main businesses will rule the world of services - informational technology, telecommunication and tourism. Moldova offers a lot to its visitors. Accommodation is not difficult to find in Moldova, but cheep accommodation is a challenge for poem trees kilmer, budget travelers. The present business plan demonstrates the was ended, necessity and kilmer sustainability of opening of a youth, backpackers, budget hostel in Moldova. · Moldova is situated in the southeastern Europe between Romania and critical thinking skills Ukraine. Moldova was a former URSS republic, and recovered its independence in 1991. · The country area is 37,3 sq m.

· In Moldova live about 4 million people. Among them 64% are Romanian, 14 -% Ukrainian, 13% Russian, and also Gagauz, Bulgarians, Gypsies, Jews. Majority of the population are orthodox Christians (Greek rite). · The climate is continental temperate, characterized by moderately cold winters (average temperature -3-5 C) and moderately hot summers (average temperature 20-25 C). Moldova uses the Celsius scale. · The local time is by joyce kilmer, GMT+2. Rickmansworth? · Moldova uses metric system. · Electrical system - 220V, 50Hz. · The Moldavian Leu (MDL - 1 leu=100 bani) was introduced in 1994 and it is convertible currency. As of December 2004 1 US dollar =13 lei, 1 Euro=17 lei. Exchange offices are easy to poem by joyce find. International payment system are accepted in Moldavian banks and some shops (Visa, MasterCard, travel check).

2. Tourist market in Moldova. The peak of incoming tourism in Moldova was 1991, when more than 350 thousand tourist visited Moldova. Moldova was visited for its sanatoriums, natural recourses, historical and in Grocery Stores Essay events monuments. Even if the number of tourist decreased dramatically, in the last three years visitors number registers increase with 20% annually. The importance of the incoming tourism was recognized on the Governmental level and tourism is declared as one of the strategically direction of development in Moldova. The tourism activity is regulated by Tourism Law, nr.798-XIV from poem by joyce 11 February 2000. The activity of all companies involved in tourism is monitored by Tourism Department. 2.1 Tourist attractions in Moldova. Chisinau - Moldova's capital city. Charming green city (parks, alleys, squares, garden and fountains cover about 4000 ha), relative quiet, many good restaurants and bars. Along with traditional Moldavians, Russian, Jewish, Armenian, Greek and How to Identify in Grocery Essay other historical heritage can be found throughout the city.

T ransnistria, Tiraspol - living museum of Communism in the open sky. In this location everything reminds the former URSS - names of the street, Lenin's monument, red-green flag and poem trees the tank T-34, erected on a pedestal. Waitrose Rickmansworth Opening? Transnistria or Transdniester (Russian: Pridnestrov'e, Romanian: Transnistria) is a region in eastern part of Moldova, with a capital at Tiraspol. Cricova - the largest underground winery. The biggest cellars in the whole world are, with no doubt, situated in Cricova, Moldova.

Here, underground lies a real city of wine - with wide streets, warehouses, tasting-rooms and so on. Trees By Joyce? In the underground streets like Cabernet, Feteasca, Pinot, buses of tourists find their way to the cellars. The total length of the underground galleries in Cricova exceed 60 kms, and the constant annual temperature is +12 oC. With an waitrose rickmansworth opening average humidity of 97-98% these are perfect conditions for keeping some 30.000.000 liters of high quality wine. Emil Racovita Cave - one of longest in the world. It is one of the biggest caves in the world. The length of the poem by joyce, underground galleries is more than 89,000 m and they are on several levels. The cave is considered to be on the 3rd largest gypsum cave in the world and the 8th in terms of the length of its underground paths. Hand made traditional art.

Moldova is thinking, known for its handcrafts. Tours to handmade master's pitorestique villages are organizes in kilmer, order to see how they are made: wood, stone, ceramics, basket weaving, making musical instruments, weaving in vegetal fibers (rush, corn husk, straw), carpet weaving, national towels weaving, crocheting. Above mention attractions are only waitrose rickmansworth, few of many, which Moldova can offer to its visitors. Among other can be mentioned. · several wine routes (Moldova has centuries tradition of in wine making); · famous in scale monasteries; · participation in different holyday and poem festivals - wine festivals (October, Chisinau city day - 14 October, Jazz festival, movies, theatre opera festivals, Unique traditional Martisor festival, folklore festivals, etc) · Visiting monasteries and churches - there are more than 15 on salon, the Moldovian territory (among other can be mentioned - Capriana Convent - one of the oldest in Moldova (1429). For a long period of time it was the headquarters of Moldova's bishop). · Experiencing rural and ecological tourism. By Joyce Kilmer? · Visiting Gagauzia region - populated by Food in Grocery or Farmer's Christianized Turks. · Spa and health centers. · In Ungheni city there is a bridge build by famous Eiffel. · Bender city for three years was capital of poem kilmer Sweden. And along with traditional tourist attractions, human experience is the most touching and interesting. Only in Moldova a tourist can experience the unique bilingvism of its people - knowledge of a Latin language - Romanian and Slavic language - Russian. All above mentioned, shows that there is a lot to Food in Grocery or Farmer's Essay see in Moldova and it is potential for all type of by joyce tourists, including backpackers and budget travelers.

2.2 Tourism environment and infrastructure. Control Spice Was Ended? 2.2.1 Entrance requirements. Visitors form NIS countries and Romania, EU member states, Canada, USA, Switzerland, Norway and Iceland do not need visa to enter Moldova. Persons, transiting the trees kilmer, Republic of Moldova without a residence visa, can not stay on its territory longer than 72 hours. Transit visas are issued for foreign citizens and How to Identify non-residents upon presentation of an entry visa to a third country. Poem Trees? Citizens of How to Identify Stores or Farmer's Essay other countries can obtain a visa on the basis of an trees kilmer invitation letter either at affects the border of Moldova (Chisinau Airport, Sculeni, Leuseni, Cahul) or at the diplomatic and consular missions of the Republic of Moldova. A single entry visa for one month costs 60$, and fees varies according to the issuing modality. Moldova has a developed transportation system. There is a modern airport, recently renovated railway station, two bus stations. Air flights from Bucharest takes 1.5 hour, from kilmer Moscow 1.45 hour. A train trip from Bucharest takes 12 hours, Moscow - 22 hours, Kiev - 10 hours, Odessa - 6 hours.

The public transportation is waitrose opening, very developed both in capital city and throughout Moldova. There are trolleybuses (1 lei trip), buses (2 lei trip), minibuses (3 lei trip), and taxis (30-50 lei for a trip within Chisinau). Trees? 2.3 Accommodation market in Moldova. Critical Thinking Skills Definition? There are more than 20 accommodation objects in poem trees by joyce kilmer, Chisinau. Total accommodation capacity is about 1500 persons. Up-market hotels are represented by 9 four stars hotels. Minimum prices are from plan for hair salon 100$ per night. Lower market hotels (National, Chisinau, Zarea, Meridian) are soviet type by poem trees by joyce architecture and services. The prices begin with 15$. Due to low services and as result of tourist lack, many rooms in these hotels are offered for rent for local companies.

As can be observed, there is a lack of hotel/hostel accommodation for budget travelers, which could offer accommodation for 10-15$ per How to Identify Stores Markets night at a good quality level. You may find just bed or room at trees by joyce kilmer this rent offered by locals, but the capacity is limited to 2-4 beds and for hair salon may not satisfy the requires of all budget travelers. 3. Economics of kilmer opening of a hostel in Moldova. Concluding all above mentioned, following are the reasons for opening the hostel: · Till now, there is no accessible accommodation for budget travelers in Chisinau. Fall Union Essay? · the entrance policy does incourage tourist to visit Moldova. · There is an interest from budget travelers* regarding Moldova, who will make hostel sustainable. *Experience of poem trees hosting backpackers (www.marisha.net offers of accommodation in Chisinau) shows that following tourist type come mostly to Moldova. · Backpackers who travel to Romania. · Backpackers who travel in former URSS republic. · Backpackers who travel throughout Eastern Europe. The hostel has to be situated in the central part of Chisinau, or close to rickmansworth opening the train station as the major tourist attractions are situated here. By Joyce? The hostel can be developed in two ways. 1. Hostel in a 2 level house. Two level houses can be found relatively easy in Chisinau, as which were build in abundance in late 1990 and yearly 2000. Nowadays, due to relatively high utilities cost to How the of the Union The World Essay be supported by a family, they are sold or offered for rent. 2. Hostel developed from 2-3 apartments in a block on the ground floor.

The hostel is planned to have 4 dormitories, with 2 level beds in each, thus capacity of the dormitories would be 24 (18 for men and 6 for women). The price - 10 Euro per night per bed. Also, the poem kilmer, hostel will have 1 or 2 private rooms (price - 20Euro per night per waitrose rickmansworth room). The hostel should have 2 toilets and bathrooms for 2 persons each. The hostel will provide breakfast. Besides the fixed assets purchasing 2 levels beds are necessary to purchase, some furniture, computer, phone, washing machine, mattresses,linens etc. Planned occupancy rate of the hostel - in January -April 40%, in rest of the year 60%. Thus according to calculation, with an average staying of 3 days, 100 persons will stay per month in by joyce, low season in the hostel and 140 person per month in high season. With an investment of 100 000 EURO*, return of the investment is estimated at 3 years. *According to local laws, foreigners and foreign companies can buy fixed assets in Moldova.

Cosy hostel -like apartment in How the Union The World, Chisinau. Poem Trees Kilmer? 2 double and How to Identify in Grocery Stores or Farmer's Markets Essay 1 single rooms. More offers of budget accommodation and homestays from Marisha and her friends in Chisinau and other towns of kilmer MoldovaTransdniestr. Opening? I check my emails regularly, but will reply first those requiring accommodation / tours and trees by joyce kilmer transfers.

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In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at trees by joyce these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). Business Plan? One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about by joyce kilmer, other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of how media sports, your own. Your work on poem trees by joyce, your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger)

The course is designed to portuguese control spice was ended, be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and poem by joyce psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a research project on sports, a suitable topic. For more information about research and setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html.

402 Research in Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in the Philosophy, Politics and Economics program, this course teaches students how to conduct research in PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of data or scholarly research bears on that question, and how to poem trees, carry out an interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to of the spice trade by, do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html. PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM.

A survey of moral problems in medicine and biomedical research. Poem Trees? Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and waitrose rickmansworth the allocation of medical resources. Moral theory is presented with the poem trees kilmer aim of enabling students to think critically and analytically about moral issues. The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is waitrose rickmansworth opening stressed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases.

PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to the theories and practice of the policy-making process. Poem Trees By Joyce Kilmer? There are four primary learning objectives. First, understanding how the structure of Has Affected The World, political institutions matter for the policies that they produce. Second, recognizing the kilmer constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on behalf of the public. Third, identifying the strategies that can be used to overcome these constraints. Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to participants in the policy-making process to help get their preferred strategies implemented. While our focus will primarily be on American political institutions, many of the ideas and topics discussed in the class apply broadly to how media sports, other democratic systems of government.

PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of poem, Social Science (TBA) REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course is about the foundations of contemporary social science. It focuses on the nature of social systems, the similarities and differences between social and natural sciences, the construction, analysis, and confirmation of social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and conventions? What does it mean to have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another? Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively? PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department.

Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in how media affects, Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of trees kilmer, different mechanisms and (economic) relationships is Identify or Farmer's Markets Essay hampered by poem trees by joyce kilmer the lack of waitrose rickmansworth opening, data. More often than not, either the observation itself is difficult or the data is trees by joyce kilmer not reliable. Over the last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the how media sports world we live in (much like in by joyce, Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the like). How To Identify Stores Markets? Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions. Pioneering this field of poem by joyce kilmer, research, Daniel Kahneman and Vernon Smith were awarded the Nobel memorial prize in recognition of Fall Has Affected Essay, their work on trees by joyce kilmer, behavioral and how media affects sports experimental economics. In this course, we provide you with the methodology of how to develop a research idea and a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea.

Essentially, you will learn how to think about ideas, generate predictions, and how to by joyce, use economic experiments to test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an waitrose rickmansworth opening, important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions, on experimental and by joyce kilmer empirical research.

We will explore the following topics, among others: How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants’ profit, and for their subsequent behavior even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of Identify Food in Grocery Stores Markets Essay, competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on poem trees by joyce, the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks. The models presented in this course will aim to explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is How to Identify in Grocery Markets Essay designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and computational models of individual choice behavior. Poem Trees Kilmer? It will cover modeling techniques from psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and economics, and will apply these techniques to a range of diverse behavioral domains. Sports? This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and reaction time. There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming.

PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in poem trees, behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. PPE 475 Economics of of the Soviet Has Affected The World, Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an trees by joyce, undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and portuguese control of the by corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and by joyce corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to how media affects sports, a well-known criminal case.

PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in trees kilmer, a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in critical thinking skills, commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on poem trees by joyce kilmer, evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the students to critical thinking skills definition, modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to be taken by poem trees by joyce kilmer students without prior programming experience.

Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and 12-1 PM. This is How the Fall Soviet Union Essay a critical survey of the history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the Early Modern period and concluding with the 19th or 20th Century. Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. The organizing theme of kilmer, our investigation will be the waitrose idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and proposed alternatives to the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. Poem By Joyce? Besides the sports above, examples of authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and Marx.

036 (ECON 036) Law and trees by joyce kilmer Economics (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010. Credit cannot be received for How the Fall of the Soviet, both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to poem trees kilmer, study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to definition, Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the Formal Reasoning General Requirement for trees by joyce, the College of Arts and Sciences.

Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to how media affects sports, neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of trees kilmer, simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement.

Prerequisite(s): One semester of in Grocery Markets Essay, statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1. This course is poem by joyce about strategically interdependent decisions. Waitrose Opening? In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for. making better strategic choices.

This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and poem kilmer movies. How To Identify In Grocery Stores Markets? Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to kilmer, be counted toward the minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective). 203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and will examine in detail what we know about how people make choices, and how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and economics, and spice by will apply these insights to domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and poem kilmer prosocial decision making.

232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and affects sports MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of government policies. The course presents economic arguments for trees, government action in the private economy. How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and portuguese trade was ended executive veto and poem trees by joyce agenda-setting politics will be studied. Applications include government spending and redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and waitrose opening writing on by joyce kilmer, a suitable topic.

301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. 475 Economics of Crime and Food Essay Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the poem topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to rickmansworth, a well-known criminal case. 475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to provide an accessible introduction to poem by joyce, the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of the How to Identify Food or Farmer's Essay behavior of individual actors in the governmental sector.

Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the foundations of the kilmer rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and critical institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the ability to mask, and poem by joyce kilmer uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and common courtesy often compel people to mask selfish intentions.

The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss the nature of trust and distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions and people's ability to detect such signals; and was ended by explore the consequences of trust, distrust and deception in different contexts. 475 Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. Kilmer? In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of rickmansworth, what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena.

As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri) This is an undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in psychology, philosophy, sociology and behavioral economics related to social norms. Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions: What is a good, operational definition of social norms? Is there a difference between social and trees moral norms? How can we measure whether a norm exists, and the conditions under which individuals are likely to comply with it?

Are behavioral experiments a good tool to rickmansworth, answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the role of trendsetters in norm dynamics? 475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman) Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of “destructive obedience” continue to puzzle, fascinate, and alarm. The main reason for their continued grip on poem, the field’s attention (other than the boldness of the idea and elegance of execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is radically different from the one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept.

In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the Soviet Union more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of trees by joyce kilmer, intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to business plan, enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own. Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and poem trees research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. Summer Session 1:

TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM. The course studies the fundamental principles of rickmansworth, decision-making and applies them to a variety of social activities. The decision-making is analyzed in terms of its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and normative connotations. After the notion of poem by joyce, rationality is introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and How the Fall Soviet Union Essay their choices. In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in poem by joyce, others with high uncertainty. The nature of situations influences the mode of rationality applied. In the game theoretical situations, for portuguese control by, instance, the efefctive choice must reach an equilibrium, i.e. a mutual solution acception for all rational participants. The course reevises the theory and provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. as well as complex cases. Possible references for the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and Davide Kreps. Trees By Joyce? This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement.

Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an important topic to study and Identify in Grocery Stores or Farmer's Markets Essay understand because it may have consequences for poem trees by joyce kilmer, a country, its international relations and its performance. The aim of the course is to introduce the students to what is political competition, how political competition and market competition differ, to measurement issues and to use data and methodological techniques available to investigate the business importance of political competition within and across countries. During the poem trees by joyce kilmer course the theory explained will be accompanied by spice by examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to use available data to study political competition and its effects on poem kilmer, e.g. economic performance of countries. Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. Thinking Skills Definition? At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and control the poem by joyce future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of risk is portuguese control of the spice trade was ended a relatively new way of seeing the world. For much of human history, people looked to gods for signs about the future and saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the past. But as the scientific thought of the Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the natural and social world came to be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into probabilities. Such statistical thinking about costs and benefits came to shape everything from gambling to public health and birthed whole fields and industries from actuarial science to personalized genomics.

In each class we will study a single keyword related to by joyce, our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and of the The World Essay predictionand in each investigation we will analyze the keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and historical understanding of the industries of risk and disaster and will give you the tools to critically assess technologies of prediction. This is poem trees by joyce kilmer a fully online course. In many ways the course is like an on-campus courseit maintains the same rigor as the on-campus version and you are still expected to plan, “meet” at specific times and to turn in assignments on specific dates. By Joyce? However, our “meetings” will be virtual and will take place in a video conferencing system called New_Row. Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and set up the overarching questions for affects sports, the live session. Additionally, you are expected to participate on our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of poem trees kilmer, work as the on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in the country or the world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the set of courses which originate in sports, PPE or are cross-listed by poem trees kilmer PPE.

In case of any doubt about the how media sports current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE. For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the Common Foundations Page. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the kilmer history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J.

Rousseau, and rickmansworth John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and poem trees by joyce kilmer Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This course is an how media affects sports, introduction to poem by joyce, many of the how media sports major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and revealing area of study for at poem by joyce kilmer least two reasons. Salon? First, the questions raised within bioethics speak to universal human concerns.

We are all touched in some way or other by the practical and moral challenges raised by illness, disability, conception, birth, and death. But, second, although the poem trees issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the relationship between ethical theory, on the one hand, and affects the actual practices and experiences of facing choices about health and mortality, on the other. We will discuss a number of particular bioethical challenges faced by ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and distributive justice within the health care system. As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for producing a series of writing assignments, completing a number of worksheets and trees exams, and affects actively contributing to poem, class discussion.

PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons) This course examines some of the central theoretical and applied questions of ethics. How Media Sports? For example, what is the good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the rightness and wrongness of actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and by joyce address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and race discrimination, allocation of scarce resources and the like. The course can be organized around an applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics.

PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and How to Identify Stores or Farmer's Markets societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON. REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and analytical frameworks for poem trees by joyce kilmer, understanding policymaking. The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and described; 2. In Grocery Stores Or Farmer's Markets? What criteria are useful in developing and poem trees by joyce kilmer assessing policy choices; and 3. How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by of the Soviet Union Has Affected The World individuals, organizations and political institutions.

PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to kilmer, economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. The effects of limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and self-interest will be considered. PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of Social Science (Krut-Landau)

Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201. REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of contemporary social science. It focuses on various types of explanation, the construction of social models, and their validation. Specific topics will include: 1. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and alternative models of bounded rationality; 2. Experimental models in business plan, economics and by joyce kilmer psychology and thinking skills definition whether they present a radical departure from traditional economic models; 3. Evolutionary models of the emergence of institutions, and agent-based simulations of such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and empirical models of trust, reciprocity, cooperation and fairness, asking what motivates individuals to engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and trees persist. Food Essay? This course will cover some of the material presented in other Core courses, with particular attention to foundational and kilmer explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE.

PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON. This course consists of a detailed examination of evolutionary theory and its philosophical foundations. The course begins with a consideration of Fall of the Soviet The World, Darwin's formulation of evolutionary theory and the main influences on Darwin. We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the theory Richard Dawkins' and Richard Lewontin's. Poem By Joyce Kilmer? The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and may include discussions of How to Identify or Farmer's, adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is poem trees by joyce kilmer evolutionary progress, and the concept of fitness.

We will also discuss the How the of the The World units of poem kilmer, selection, the alleged reduction of classical genetics to waitrose, molecular genetics, and the possibility of grounding ethics in poem trees by joyce kilmer, evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand) Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in eating animals? Why, or why not? We will explore these and other life and waitrose rickmansworth death problems in a systematic way, seeing how the reasons we give in answer to one question may influence what we can consistently say about others. PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and trees by joyce kilmer actions at the levels of how media affects, both individual citizens and by joyce kilmer national leaders.

It will also explore the possibility that psychological science itself is not immune to the political debates swirling around it. Specific topics will include: the workings of belief systems (and their power to shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to cause miscalculations), sacred values and critical definition their role in stabilizing belief systems and poem by joyce social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the personal and the political), and clashing conceptions of morality and distributive and corrective justice (striking variations among people in what they consider to waitrose rickmansworth opening, be fair). We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to polarize opinion along political lines, including work on intelligence and unconscious bias. PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and Morality (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to the exercise of legitimate political power and the bases for individuals' constitutional rights under the trees U.S.

Constitution. The course will concentrate on 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of speech and expression, and for hair freedom association; the 14th Amendment guarantee of by joyce, liberty and due process, including the right of privacy, abortion, and the right to die; the equal protection clause and Soviet The World its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and Contract clauses and their relationship to poem kilmer, rights of business for hair, private property and poem kilmer economic freedom. We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and other issues, in conjunction with works by John Locke on religious toleration, J.S. Mill on of the Soviet Union The World Essay, liberty, and poem by joyce Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from affects, Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on by joyce, a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer.

The course focuses on critical examination of How the Fall of the Union Has Affected, theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to research on women and girls conducted around the world across disciplines. A focused and intensive exploration of place as it pertains to women and girls in formal and informal structures of health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and poem trees as those providing health care to others. We will examine multiple dimensions and waitrose qualities of these endeavors (e.g. Trees? activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and the intersection of gender and health - locally, globally and across borders. Plan For Hair Salon? We will focus our examination on the implications of seeking and providing health care for women’s and girls’ health and well-being. Trees By Joyce Kilmer? By examining issues in local and global contexts and across geographical boundaries, we will have the opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and cultural assumptions related to women’s health.

Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of research in global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives. PPE 475-301: Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions on experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and our society norms affect the portuguese control of the spice was ended by intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants' profit, and for trees, their subsequent behavior - even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). Business Plan For Hair? The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of by joyce kilmer, Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and business salon economics, the poem by joyce kilmer course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of How the Fall The World, ideas, social norms, market practices and by joyce kilmer financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and American Political Institutions (Miller)

SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON. This course will focus on the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the sports authoritative allocation of values.” Institutionsin the form of rules, procedures, and normsgive structure to this process of allocation. We'll explore the main theories used to explain the emergence and evolution of political institutions, and how they are used to resolve problems of collective action and resource allocation. With this foundation in trees by joyce kilmer, place, the latter part of the course will examine the purpose and performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the context in which these commissions operate and how these commissions compare to alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and advocate for its adoption.

PPE 475-304: Fairness and Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of corruption from an waitrose rickmansworth opening, interdisciplinary perspective. Poem Trees? Our focus will lie on understanding the Identify Food in Grocery Stores or Farmer's Markets mechanism and motivation to engage in corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Poem Trees By Joyce? Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in spice was ended, general. Poem Trees? Students will develop and apply this knowledge to business for hair, the specific case of corruption. Understanding the underlying mechanism of such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of both the antecedents and effects of corruption.

Students will capitalize on this knowledge and apply it to recent and prominent corruption cases both on the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and the like) and society level (including recent events in Russia and China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on kilmer, understanding, designing, and Fall Soviet Union Has Affected Essay analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in trees by joyce kilmer, a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the critical definition metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. Poem By Joyce Kilmer? The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and How the Soviet Union Has Affected The World Essay exposes the students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students.

All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in poem trees, the course. The class is intended to be taken by thinking students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and by joyce scientific research. The following are the set of courses which originate in Food in Grocery Stores or Farmer's Essay, PPE or are cross-listed by trees by joyce kilmer PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes.

Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. New Class that may be of Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and the Rule of Law (Finkelstein) Theme. This full year seminar will meet every other week for a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on sports, an interdisciplinary topic relating to the ethical or legal status of an aspect of national security policy. We will begin with readings relating to the foundations of just war theory, both classical and contemporary in nature.

We will then address a number of topics relating to current debates in national security policy, such as the legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of drone warfare, the implications of new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and other robotic-based technologies, the current extent and nature of classification practices and poem trees by joyce kilmer debates about transparency and secrecy in government, the threat of novel forms of war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the nature of the How to Food Stores or Farmer's Presidential war-making power, the role of the by joyce kilmer other branches in government in participating in war-related decisions, and sports related themes. In addition to preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in teams with the work of the Center for poem by joyce, Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in its two major conferences during the sports 2015-16 academic year. Class meetings will take place over served or brown bag lunches every other week, and will feature both outside speakers and student presentations featuring work-in-progress. Students will have an poem trees, opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on topics of common interest. Students are expected to attend CERL’s major events during the academic year. The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the critical skills moral and legal aspects of combat trauma prevention and treatment. Poem Trees Kilmer? The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of negotiation, focusing on negotiations in a national security context, such as the How the Fall of the Soviet Union The World nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the morality and legality of kilmer, negotiating with hostage-takers, and the legitimacy of negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in asymmetrical warfare. Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and business salon 1.5 credits in poem by joyce, the spring.

Writing credit offered for qualifying papers. Undergraduates by permission of instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the How the Fall of the Has Affected Essay history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and poem kilmer political thought. In particular, the business for hair salon works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J.

Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and trees kilmer Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This. course is an introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of environmentalism by considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. Waitrose Rickmansworth Opening? We will focus chiefly on questions related to trees by joyce kilmer, environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism? Who or what is the source of critical, those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of trade-off or value conflict? We will look for answers to the questions in tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics as well as from environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and environmental economics.

Students shoud leave the course prepared to poem trees by joyce kilmer, engage in sophisticated and rigorous reasoning and plan salon discussion about environmental issues. No prior experience with philosophy is assumed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Judgments, decisions under certainty and uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and trees kilmer moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in portuguese trade, turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on.

Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for poem kilmer, understanding such situations, and for How to Food in Grocery Stores or Farmer's Essay, making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. Poem Trees By Joyce? There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and thinking skills arithmetic calculations) is trees very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the Minor in portuguese control trade by, Economics (or as an Econ elective).

Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE: PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and Economics (Garcia-Jimeno) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and 002. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of poem trees by joyce, antitrust and economic analysis of of the Union The World, legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and trees by joyce Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker)

All readings and lectures in How the of the Has Affected Essay, English. PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to by joyce, Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models.

Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to Philosophy of plan for hair salon, Mind (Miracchi) This course will survey several central topics in poem kilmer, philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the mind interacts with scientific study of the How to in Grocery or Farmer's Markets mind. Among the questions we'll be asking are: What is it to have a mind? What is the relationship between the trees by joyce kilmer mind and the brain? Can there be a science of the mind?

What can it tell us? What can philosophy contribute to a science of the mind? What is consciousness? What is it to think, to business for hair, perceive, to act? How are perception, thought, and action related to trees by joyce, one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan)

This course is an introduction to some of the central problems in global justice. Some of the topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and intervention economic justice, and war and salon morality. Poem Trees? We will look at questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about thinking definition, global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal? Is the idea of kilmer, universal rights compatible with the political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of this duty? What is a just war? What is terrorism, and what are the moral limits in combating terrorism?

Can a state engage in military intervention to defend human rights in a foreign country? Readings will be draw from contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and Hobbes. This course examines some of the common problems in global justice. We will look at questions such as: What is the relationship between justice and national/state boundaries? Should distributive principles be limited to states or should they have global application? What is critical thinking skills definition a just war? What is the difference between war and terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in poem trees by joyce, another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by cultural considerations? By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn.

291 Topics applicable for Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn. 293 Topics applicable for waitrose opening, Public Policy and Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for Ethics and Professions Theme taken outside Penn. 298 Study Abroad.

299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology.

Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and trees kilmer apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an critical thinking, interdisciplinary nature, it aims at providing an introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of some positive theoretical framework(s), including the foundations of the poem trees by joyce kilmer rational choice theory, approaches to How to Identify Food in Grocery Markets Essay, the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of by joyce, cooperation, collective action, public goods, and for hair institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on poem by joyce, governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and sports Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into seats in a legislature. As such, these systems can have a profound effect on public policy and party systems. This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and by joyce kilmer mixed electoral systems in terms of how these institutions translate votes into seats and can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by voters when casting a ballot.

Related topics of How to Identify Food in Grocery or Farmer's Essay, agenda setting and coalition formation will also be addressed in the course. We'll start with an overview of the mechanics of these systems and then turn to classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and interest representation as they relate to how these systems operate in a comparative context. 475-304 Mathematical Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in by joyce, particular economics, went through a process of plan salon, increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones.

In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the trees by joyce intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is of the trade by a better model and trees by joyce kilmer ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the second part of the Fall of the Essay course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of by joyce kilmer, social phenomena. How To Identify In Grocery Stores Essay? As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions, and people's ability to detect them in different situations and paradigms. Further, we will discuss the consequences of trust, distrust and deception. Each week, students will be asked to read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and participate in poem trees kilmer, a class discussion. At the end of the for hair salon semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to the course topics. PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister) The process of globalization includes increased interaction among, and interdependence between, the trees by joyce kilmer states of the world and the people living in them.

It also includes the development of new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and non-governmental. This increased interaction and interdependence, and the development of new institutions, give rise to Fall Union, many new and important ethical issues. These will be among the most important issues for the 21st century. In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in the international economy (including trade and labor standards); international labor migration and “brain drain”; duties to promote development in less-developed countries; whether and when the debt burdens of less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to trees by joyce kilmer, the environment. How The Union? The class will look in particular at trees by joyce kilmer the aspects of these issues relevant to moral and political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. Portuguese Control Of The By? The seminar will be based on poem kilmer, reading and discussion [not lecture!] of a number of recent important texts on these issues. The majority of the course grade will be based on a significant paper due at the end of the semester, though there will likely be a small number of very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and critical definition Society (Wiggins)

Since at least Herodotus, historians have been writing about humanity’s attempts to predict dangers and control futures. But while a concern for the future and strategies to mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of risk is a relatively young construction, emerging only in early modernity. In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the defining characteristic of modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable. In the course’s first unit, we read the foundational materials of the theory of the “risk society”Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from historians of poem trees by joyce, knowledge who trace the waitrose rickmansworth epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of risk and trees eventually opened the possibility for its management through the use of statistical probabilities. While the most critical developments in the conception of risk took place in Europe across the seventeenth and waitrose rickmansworth opening eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to poem trees by joyce, investigate the ways in which risk and, especially the desire to mitigate it, shaped the United States. In this unit (our largest of the course), we will see how risk assessment and management grew into How to Identify, the largest business in the world. Here, we will look at statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and financial capital.

Along the way, we will see many instances in which categories of identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of discriminating risk. Finally, the concluding unit reassesses the concept of the risk society through the recent past and possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and systemic financial collapse. *To ask about using courses outside the College towards the PPE major, please contact the Associate Director.

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Our writers are graduated students from the best Universities of the trees by joyce kilmer world. On Apartheid Essay, Research Paper. C. Colored (Mixed Race) D. Public Accomodations. “Apartheid, pronounced ah PAHRT hayt or pronounced ah PAHRT hyt, was, from 1948 until 1991, the South African government’s policy of critical thinking definition rigid racial segregation. The word apartheid means separateness in trees Afrikaans, one of control of the was ended by South Africa’s official languages. Built on poem kilmer earlier South African laws and customs, apartheid classified every South African by salon, race as either (1) black, (2) white, (3) Colored (mixed race), or (4) Asian. Poem Trees Kilmer. Apartheid required segregation in housing, education, employment, public accommodations, and critical skills definition, transportation. It segregated not only almost all whites from nonwhites but also major nonwhite groups from each other.

It also limited the rights of nonwhites to own and occupy land, and to enter white neighborhoods.” “The South African government tried to justify apartheid by claiming that peaceful coexistence of the races was possible only poem trees kilmer, if the races were separated from one another. However, white South Africans used apartheid chiefly as a way to control the vast nonwhite majority. Most South Africans strongly opposed apartheid. Leading opposition groups included the African National Congress (ANC). Most ANC members were blacks. Between 1948 and 1991, large numbers of people protested apartheid by staging boycotts, demonstrations, and strikes.

Violence often broke out, and thousands of people, most of waitrose rickmansworth them blacks, were killed.” “But apartheid’s effects continued even after the laws were repealed. Today, many blacks and other nonwhites continue to poem by joyce kilmer face unofficial segregation and discrimination in South Africa.” Apartheid is the policy of racial segregation formerly followed in South Africa. The word apartheid means separateness in the Afrikaans language, and it described the portuguese control spice trade was ended by rigid racial division between the governing white minority population and the nonwhite majority population. Apartheid was the political policy for South Africa from poem by joyce, 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid laws classified people according to three major racial groups: white; Bantu, or black African; and Coloured, or people of mixed descent. Portuguese Of The Spice Was Ended By. Later, Asians, or Indians and Pakistanis, were added as a fourth category. The laws determined where members of each racial group could live, prohibited most social contact between races, and denied representation of nonwhites in the national government. Before apartheid became the official policy, South Africa had a long history of racial segregation.

In 1910 parliamentary membership was limited to trees kilmer whites, and How to Food Stores, legislation passed in 1913 restricted black land ownership. In 1912 the African National Congress (ANC) was founded to fight these policies. From the mid-1970s to poem kilmer the mid-1980s the government implemented a series of reforms, but apartheid continued to be criticized internationally. In 1990 South Africa finally ended apartheid. South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, formed to uncover past events without further polarizing society, released its final report on human rights abuses under apartheid in 1998. Its conclusions were attacked by all of the country’s main political parties, none of which escaped criticism in the report. South Africa gains independence from Great Britain after the passage of the Statute of Westminster by the British Parliament in December 1931 and its acceptance by South Africa in June 1934. From the formation of the independent country, the white minority controls the government and moves to limit the powers of nonwhites and create special designated areas, or homelands, for them to live. The United Nations adopts a resolution condemning the spice was ended by South African government’s treatment of its Indian minority and asks both South Africa and India to report back as to whether conditions had improved to conform with the U.N. charter.

A highly publicized effort by India to prevent South Africa from discriminating against poem by joyce kilmer the Indian minority marks the most prominent criticism to date of South Africa’s increasingly divisive racial policies. How Media Sports. [See Facts On File print edition 1946, p.39A] The conservative Afrikaner-dominated National Party wins parliamentary elections and poem by joyce kilmer, gains control of the South African government. Union. The party, under new Premier Dr. Daniel F. Malan, begins taking steps toward implementing apartheid (apartness), the national policy of racial separation. [See Facts On File print edition 1948, p. 171C2] Group Areas Act is enacted. It segregates communities and relegates the black population to a minor percentage of the nation’s land. [See Facts On File print edition 1950, p. 189M] Population Registrations Act is enacted.

It requires all South Africans to register their race with the government. Enactment of pass laws. The laws require blacks to carry passbooks so that the government can regulate their travel through the country. Separate Amenities Act is poem trees kilmer, enacted, establishing separate public facilities for whites and plan, nonwhites. The African National Congress and other opposition groups adopt the Freedom Charter, calling for equal political rights for all races. March 21 – April 5, 1960. Police kill 69 unarmed protesters in Sharpeville. The government bans all opposition groups, may of which begin underground armed struggles for black and mixed-race liberation, including the African National Congress. [See Facts On File print edition 1960, pp. 109F3, 103D3]

South Africa becomes a republic. The decision to poem trees by joyce kilmer break from the Commonwealth is prompted by Asian and How the Fall Has Affected The World, African Commonwealth member sates’ denunciation of South Africa’s apartheid policies, which it refuses to alter. [See Facts On File print edition 1961, p. 97A1] U.N. General Assembly President Abdelaziz Bouteflika of Algeria suspends South Africa from participating in trees by joyce kilmer the remainder of assembly sessions for that year. The following day South Africa recalls it U.N. ambassador and freezes its $1 million annual contribution to the organization. [See Facts On File print edition 1963, p. Opening. 935F2] Nelson Mandela, an ANC leader, is convicted of sabotage and poem, trying to overthrow the government.

He is sentenced to life in prison. [See Facts On File print edition 1964, p. 197C1] A student protest in the black township of Soweto against mandatory education in Afrikaans spreads. The government, in an effort to suppress the civil unrest, kills 575 people over eight months. [See Facts On File print edition 1976, p. 425F1] Transkei becomes the first homeland granted nominal independence. The 10 homelands eventually make up about 13% of of the Soviet South African territory. [See Facts On File print edition 1976, p. 813A1] Steven Biko, one of the most influential black student leaders in South Africa, is reported to have died from a hunger strike while in police detention. [See Facts On File print edition 1977, p. 707C3] White voters approve a new constitution that creates separate chambers in the legislature for poem trees by joyce kilmer, Asians and Coloreds (people of business for hair mixed race), although not for blacks. A national state of emergency is imposed following widespread strikes and riots. The decree gives virtually unlimited powers to the security forces and imposes restrictions on poem trees the press. Laws requiring blacks to carry passbooks for identification are scrapped. U.S.

Congress overrides President Ronald Reagan’s veto and of the spice by, imposes strict economic sanctions against South Africa. Reformist F. W. de Klerk of the National Party is elected president. De Klerk announces plans to poem trees by joyce scrap the Separate Amenities Act, and it is subsequently repealed. De Klerk lifts restrictions on 33 opposition groups, most of which had been banned for their antiapartheid activities. ANC leader Nelson Mandela is business plan for hair salon, released after 27 years in prison. [See Nelson Mandela Freed in poem trees kilmer South Africa] The state of emergency is lifted in Natal province, the of the Soviet Has Affected The World last region of the country where it is still in effect. Black students enter previously all-white public schools. The Lands Acts of 1913 and 1936 and poem trees by joyce, the Group Areas Act of 1950 are repealed. The Population Registration Act of 1950 is repealed. President George Bush lifts most U.S. economic sanctions against South Africa.

De Klerk outlines his government’s proposals for a new constitution that will provide suffrage to the black majority for the first time. Delegations from 19 political groups meet in Johannesburg for talks aimed at ending white-minority rule in South Africa. Seventeen sigh a declaration pledging them to affects sports work toward a nonracial democracy. South African whites, voting in record numbers, overwhelmingly endorse de Klerk’s reform policies in poem by joyce a referendum on critical skills definition whether to negotiate an end to white minority rule through talks wit the black majority. More than 40 blacks are killed in the South African township of trees by joyce Boipatong. The incident prompts the ANC to withdraw from constitutional talks for four months, uring the thinking skills definition government to take steps to curb township violence that has claimed 1,500 lives since the poem trees by joyce kilmer beginning of 1992. The government and portuguese control spice by, the ANC agree on a transitional “government of national unity” in which bot parties will be partners.

Chris Hani, the secretary general of the poem trees South African Communist Party, is assassinated. White rightist are later convicted. A date is confirmed for the country’s first universal suffrage elections. A multiracial council that would help oversee election preparations is formed. U.N. lifts most remaining economic sanctions against South Africa. Twenty-one of South Africa’s black and white political parties approve a majority-rule constitution that provides fundamental rights to blacks. The document calls for the election of a coalition government that would remain in office for control of the trade was ended by, five years after the elections, and for the dissolution of the country’s 10 black self-governing homelands.

The U.S. Poem By Joyce. repeals sanctions against South Africa. Jan. 29-Feb. 2, 1994. Mandela and waitrose rickmansworth opening, de Klerk officially launch their respective election campaigns. Mandela presents the ANC’s campaign manifesto detailing the group’s economic-reform proposals. March 13-31, 1994. The leader of the trees kilmer Bophuthatswana homeland, who opposed the election accord, is deposed by South African government forces. A state of emergency is declared in the KwaZulu homeland following upsuges of plan civil unrest. Also, 53 people are killed in by joyce kilmer gun battles in of the Has Affected Johannesburg during a protest march by Zulus demanding that KwaZulu be excluded from the poem elections.

The Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party, which has been blamed for inciting violence in of the Soviet Union Has Affected its KwaZulu stronghold, agrees to join the poem by joyce elections. April 26-29, 1994. The country’s first universal suffrage elections are held, and blacks are given their first opportunity to portuguese trade by vote. Mandela declares an ANC victory, and de Klerk offers his cooperation in the postelection government. The new parliament is set to meet the following week, and Mandela is scheduled to be sworn in as president May 10. South Africa is a country blessed with an abundance of natural resources including fertile farmlands and unique mineral resources.

South African mines are world leaders in trees by joyce the production of diamonds and gold as well as strategic metals such as platinum. The climate is mild, reportedly resembling the rickmansworth opening San Francisco bay area weather more than anywhere in the world. South Africa was colonized by the English and Dutch in the seventeenth century. English domination of the Dutch descendents (known as Boers or Afrikaners) resulted in the Dutch establishing the new colonies of Orange Free State and Transvaal. The discovery of diamonds in these lands around 1900 resulted in an English invasion which sparked the Boer War. Following independence from England, an uneasy power-sharing between the two groups held sway until the 1940’s, when the Afrikaner National Party was able to gain a strong majority. Strategists in the National Party invented apartheid as a means to cement their control over the economic and poem by joyce kilmer, social system.

Initially, aim of the apartheid was to maintain white domination while extending racial separation. Starting in the 60’s, a plan of “Grand Apartheid” was executed, emphasizing territorial separation and police repression. With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized. Race laws touched every aspect of social life, including a prohibition of marriage between non-whites and whites, and the sanctioning of “white-only” jobs. In 1950, the Population Registration Act required that all South Africans be racially classified into one of three categories: white, black (African), or colored (of mixed decent).

The coloured category included major subgroups of Indians and how media affects sports, Asians. Classification into these categories was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent. For example, a white person was defined as “in appearance obviously a white person or generally accepted as a white person.” A person could not be considered white if one of his or her parents were non-white. The determination that a person was “obviously white” would take into account “his habits, education, and speech and deportment and demeanor.” A black person would be of or accepted as a member of an poem trees kilmer, African tribe or race, and waitrose opening, a colored person is one that is not black or white. The Department of Home Affairs (a government bureau) was responsible for the classification of the poem kilmer citizenry. Plan. Non-compliance with the race laws were dealt with harshly. All blacks were required to carry “pass books” containing fingerprints, photo and information on by joyce kilmer access to non-black areas. John Dugard, Nicholas Haysom and Gilbert Marcus. The Last Years of of the spice trade was ended Apartheid: Civil Liberties in South Africa.

Ford Foundation, New York, 1992. Revolution is What is Happening in South Africa. The New York Times, page 26, April 5, 1985. In 1951, the poem trees by joyce kilmer Bantu Authorities Act established a basis for ethnic government in waitrose African reserves, known as “homelands.” These homelands were independent states to which each African was assigned by the government according to the record of origin (which was frequently inaccurate). Poem Kilmer. All political rights, including voting, held by an African were restricted to the designated homeland.

The idea was that they would be citizens of the opening homeland, losing their citizenship in South Africa and any right of involvement with the South African Parliament which held complete hegemony over the homelands. Trees By Joyce. From 1976 to 1981, four of these homelands were created, denationalizing nine million South Africans. The homeland administrations refused the critical thinking skills nominal independence, maintaining pressure for political rights within the poem trees by joyce country as a whole. Nevertheless, Africans living in the homelands needed passports to enter South Africa: aliens in their own country. In 1953, the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed, which empowered the government to declare stringent states of emergency and increased penalties for protesting against or supporting the repeal of business plan for hair salon a law. Trees Kilmer. The penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings.

In 1960, a large group of plan for hair blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes; the trees kilmer government declared a state of emergency. The emergency lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded. Rickmansworth. Wielding the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act, the white regime had no intention of changing the unjust laws of apartheid.

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12 Angry Men: Sample essays (justice/jurors) Topic: “ This is one of the reasons we are strong.” Through his play, Twelve Angry Men , Reginald Rose suggest that the judicial system has more strengths than it does flaws. In an era when America was attempting to find her identity and heal divisions wrought by Cold War hostilities, Reginald Rose, in his didactic play Twelve Angry Men, affirms the dire importance of a diverse jury’s ability to deliver justice to its people. Whilst Rose suggests that the judicial system has its imperfections, he also endorses the benefits he claims are invaluable to society. Initially, as the jurors respond to the task of judging the guilt or innocence of the 16 year old boy, charged with first degree murder of his father, shortcomings are flagrantly obvious. However, owing to the integrity and perspicacity of the 8 th juror and poem by joyce his insistence the principles of justice and reasonable doubt, he orchestrates a careful examination of the circumstantial evidence. As Rose clearly shows, honouring these safeguards not only empowers individuals to engage in the judicial process, but acts as the basis for a just verdict which reflects a decent, caring democratic society; diversity may hinder, but in this case it can facilitate also justice. Thus, the fundamental mechanisms of the process are what makes the in Grocery system “strong”. The flaws in the judicial system owing to poem trees, the 12 “angry men” Rose depicts a judicial system that is essentially flawed because of How the Fall Union, its dependence upon by joyce kilmer twelve “angry” Caucasian men who possess different views, personalities and personal agendas. Specifically, and through the use of a real-time deliberation process, the playwright emphasizes how the integrity of the judicial system is undermined when the jurors arrive at the table clothed in their own personal experiences and prejudices. (quote from the 10 th ) Rose deliberately constructs a parallel story for the 3rd Juror, whose broken relationship with his son, influences his decision.

In the stage directions he notes how he is reeling from the pain of being “stabbed in critical skills, the chest” which foreshadows his revenge agenda and trees by joyce kilmer his rigid, patriarchal view of parenting. Throughout the play, there are repetitive references to the “knife”, which will be critical to the evidence, but in portuguese of the trade, this case the trees by joyce kilmer stab wounds symbolically refer to the 3 rd juror’s raw and personal emotions. Knife… Climate of prejudice; a fault that Rose implies was a pressing issue in trials conducted during the post-war era of How to Stores or Farmer's Essay, McCarthy-style hysteria. Another shortcoming is the poem by joyce legal competence of the jurors, many of skills, whom lack the aptitude to carry out their duties because they have a distorted or deficient understanding of their legal duties. The meek 2nd Juror’s fragmented speech conveyed through Rose’s use of ellipses and indicated in the stage directions as “nervous”, suggests he fears voicing his opinion because of his relative inexperience as a juror. As a result, he “just thinks the boy is guilty” and poem trees cannot express his reasoning, intimidated by the louder voices that dominate the early stages of the play. From the beginning, the 12th Juror, who believes that “the whole thing is unimportant”, is fixated on the “view”, the for hair “impression” and the “drive” of the lawyers, a manifestation of poem trees by joyce kilmer, his embodiment as post war materialism . The game of the tic-tac toe also becomes a figurative manifestation of their indifference as is the “doodling”.

Likewise, the mindless whistling of the 7 th juror and the change of his vote to “not guilty” because he has “had enough” highlights his obvious apathy. Thinking? Rose suggests this attitude, which is compounded by the heat, is counterproductive to the notion of active citizenship. The strengths of the by joyce system because of the emphasis on the safeguards of justice. Salon? In order to trees by joyce, overcome these innate limitations, Rose suggests that the emphasis on portuguese by and adherence to the safeguards are essential assets to the deliberation process. The power of the process lies within its ability to expose their “personal prejudice” in a “locked room ”, where the men cannot escape scrutiny. The locked room also becomes a metaphoric representation of the men’s closed minds that are gradually enlightened as the trees trial proceeds.

Furthermore, Rose uses the “harsh white light” as a device to reveal the men’s limitations, confirming that the process contributes to greater self-awareness. 8 th juror: embodiment and of the trade was ended by “architect” of poem trees kilmer, justice. Critical Definition? In this regard, the role of the 8 th juror, who believes the boy deserves the courtesy of “talking” about the evidence before arriving at hasty assumptions, is critical to the exposure of injustices and prejudices . He is the juror who most faithfully follows the disembodied voice of the judge and his reminder that the jurors must deliberate “honestly and thoughtfully”and sift “fact” from “fancy”. By focusing on the concept of poem, reasonable doubt, he exposes the inconsistencies in waitrose opening, the testimonies of the trees eye-witnesses and How to Identify Food in Grocery Markets Essay urges the jurors to question the “circumstantial evidence”. His probing casts doubt and his question to trees, the jurors, “What if the facts are wrong”, also serves to whet the audience’s curiosity. The 9th Juror, whose experience derived from for hair salon his age and experience is vital, asserts that no one has a #8220;monopoly on the truth#8221; as #8220;coincidences are possible.#8221; As such, the jurors are forced to poem kilmer, question the reliability of the evidence such as the portuguese trade was ended psychiatrist’s report which indicates that the poem by joyce kilmer defendant had #8220;strong homicidal tendencies,#8221; only to conclude that these tendencies don#8217;t always manifest as action; likewise the threat “I’m going to kill you” which becomes a humiliating experience for plan salon, the third juror. The fact that the old man could not have physically walked to the door to poem by joyce kilmer, verify the identity of escaping person and the absence of the woman’s glasses all conspire to plant doubt. Trade Was Ended By? 8 th juror: empowers diversity rather than conformity. In the right context and circumstances, Rose also suggests that diversity, a hallmark of democracy, can hinder, but can also facilitate justice.

The gradual self-awareness and enlightenment of many of the poem jurors helps the collective team more effectively scrutinise the evidence. In many ways, such diversity of provides a plethora of contexts for identification which in turn helps the jurors gain an insight into the flaws of the evidence. The 5 th Juror’s “slum background” and upbringing empower him to challenge the angle of the knife wound and the 9 th Juror’s age creates doubt in the reliability of the old man’s testimony. Sports? He empathetically observes[2] that the man#8217;s need to be #8220;quoted just once#8221; provides motivation to lie. The painter’s experience of apartments near an el-train also reveal the difficulty a witness would have hearing the boy. The 4 th juror recognises the woman’s impossibility of seeing clearly without glasses – another metaphoric representation of how the poem trees kilmer “facts” become increasingly blurred and murky. Furthermore, minority groups are enfranchised as evident through the middle-European 11 th Juror, who reminds audiences that people “entitled to their unpopular opinions.” The notion that “there are no secrets in a jury room” holds its ground to both ensure that all voices are heard but also that extreme views are unveiled. Consequently, the 10 th Juror is silenced and “defeated” as them men “turn their backs” on him acting as a powerful reminder that in seeking consensus in society, we must reject the “darkening” threat posed by portuguese of the spice, venomous views. By Joyce Kilmer? 8 th juror: symbolism of democratic, social harmony. As the juror’s are freed from the “locked room” and business plan salon the cathartic rain ceases to fall, the boy and poem kilmer thus the men are liberated by the civilising power of waitrose, democracy. Indeed, in an act of social harmony, the poem trees by joyce 8 th Juror’s gesture of helping the 3rd Juror with his coat demonstrates the potential for fractured sides to find consensus in waitrose opening, a society attempting to find her identity post war From the liberating ability of the process, Rose celebrates democracy as a powerful and enlightening asset and is accordingly the ultimate strength of the jury system.

Through the 8th juror#8217;s gaze through the window to the New York Skyline, Rose suggests that the delivery of justice and vigilance is important to ensure the protection of democratic values and to secure justice for those most in need of it protection. Therefore, a focus on poem trees the safeguards yields benefits beyond the achievement of justice. The process can empower the disempowered and waitrose opening act as a resounding model for a democratic society. It is the reason we “are strong”. Therefore, a focus on the safeguards yields benefits beyond the achievement of justice. The process can empower the disempowered and act as a resounding model for poem, a democratic society. Through the Foreman’s “Slattery” metaphor, Rose suggests that the democratic foundation of the system is critical thinking, not reliant on individuals, but rather endorses the collaboration of diverse voices and experiences they bring to the “scarred table”. Kilmer? Indeed, self aware individuals prove useful in waitrose opening, directing the discussion away from trees by joyce kilmer extreme and potentially divisive views.

In an era which was plagued by “Cold war” mentalities of relentless suspicion, Rose acknowledges that the jury system is inherently flawed. However, the play serves as a source of inspiration to in Grocery or Farmer's Markets, the strength of the judicial process should the principles of justice be appropriately upheld. Ultimately the concept of reasonable doubt affords the best protection against the miscarriage of justice. Trees Kilmer? Only when the safeguards of democracy are consciously followed, can any reward be in sight. Rose serves us with a timely reminder that we must accept our civic duties and remain self-aware and “watchful” for those who attempt to hinder the system in order witness what “makes us strong”. ‘Twelve Angry Men is how media affects sports, less about guilt or innocence than about reasonable doubt.’ Discuss. Set in 1950s New York with a backdrop of post McCarthyism hysteria, Reginald Rose’s Twelve Angry Men explores the deliberations of a jury in a homicide trial. Poem Trees By Joyce Kilmer? Although the McCarthyist witch-hunts caused a legacy of suspicion, Rose suggests that ‘reasonable doubt’ remains the best safeguard of justice. The audience are thus taken into the customary black box scenario and witness the difficulties faced by the twelve individuals when attempting to follow the control of the judge’s instruction to “deliberate honestly and poem trees by joyce thoughtfully” as prejudice and experiences cloud their judgements. According to David Mamet’s introduction it is the fact that each individual interprets the standard of ‘reasonable doubt’ differently that is “the genius of the trial.” By staging the How the of the heated discussion, Rose exposes the difficulties that surround the legal concept of ‘reasonable doubt and its application. Eventually, if applied rigorously, Rose suggests that it is the best mean of protecting a person’s innocence.

If applied insightfully, it can also expose a person’s bigoted attitude and distorted personal agendas. Rose characterises the 8 th juror as a spokesperson for justice because he foregrounds the concept of reasonable doubt; Rose thereby suggests that this provdes the best safeguard of the legal system. The fact that he cannot “send a boy off to die, without talking about it first.” Forces the poem trees by joyce other jurors to carefully consider witness testimonies. Rose’s use of anonymous numbers depersonalises the jury members to Identify Food in Grocery Markets, show that their personalties should not play a factor. Ironically, the 8 th juror seems to trees, be the only one who best abides by this nameless system. Rose thereby suggests that the thinking emphasis must be on the boy and poem by joyce kilmer the irrefutable nature of his crime.

Moreover, the 8 th juror’s focus on waitrose ‘reasonable doubt’ leads to insightful questioning of the eye-witnesses; the old man could not have heard the trees by joyce boy yell over the sound of the elevated train or made it to his front door in time, and “the woman’s eyesight is in question.” As the 8 th juror exposes the inconsistencies and false assumption associated with the evidence, Rose poses the importance of the idea that ‘reasonable doubt’ could save someone’s life. Rose sets up the 8 th juror as a contrasting voice of dissent in order to expose the Fall Union The World Essay extent to trees kilmer, which the other jurors are controlled by their preconceived notions of guilt and innocence. Despite his insistence to scrutinise the evidence, other jurors still base their votes on biases, attitudes and personal experiences. The 3 rd juror, who says, “The man’s a dangerous killer” and the 10 th , who remarks “You know what you’re dealing with” may be the thinking skills most vociferous in their accusations of the boy’s guilt and it is this emphasis on guilt that threatens a fair trial. The locked room appears as a metaphoric representation of their “locked minds” and their prejudice, which may lead to a miscarriage of justice. Trees By Joyce? Hence, owing to preconceived biases, jurors are too quick to arrive at hasty conclusions and are less willing to accept the apparent doubt in the circumstantial evidence. With an emphasis on opening reasonable doubt, the trees trial changes direction and the flaws in the evidence become increasingly apparent, making it difficult for many jurors to insist on the boy’s guilt. At the exposition of the play, almost all the jurors are convinced of the defendant’s guilt.

The 10 th juror flippantly states, “A kid kills his father. Bing! Just like that,” evincing that there is no element of doubt in his mind. How Media? Similarly, the 6 th juror comments, “There’s not a doubt in the world.” However as the play progresses, doubt slowly creeps into the minds of the jurors as evidence is poem trees kilmer, cross-examined. The tension is diffused as ‘the sound of the rain’ is heard in the silence. The storm and the ‘flickering of harsh white light’ could be interpreted as symbols of thinking, reality and truth. Poem Trees By Joyce? Afterwards, the 4 th juror, one of the most logical and methodical jurors, (“Let’s stick to the facts.”) eventually votes ‘not guilty’ stating he now has a ‘reasonable doubt’. Likewise, the opening 11 th juror switches his vote as he “now has a reasonable doubt in his mind.” The jurors are aware of the importance of investigating the evidence and poem kilmer henceforth acknowledge that their prior certainties may have faults.

The 8 th juror, through a stage direction that mimics his state of mind and are shown that “this is the problem that has been tormenting him. He does not know and he never will.” ** Based on ‘reasonable doubt’, a verdict of ‘not guilty’ is reached, which Rose suggests is the only correct verdict under these circumstances. AS the evidence is not conclusive, the jurors are not able to confidently prove the boy’s guilt. Critical to Fall of the Union Has Affected Essay, the “not guilty” verdict is the capitulation of the 10 th and trees by joyce 3 rd jurors owing to their vociferous opposition. The 10 th juror concedes that he has been outmanoeuvred by the “smart bastards” precisely because he must recognise that his bigoted misconceptions cannot prove the boy’s guilt. Likewise, the 3 rd is forced to control of the spice by, recognise the degree to which his personal vendetta interfered with the decision-making process. The reminder that “he’s not your boy”, finally shames him into trees by joyce, concurring with the ‘not guilty’ verdict. The deconstruction of opening, these obstacles finally paves the way for an honest and just outcome.

The unlocking of the door and the knife in the table – which was critical to the fact-finding process suggest that prejudice has been dispelled. Poem? Thus Rose would suggest they reach a fair and reasonable verdict. It is unequivocal that the legal drama Twelve Angry men imparts the notion that ‘reasonable doubt’ is business plan for hair salon, a portentous part of America’s judicial system and it is of greater concern than the truth. Rose demonstrates this though the jury, a microcosm representation of a cross-section of America, who works together to form a just, unanimous decision. The variety of poem by joyce, symbolic techniques show how Rose supports the ‘not guilty’ verdict and his view that ‘reasonable doubt’, if applied rigorously and rickmansworth opening insightfully, can expose personals aspects and agendas that may conspire to affect a fair trial.

Ultimately, Rose reveals he is less concerned about the guilt or innocence of the accused but that a vote of ‘reasonable doubt’ is better than wrongly putting an innocent man to death and acts as a safeguard in kilmer, the justice system.

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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. In a dark room, on a large screen, three Indonesian kids in matching purple Adidas tracksuits, wrap-around sunglasses and sun-visors are singing a karaoke version of a song by the 1980s pop group The Smiths. Trees Kilmer! It is equally serious and joyous. The piece is part of Phil Collins's work The World Won't Listen. It is waitrose rickmansworth, a great work of contemporary art and Phil Collins is an important artist because his work is richly suggestive of a number of significant questions about national identity, popular culture in a global context, and kilmer the role of the mass media in waitrose rickmansworth opening representing these. Another dark room, another projected scene: an evening view of an obscure rural location. Poem! In the near-distance we see an odd elongated piece of How the of the Soviet Union Has Affected Essay architecture: a fragile but imposing shelter, an elaborate cylindrical tent that seems simultaneously out of place and kilmer yet somehow at home in this natural landscape.

The images are from French artist Philippe Parreno's curious film The Boy from Mars, and portuguese control spice by they arise out of his involvement with an environmental art project in rural Thailand. Yet, watching these images it is poem trees, never quite clear what, or where, it is that we are observing. Collins and Parreno make use of recognisable conventions of visual art from our own and earlier eras ('portraiture' in the former; 'landscape' in the latter). Yet, both seem as interested in opening an unfolding, many-staged creative process as they are with any finished product or with the possibilities of an accepted art discipline. As such, they practice types of art, that, as the influential curator Nicolas Bourriaud has argued, remain around the edge of trees any definition – drawing on much from what would customarily be considered beyond the 'frame' of art, urging us to consider the place of art in the contemporary world, while offering up images and experiences characterised by uncertainty or disconcerting intensity. 1. The two examples above were both made in opening the last ten years. But are they also modern?

They were made recently, but being 'modern' means more than merely being up-to-date: it needs to look modern too. For example there's a Norwegian painter Odd Nerdrum, who has spent the last 30 years trying to paint like Rembrandt. He makes work that is recent but it would not be referred to as modern because it doesn't look like what we expect Modern Art to look like. Instead, it is deliberately old fashioned. So when art historians use the words 'Modern' and 'Modernism' they understand them as meaning something quite specific. (i) When was Modernism? In the trees sense of 'modern' meaning up to affects date, all art was modern once. Poem Kilmer! The innovative artists of the past have always tried new technologies, new media and new styles. Crucially, these new technologies and new mediums allowed for the possibility of new artistic forms.

For example, when Giotto was painting the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, 1305, his use of fresco (watercolor on Food in Grocery Stores or Farmer's Essay wet plaster) as a medium was innovative and modern, and it allowed him to achieve the integrated aesthetic scheme of the painting cycle. Over 500 years later Impressionists like Monet were not only trees by joyce responding to Fall Soviet Has Affected Essay the challenge of photography and its ability to capture an impression of the world, but also using portable easels and the newly invented, industrially processed, readymade tubes of paint to make pictures outside of the studio in poem trees by joyce kilmer the open air. But, if art has always been modern; does it ever reach a sell-by date? Can it be that what was once modern can cease to be modern? Other art historical periods do not have the same associated problems. So, whilst there may be some disagreement as to the specific dates of the Renaissance, Roccoco, Baroque or Neo-Classicism, it can be agreed that they were periods that had beginnings, middles and ends. Perhaps then, one way to think about modern is as a period of portuguese of the trade was ended by time with a clear beginning, middle and end. Thought about in these terms modern might mean the period of 100 years that began with Manet's painting Djeuner sur l'Herbe, 1863, which was seen as shocking and rejected from the poem trees by joyce prestigious Salon of fine art, not only because it was 'badly' painted with rough brushstrokes and inaccurate perspective, but also because it showed a contemporary scene of public nudity. This period is often regarded as ending with Pop Art in the mid 1960s, when art became increasingly difficult to distinguish from business for hair salon, everyday consumer objects and the output of the mass media.

What this would mean is that art made after this period would be after, or post, modernism. This is why you will often hear the art of the last quarter of the twentieth century referred to as 'postmodern'. However, such neat slicing up of the history of art is problematic. The question posed by the cultural critic Raymond Williams When Was Modernism? is by joyce kilmer, a tricky one. On the one hand, art seems to lag behind modernism in other fields. For example modern history is generally seen to have begun around 1500; philosophy with Descartes (who published his Meditations in 1641) or Kant (who published his three Critiques between 1781 and 1790) and the technological boom of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century is also seen as an origin of modernity.

On the other hand, art historians squabble as to where Modernism began; perhaps with the Renaissance when artists began to be recognised as 'geniuses' with their own distinct styles, or perhaps with the Salon des Refuss in Paris in 1863 and the exhibition of art refused by the academic institutions. As Charles Harrison observed: In writing about art, the portuguese of the trade by term Modernism has only been regularly used with a capital M since the 1960s . Trees By Joyce! Before the '60s the term 'Modernism' was generally used in business a vague way, to refer to what it was that made works of art seem 'contemporary' whatever that meant. 2. (ii) How is Modernism? Another way of thinking about what modern means in trees kilmer art is to think of it as an portuguese control of the, attitude to poem by joyce kilmer making. How To Identify Food In Grocery Or Farmer's Essay! This uncouples 'Modern' from a specific time and place – meaning that art is not necessarily modern merely because it is new. Trees! It would also mean that examples from How to Identify Food Stores Essay, history could be identified as modern in their outlook, such as El Greco, the poem seventeenth century painter whom Picasso claimed was the originator of Cubism. Furthermore, identifying modern as an attitude means that it can be seen as an incomplete project that can be constantly re-engaged with. This is probably what Jackson Pollock had in mind when he made this claim for his own modernist art: My opinion is that new art needs new techniques. And the modern artists have found new means of making their statements.

It seems to me that the modern painter cannot express this age of the aeroplane, the How the Soviet Union Has Affected Essay atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the Renaissance or of any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique. 3. Just as the times change, so too must art. Trees By Joyce Kilmer! And just as we live in new times, we need a new, modern art to express the age of How to in Grocery or Farmer's Markets Essay text messaging, the Internet and global capitalism. The art critic Clement Greenberg offered a slightly different definition of modernism. He claimed that modernist art was art that was about art . What this means is that modernist art takes art itself as its primary subject matter rather than traditional subjects such as landscapes, portraits or historical and religious themes. This does not mean that modernist art cannot include traditional subjects, but rather that this is not what the art is about. Look, for example, at the William Scott painting Jug. The subject matter is a jug and a bowl.

Such still life has been a subject matter for art for hundreds of years but Scott has treated the material in a thoroughly modern way. (iii) Defining Modernism. The definition of modernist art that emerges is poem trees kilmer, thus: that it provides a meaningful expression of, and gives artistic and aesthetic form to three things: (i) the specific time and place where it was made, (ii) the medium that it is how media affects, made of, and (iii) how it was made. We can now ask if this definition can be usefully applied to much of contemporary art. 3 - When, What and How is contemporary art? (i) Contemporary – Whatever That Means. The tricky task of identifying a working definition of 'modern' is accompanied by the equally testing challenge of poem trees by joyce kilmer defining the word 'contemporary'. Critical Skills! Indeed, 'recent' might be one easy definition for 'contemporary', allowing us to think of contemporary art as that made within recent memory. Another closely related and very straightforward meaning of 'contemporary', and one that is entirely true to the linguistic sources of the by joyce word, is 'with the times' (from the Latin 'con', meaning 'with', plus 'temp' meaning 'time'). As such, to be contemporary is to how media sports be alert to the conditions of a particular moment in time, to kilmer be moving with the tides of living history.

And this sense of the word is widely used in understandings of 'contemporary' art. Back in the 1980s, for instance, curators at the Tate Gallery in London decided that the art of the past ten years, on a rolling basis, would provide a suitable set of parameters as they made plans to develop a new 'Museum of Contemporary Art'. 4 'Contemporary' art in this regard, comes pretty close to 'modern' art – particularly, perhaps, to Jackson Pollock's claim that the art of each age should find its own technique. But Pollock's comment also returns us to how 'modern' can be understood as identifying an How to Identify Food, attitude towards making art, an attitude perhaps resulting in poem by joyce a certain type of art. Certainly, a loose sense of what 'contemporary art' is like is often evident in the mainstream media. Coverage of exhibitions such as the annual Turner Prize show, for instance, will often be based on hostile presumptions about the business plan salon prevailing tendencies in art today, with artists regularly being characterised as pranksters or self-promoting provocateurs rather than masters of a recognisable medium. However accurate such pictures are, it is of course essential to remember the vital role played not just by the media but also by the art market in trees manufacturing particular versions of a contemporary art 'world' (as has always been the case throughout the history of of the Soviet Union Has Affected art), with certain forms of art reaching prominence as a result of their marketability.

But cast an eye over art magazines such as Artforum and Frieze – expensive colour publications packed with ads promoting the interests of the poem trees commercial art scene – and the difficulty of How the Soviet Union finding stable commonalities across what is celebrated is poem by joyce, quite apparent. Such magazines will often introduce us to much that is overtly 'edgy': radical performance art that claims to question moral norms, for waitrose, instance; or varieties of activist art that propose creative models of trees by joyce political resistance; or versions of installation and spice by conceptual art that confuse us as to what, and often where, the trees by joyce kilmer 'art' actually is. All seem to sit comfortably side-by-side in How the Fall Soviet Has Affected Essay such publications. Considering such types of poem kilmer widely prevalent art-making, it might seem that the business plan for hair salon only shared feature is an interest in subverting expectations about by joyce what art can and should be. Such tendencies would, of critical thinking course, be true to a legacy of avant-gardism in the arts, and in our effort to capture something of poem by joyce what is 'contemporary' in art we could choose to of the spice trade was ended by prioritise the poem trees continuation of critical thinking skills a kind of rule-breaking spirit. Yet, many celebrated contemporary art practices frustrate this view. Poem By Joyce! For a great deal of Food Stores Essay today's critically acclaimed art is not quite so obviously confrontational or so antagonistic towards older methods or values. If, for example, a great deal of recent art shows hostility towards principles of aesthetic refinement in art, there remains a significant strain of poem by joyce art, highly regarded by 'contemporary' critics, curators and collectors, that is concerned with retrieving, or positively re-imagining, seemingly outdated notions such as craft and beauty. The paintings of William McKeown for instance, make a sophisticated and unorthodox case for beauty in art today, hinting to us that this idea is essential as a way of freeing, and at How to Identify Stores or Farmer's Markets the same time grounding, our imaginations. Similarly for Isabel Nolan, 'beauty' is to be found in the vulnerabilities of both commonplace and more complex ways of representing or understanding the world around us: her formally diverse work inventively employs traditional craft techniques in poem kilmer capturing moments from everyday life and ideas from advanced science.

Much that is well-respected within contemporary art today, therefore, does not correspond to the prejudices of conservative critics. Crucially, combinations of notionally 'opposed' approaches to art can often be found alongside each other in definition a single exhibition, or even within a single artist's oeuvre or single work. Indeed, commentators on contemporary art have often stressed the diversity of possibilities in art today – and definitions and descriptions of contemporary art will often stress the unregulated openness of poem by joyce this 'industry', acknowledging its resistance to definition and description. As Linda Weintraub has written, contemporary art embraces the maverick and opening the traditionalist … no topic, no medium, no process, no intention, no professional protocols, and no aesthetic principles are exempt from the field of art. 5. Such indications of contemporary art's multiple methodologies are certainly at odds with any belief in poem by joyce kilmer the ongoing refinement of form – a principle once central to 'artistic progress'. For the critical thinking skills philosopher and critic Arthur Danto, the innovations of art after the trees by joyce kilmer 'modernist' era have therefore brought about, in effect, an 'end' of art. Critical! This does not mean, he argues, an trees kilmer, end of people making art, but rather an end of a particular way of understanding art that focused on the constraints of certain disciplines and Fall of the Soviet Has Affected The World Essay mediums. Since pop art, Danto suggests, There is no special way works of trees art have to be. How Media Affects Sports! 6 It is this plurality of poem trees by joyce kilmer possibilities which most obviously gives us clues as to what contemporary art 'is' today. Yet how we choose to position ourselves in relation to this plurality remains one of the most testing questions for those of us hoping to engage with this era's most challenging 'contemporary' art.

(ii) Themes in Contemporary Art. Despite the exciting plurality of art today, recognisable constellations have emerged around which art practices and debates have become clustered. Participatory art takes the form of plan for hair artists working with disparate groups of people from different communities. This is not only a way of generating works of art, but is also part of the trees work itself. Here are three examples: Untitled 1992 (Free), a working kitchen in a New York gallery set up by artist Rirkrit Tiravanija; Tenantspin, 1999, a TV channel for the elderly residents of How to Food in Grocery Stores Markets Essay a Liverpool housing estate set up by art collective Superflex; and Pimp my Irish Banger, 2009, a collaborative art project in which artist Terry Blake worked with young people from Dublin to paint car doors and bonnets that were later displayed in trees by joyce an outdoor space at waitrose the National College of Art and Design, Dublin. The art historian Claire Bishop has identified this trend within contemporary art as a 'Social Turn', arguing that while the models of participatory art vary enormously all are linked by a belief in the empowering creativity of collective action and shared ideas. 7 These are forms of art that ask questions about poem trees by joyce kilmer who is involved in the making and experience of art. Today's art often occurs in particular places and is specific to those places.

For example Canadian artist Janet Cardiff's The Missing Voice (case study b), 1999-2000, is a narrative walking tour of East London starting at the Whitechapel Library. Participants are given a portable audio player that guides them on business plan salon a 45 minute tour of the area through local areas like Spitalfields and poem trees by joyce Brick Lane that are infused with histories of crime, immigration, deprivation and intrigue. Critical! In The Birdcages of Dublin, 1999, Danny McCarthy placed five birdcages on the front walls of poem trees kilmer The Fire Station Artists Studios in Buckingham Street, Dublin. Each cage contained a hidden speaker that played sounds McCarthy had made from field recordings taken from sites around Dublin alongside recordings of bird song. Both pieces put the participants in an active role of interrogating their environments. This art asks questions about How to in Grocery Stores or Farmer's Essay where the making and poem trees kilmer experience of art takes place. Many contemporary artists are interested in the moving image.

This can involve using movies for subject matter, but it also means investigating how film and waitrose opening video can alter how we think about by joyce art and life. Cinema is a culturally potent medium with particular characteristics as a spectacular experience, as a mode of display, and as a way of representing the control of the trade by world. For example in 24 Hour Psycho, 1993, Douglas Gordon slows down and projects Hitchcock's famously suspenseful chiller so that it takes 24 hours to run. It is impossible to enjoy the work as we would normally; we enter into a different relationship with the familiar work. Trees By Joyce Kilmer! Our ideas of the passing of time, narrative, memory, and even our boredom threshold are challenged by Gordon's re-presentation of the film. Comparatively, a work such as Twelve Angry Films by Jesse Jones, 2006, brings out an aspect of 'participation' in film culture, but through a process of collaborative production (working with community groups) and by creating a dedicated public space for screenings in the form of thinking skills definition a drive-in cinema. Poem Trees By Joyce! This art asks questions about how the world is presented to in Grocery or Farmer's us through different media, under what conditions and with what consequences? Artists today continue to question what they are making art from and come back to querying what art's forms mean. In Box (ahhareturnabout), 1977, James Coleman presented a 16mm film on a continuous loop with an poem trees by joyce kilmer, accompanying soundtrack. The film shows disjointed fragments of a bout between two heavyweight boxers with a soundtrack that combines the How to Identify Food in Grocery Markets imagined thoughts of poem trees one competitor with a low, thumping pulse like a heartbeat.

It is a disorientating, profoundly physical experience. The grainy and portuguese control of the spice was ended obscure flicker of the film, when coupled with the jarring jump cuts, becomes part of the kilmer meaning of the work. It suggests how art always struggles with the translation of human experience into artistic media. Whilst Coleman addresses media that are becoming obsolete in today's increasingly digital world (film reels, slide projectors), many artists have also returned to one of the oldest artistic mediums – painting – to continue to ask questions about it. Affects! Elizabeth Peyton, for example, uses images snatched from the poem mass media (press photographs, television, etc.). The images are used in such a way that you would never mistake the pictures for portuguese of the, photographs; instead they encourage you to think about what it means to put wet paint on a surface and move it around. This art asks questions about what is employed in the making and experience of poem art. The above examples offer just a glimpse of the how media affects sports rich variety of art being made today. It can take many forms, address many audiences and raise many questions.

It can often be baffling, infuriating and inscrutable. There is more art now than there has ever been, and in a greater variety. As has always been the case throughout history, a lot of it might not be to our taste. Poem By Joyce Kilmer! But the critical thinking skills best art, be it from the poem trees kilmer distant past, the modern age or our contemporary times, opens up new worlds for us; new worlds of thought, of expression and critical thinking skills definition feeling, new worlds of by joyce poetic and political possibility. Art in or Farmer's the contemporary world is poem trees kilmer, art of this world: it can be by turns richly distracting and spice trade was ended by frustrating, thrilling and testing; it is full of poem kilmer communicative difficulties and new possibilities; it brings the challenging effects of today's reality home to us in all their vivid strangeness. It tells us how soon now really is. © Francis Halsall Declan Long, 2011.

Nicolas Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, Dijon: Les Presses du Rel, p. 25. How The Of The Soviet Union Has Affected! Charles Harrison, Introduction: Modernism, Problems and Methods, The Open University Press, 1983, p. 15. Jackson Pollock in an interview with William Wright, (1950), in trees by joyce Johnson, Ellen H. (ed.), American Artists on Art from 1940 to 1980, Harper Row, 1982. See Tate Glossary, www.tate.org.uk/collections/glossary. Thinking Definition! Linda Weintraub, Making Contemporary Art: How Today's Artists Think and Work, Thames Hudson, 2003, p. 8. Arthur C. Danto, After the End of Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of History, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998, p. 47.

Claire Bishop, 'The Social Turn', in Francis Halsall et al., Rediscovering Aesthetics, Stanford University Press, 2009, p. 239. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.

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Send this checklist home with students on Mondays to track what they are reading and how they are studying their weekly spelling words. Parent and student signatures required. This checklist will help you keep track of student homework, classwork, projects, and tests/quizzes. Classroom organization and grading will be easy when you can easily see who did and did not turn in an assignment for a given day. As a Word document, you can type in trees by joyce, the names of your students alphabetically for easiest use. Here is How the of the Union Has Affected Essay, a quick way to trees by joyce kilmer, keep up with students' homework returns. The checklist saves time and can be used weekly. This is an EDITABLE Checklist for homework. This can be used to reward a child for how media affects having their homework Signed and Returned and for Completing their homework.

Great tool to use for a student who has difficulty remembering to do their homework on a nightly basis. Here is poem trees by joyce, a Reading Homework Checklist and Book Summary Log. I created it because I wanted to make my completing reading homework fun. You can also attach it to plan for hair, your weekly newsletter and poem trees kilmer homework packet. This page is in Word Publisher format so you can change the critical thinking, minutes and requirements to poem trees, match your needs. Please see my Math Language Arts Homework Choice Menus.

Thanks for looking! :-) Homework Checklists for all Subjects. Included with this purchase you will find task checklists to waitrose rickmansworth, use with your students who struggle with maintaining attention or recalling all the steps required to complete a task and avoid frustration. There are 2 sets of checklists for each subject that can be used by teachers or parents selected depending on the student's needs. I put mine inside plastic sleeves and poem trees by joyce kilmer use dry-erase markers to how media affects sports, either draw pictures or write words for each steps. Please rate me and give me some feedback! Enjoy! This checklist includes visuals and provides students with step by step procedures for completing homework, with a focus on organization and time management.

I have created a Homework Checklist for students to trees by joyce kilmer, fill out at waitrose opening the end of the hour so they can be accountable for their unfinished work. They can list the activity due and check it off once completed and poem kilmer turned in. Let's make them accountable not the teacher or mom and How the Soviet Union Has Affected The World Essay dad. Of course, we could always have a parent or yourself initial the form once complete. I use this sheet for organization in the child's classroom/take home binder. Trees! ©mldinger-quickwittedowl@gmail.com , This is waitrose opening, a weekly color coded homework checklist. It can be used to send home to parents or for student use specifically. Weekly Homework Checklist (black and white) Teachers! Weekly Checklist to track what you students are reading and kilmer how they are studying their spelling words.

Also available in thinking, color! Weekly Assignment Homework Checklist. This is a great checklist to poem by joyce, use for critical thinking skills definition helping students get caught up with missing work. It teaches them how to by joyce, get their missing work when absent from their teachers and record it on their tracking sheet. The student checks the first box when they have the Identify Food in Grocery, materials to complete the assigned work. Then, they check the second box when they complete the assignment.

Special Needs Weekly Homework Checklist. Homework in trees, my room is not mandatory, but some of my parents request work for their students to do at home. I wanted an easy checklist for these parents and students. Parents can choose which work their students will do each evening, whether it be accessing one of the abundant resources I offer on my teacher webpage, practice a specific needed skill, or read aloud/listen to parents read. I created this checklist to motivate students to work at home with their parents by How to Food in Grocery Markets tying it to the token. This is just a homework check list to trees by joyce, keep up with who has turned in their homework. Enjoy!

Psst. it is Fall Soviet Union Has Affected, editable! This is a handy organizer for students to be able to keep up with their homework and upcoming things to remember. Please note that you're heading to a part of our site that's not yet optimized for mobile.