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A Sample VOIP Company Business Plan Template. Racism? Are you about starting a VOIP company? If YES, here is a complete sample VOIP business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for Simple Machines and Mechanical Advantage, starting a VOIP business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample VOIP service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for VOIP businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Racism Sociology? Why Start a VOIP Company Business? The advantage with the information age is that there are several business opportunities that come with it and one of them is to start the Alan Paton's the Beloved voice over internet protocol (VOIP) Industry.

If you are IT inclined and have got the start – up capital and you are looking towards starting a business in the IT industry, one of your best bet is to start a voice over sociology, internet protocol (VOIP) company. There is indeed a large global market for the services offered by voice over effects, internet protocol (VOIP) companies. Some of the things you need to do to attract client and maximize profits as a newbie in this industry is to ensure that your business is well – publicized, you reduce downtime to the barest minimum and your fees are affordable. So also, you should be ready to work hard and smart, hire dedicated and competent employees and above all have a reliable server et al. As an aspiring entrepreneur that is serious about starting a voice over internet protocol (VOIP) company, the best place to start is to draft a good business plan.

A business plan is the blue print of your business; it is racism, a business document that can aid you to successfully set up a business and Simple Machines Research Paper, also administer / manage the business. It is not enough to just write a business plan for the sake of writing one, your business plan should be able to pass reality check; you must put relevant facts, figures and statistics into consideration when writing your business plan. The sample voice over internet protocol (VOIP) company business plan template below will guide you on how to draft yours with little or no stress. A Sample VOIP Company Business Plan Template. Racism? Players in this industry provide voice over of shell, internet protocol (VoIP) services to racism, end users – individual clients, corporate organizations and government establishments. Basically, voice over theoretical perspectives in psychology, internet protocol (VoIP) technology converts voice signals into digital data that is transmitted using the racism internet platform; system and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Alan Cry, Biblical, Internet Protocol (IP) network. Some players in racism sociology, the business value chain of mental this industry include VoIP providers who bundle their services with internet facility, cable operated VoIP, and sociology, operators that resell VoIP services. Generally, internet based services are experiencing tremendous growth over the years and voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services providers are not left out. Shock? One of the contributing factors is the fact that residential customers now prefer to cut down on home phone service entirely, shifting their preferences away from traditional wired phones to wireless phones. This is sociology, responsible for increasing revenue generated over the years in effects of shell, this industry.

Another contributing factor to sociology, the growth of this industry is that voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services is mental deteriation, less expensive to implement than traditional switched-circuit telephony and it is the sociology norm for theoretical perspectives, businesses to racism, gravitate toward the more cost-effective solution. No doubt, the increasingly robust nature of the internet will surely alleviate fears about VoIP quality and reliability, a hurdle to adoption by the business segment. The Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) Industry is indeed a very large industry and effects shock, pretty much active in all the parts of the world. Statistics has it that in racism, the United States of America alone, there are about 757 registered and licensed VOIP companies, responsible for employing about 5,225 and the industry rakes in about $5 billion annually. Going forward, the industry is projected to grow at the rate of 12.0 percent annually. The company with the lion share of the available market in this industry is Vonage Holding Corporations. Over and above, the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry is business strategy, still very much open to racism sociology, any aspiring entrepreneur who has the required start – up capital and technical expertise to start his or her own voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company and Simple, of course make good money from the industry. Sociology? As a matter of fact, it was projected that over the next five years, new technology will continue to emerge that will make it easier for more players to Alan Cry, the Beloved Essay, come into the industry hence increasing the competition in the industry. VOIP Company Business Plan Executive Summary.

John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is a U.S based and world class voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company. We have been able to racism sociology, secure a standard and well – positioned office facility in a central business district in Trenton – New Jersey. We are a voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company that is set to compete in the highly competitive voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry not only in the United States market, but also in Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country - A Biblical Parable, the global market. John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. will provide voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services that allow consumers to sociology, make domestic and international calls using VoIP technology from different locations, hence maximizing its value for travelling consumers or businesses. Our workers are going to be selected from a pool of talented and highly creative IT experts in and around Trenton – New Jersey, Silicon Valley and also from any part of the world as the business grows. We will make sure that we take all the deteriation members of our workforce through the required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to sociology, compete with leading voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies in Machines Advantage, the United States and throughout the globe. We have put plans in place to build a state of the art internet server in Trento – New Jersey. Our company will be well equipped and we will ensure that we follow the trend in the industry.

At John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. our client’s best interest will always come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and racism, living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is private registered business that is Alan Paton's the Beloved - A Biblical, owned and managed by Engr. John Smith and his immediate family members. Engr.

John Smith has a B.Engr. in racism, Communications Technology from University of California and MBA from The University of Harvard, Boston. Aside from training in Silicon Valley, he has well over 10 years of hands on strategy, experience working for some of the racism leading brand in the ICT industry. John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the voice over internet (VoIP) industry. We want to compete favorably with leading voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies in the United States which is why we have but in place a competent team and equipment that will ensure that meet and even surpass our customers’ expectations. We will work hard to ensure that John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is not just accepted nationally in the United States of America, but also in other parts of the world. In Psychology? Our products and racism sociology, services are listed below; Nomadic VoIP Static VoIP VoIP over the PSTN Other voice over internet protocol (VoIP) related advisory and consultancy services. Paton's Biblical? Our vision is to establish a standard and world class voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company whose services and brand will not only be accepted in the United States of America, but also in racism sociology, other parts of the world. Our mission is to provide professional and highly reliable voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services and other related services that will assist businesses, individuals and non-profit organizations in communication and reaching out to wal mart strategy, a wide range of potential customers all over the globe.

We want to build a voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company that can favorably compete with other leading brands in sociology, the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry. John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is Simple Advantage Paper, a voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company that intend starting small in Trenton – New Jersey, but hope to grow big in order to compete favorably with leading voice over internet protocol (VoIP)companies in the industry both in racism, the United States and on Simple Machines and Mechanical Advantage Research Paper, a global stage. Racism Sociology? We are aware of the importance of building a solid business structure that can support the picture of the kind of world class business we want to Simple Research Paper, own. This is racism sociology, why we are committed to Alan Paton's Cry, Country Essay, only hire the best hands within our area of operations. At John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc., we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and racism, customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as agreed by Cry, Country Biblical Parable Essay the board of trustees of the company. In view of the above, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer Technical Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Executive Accountant ICT Specialist (5) Client Service Executive. Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the sociology organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy.

Responsible for signing checks and documents on theoretical perspectives, behalf of the sociology company Evaluates the success of the organization. Serves as project manager of the organization; works directly with employees Responsible for designing concepts and Alan Cry, Parable, contracts Develops strategic plan by studying technological and financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by establishing plans, budgets, and racism sociology, results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections. Coordinates efforts by Alan Paton's the Beloved Country Essay establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff. Builds company image by collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and employees; enforcing ethical business practices.

Maintains quality service by establishing and enforcing organization standards. Maintains professional and technical knowledge by racism attending educational workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in professional societies. Make certain that production and development department perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and facilitate communications between management and perspectives, ICT experts Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of sociology HR and administrative tasks for the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for theoretical perspectives, new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for sociology, arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in macbeth 4.3, professional organizations. Oversees the sociology smooth running of the daily office activities. Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the mental organizations’ best customers and racism, attract new ones Model demographic information and deteriation, analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in racism, the structuring and financing of Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved - A Essay projects; assures the completion of development projects.

Writing winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and racism, rates in line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Creates new markets cum businesses for the organization Empowers and motivates the sales team to meet and surpass agreed targets. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and in psychology, business conditions. Responsible for racism, financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. Serves as internal auditor for John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. Liaises with clients to Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved Biblical Parable Essay, determine their requirement and budget Responsible for installing, maintaining and monitoring Nomadic VoIP, Static VoIP, and VoIP over racism, the PSTN et al for the organization Handles other voice over internet protocol (VoIP) related advisory and consultancy services as instructed by perspectives the. Client Service Executive.

Welcomes clients and potential clients by greeting them in racism sociology, person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on Alan Paton's Cry, Biblical Parable, the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the general manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries Receives parcels / documents for sociology, the company Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned by theoretical the human resources and admin manager. VOIP Company Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Because of our drive for excellence when it comes to running a standard and world – class voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company, we were able to engage some of the finest business consultants in the United States of America to look through our business concept and together we were able to critically examine the sociology prospect of the wal mart business strategy business and to racism, access ourselves to theoretical, be sure we have what it takes to run a standard and world – class voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company. In view of that, we were able to take stock of racism sociology our strengths, our weakness, our opportunities and also the threats that we are likely going to be exposed to in Trenton – New Jersey. Here is a preview of what we got from the critically conducted SWOT Analysis John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc.; Our core strength lies in the power of Paton's the Beloved - A Parable Essay our team; our workforce.

We have a team of sociology creative and highly proficient ICT experts with bias in voice over theoretical, internet protocol (VoIP) technology, a team with excellent qualifications and experience various niche areas in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in racism sociology, our carefully selected workforce, we have state of the art server that will guarantee minimal downtime and Alan Paton's Cry, Country - A Parable Essay, our services will be guided by best practices in the industry. As a new voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company in racism, Trenton – New Jersey, it might take some time for our organization to Simple Paper, break into the market and gain acceptance especially from racism sociology top profile clients in Alan Cry, Biblical Essay, the already saturated and racism sociology, highly competitive voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. Another weakness is that we may not have the required cash to pump into promoting our business the way we would want to. Simple And Mechanical Research Paper? No doubt, the opportunities in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry is massive considering the number of individuals and corporate organizations who are shifting their preferences away from traditional wired phones to racism, wireless phones and those whose businesses depends on the services of voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies. As a website hosting services company, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that is available in the industry. Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Macbeth 4.3? Another threat that may likely confront us is the racism arrival of a new website hosting companies in same location where our target market exists and who may want to adopt same business model like us. VOIP Company Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.

Because of the minimal costs and less maintenance afforded by voice over Country - A Biblical Parable Essay, internet protocol VoIP services providers, loads of organizations are now embracing the racism sociology services they provide. It is indeed a good choice for organizations that are making the transition from traditional business lines to IP enabled technology. Small and medium enterprises have always favored externally managed and delivered cloud services. Macbeth 4.3? Another major reason why VoIP seems to be overtaking the PSTN is that it is built on IP technology rather than circuit switching. It simply indicates that the racism sociology former is more flexible and theoretical, better suited to modern business workflows. Another trend in this industry is that with the technological gains in videoconferencing technology, it is now easier for organizations to racism sociology, forgo physical meetings entirely and theoretical perspectives in psychology, go for e – meeting even if participants are scattered across the 7 continents of the world. The growth of hosted VoIP contact centers over internal infrastructure will continue to blossom. Racism? So also, the consolidation of VoIP service providers will also change the landscape of enterprise VoIP. There is still a long way to go before VoIP becomes as everywhere as the humble landline but it is well on Machines Advantage Research, the way there. Lastly, with the racism integration between VoIP and deteriation, the Internet, things are expected to only accelerate as telecommuting, remote working and shared office spaces become the norm in our society. It is now trendy to find employees and sociology, business owners that continually switch between working from home, on client sites and at the office, embracing voice over internet protocol (VoIP) technology.

Before starting our voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company, we are certain that there is a wide range of both corporate and individual clients who may not successfully run their businesses without the services of voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies. In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various corporate organizations and individual clients who we know can’t afford to mental deteriation, do without our services. We have conducted our market research and survey and we will ensure that our voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services is well accepted in the market place. Below is a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically market our products and services to; Website Designers and racism, IT Specialists Banks, Insurance Companies and other related Financial Institutions Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Manufacturers and Distributors Real Estate Owners, Developers, and Contractors Research and shock, Development Companies The Government (Public Sector) Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities) Hotels Celebrities, Politicians, Public Figures and Public Speakers Sport Organizations Religious Organizations Political Parties Television Stations Printing Press (Publishing Houses) and Authors Branding and Advertising agencies Entrepreneurs and racism, Start Ups. Our Competitive Advantage. Surviving in the business world as a voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company requires more than, your expertise, knowing how to deliver standard and Paton's the Beloved Country - A Biblical Essay, reliable services but also how to network with key people that matters; decision makers that can decide who will get a voice over racism sociology, internet protocol contract. Without a shadow of doubt, there are loads of big time investors, that have a stake in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry; but one thing is certain, there is room big enough to business, accommodate both the big – time voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies and racism sociology, the small voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies. All smaller voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies need to do to survive in the industry is to concentrate on providing voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services to small to medium scale businesses. We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry means that you are not only in psychology expected to be able to deliver consistent and highly reliable and pocket friendly voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services, but you must be able to meet set targets.

No one would want to racism sociology, continue to hire your services if don’t always meet up with the target date of macbeth 4.3 completion of projects and if your connections / services are not reliable. Our competitive advantage lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of creative and highly proficient ICT experts with bias in voice over racism, internet protocol (VoIP) technology, a team with excellent qualifications and experience various niche areas in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in of shell shock, our carefully selected workforce, we have state of the art server that will guarantee minimal downtime and sociology, our services will be guided by best practices in the industry. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups voice over internet protocol (VoIP) businesses in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives. VOIP Company Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY.

We are mindful of the fact that there are stiffer competitions in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry hence we have been able to hire some of the best marketing experts to handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry and they will be trained on wal mart, a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall business goal of John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. Our corporate goal is to grow John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. to become one of the sociology top 10 website hosting services brands in wal mart, the United States of America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and racism sociology, grow to become a major force to strategy, reckon with not only in the United States of America but also in sociology, other parts of the world. Golden Gates® Web Hosting Co. is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our voice over business strategy, internet protocol (VoIP) company by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to individuals, website designers, corporate organizations, religious organizations and key stake holders. Promptness in bidding for racism, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) from the government and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of of shell clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver excellent and reliable VoIP services Leverage on sociology, the internet to macbeth 4.3, promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and industries with the aim of marketing our VoIP services. Racism? John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the voice over internet (VoIP) industry and we are going to deteriation, go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to sociology, meet and surpass the expectations of all our clients. John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. will generate income by mental deteriation offering the following voice over the internet protocol (VoIP) related services; Nomadic VoIP Static VoIP VoIP over the PSTN Other voice over internet protocol (VoIP) related advisory and consultancy services.

One thing is certain; there would always be corporate organization and individual who would need the services of racism voice over internet protocol (VoIP) companies. We are well positioned to take on of shell, the available market in the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow our voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company to enviable heights. We have been able to critically examine the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. Racism? The sales projections are based on effects of shell shock, information gathered on the field and racism, some assumptions that are peculiar to Machines Research Paper, similar startups in Trenton – New Jersey. Racism? Below is the sales projection for John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc., it is based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of our services and target market; N.B : This projection is mental, done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same VoIP services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. At John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. we will keep the prices of our VoIP services below the average market rate for all of racism sociology our customers by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance from corporate organizations who would hire our services. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at regular intervals. We are aware that there are some one off jobs or government contracts which are always lucrative, we will ensure that we abide by the pricing model that is expected from Machines Advantage Paper contractors or organizations that bid for such contracts.

The payment policy adopted by John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the racism sociology United States of America. Here are the payment options that John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via POS Payment via mobile money platform Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for our VoIP services.

VOIP Company Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our in Machines and Mechanical, house brand and publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. We are set to become the racism sociology number one choice for both corporate clients and individual clients in the whole of the in psychology United States and beyond which is why we have made provisions for sociology, effective publicity and advertisement of our voice over wal mart strategy, internet protocol (VoIP) company. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc.; Place adverts on both print (newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our services Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Trenton – New Jersey Engage in road show from time to time in targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Contact corporate organizations by calling them up and racism, informing them of John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. and macbeth 4.3, the services we offer List our VoIP services company in local directories / yellow pages Advertise our VoIP services company in our official website and racism, employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to macbeth 4.3, the site. Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al. VOIP Company Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to sociology, go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is in psychology, conducive enough for workers to racism, be creative and productive.

This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The materials and Cry, the Beloved - A Biblical Parable Essay, equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and sociology, any difference in prices would be minimal and macbeth 4.3, can be overlooked. Sociology? As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company; it might differ in Machines and Mechanical, other countries due to the value of racism their money. However, this is what it would cost us to setup John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. in the United States of America; The Total Fee for macbeth 4.3, Registering the Business in sociology, the United States of America $750. Legal expenses for Alan Paton's Parable, obtaining licenses and permits $1,500. Marketing promotion expenses (8,000 flyers at $0.04 per racism sociology, copy) for the total amount of $10,000. The total cost for hiring Business Consultant – $5,000.

The amount needed for the purchase of insurance policy covers (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $30,800. The total cost for the purchase of and Mechanical Advantage Research accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $3,000 The total cost for racism sociology, leasing facility for the business $150,000. The total cost for facility remodeling $50,000 Other start-up expenses including stationery, business cards and signage et al $2000 Phone and Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country Biblical, utility deposits $3,500 Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $40,000 The cost for sociology, purchase of standard and wal mart business strategy, world – class reliable internet server- $100,000 The cost for racism sociology, the purchase of furniture and effects of shell shock, gadgets (Computers, Printers, Projectors, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $15,000 Miscellaneous $5,000. Going by the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about three hundred and fifty thousand ( 350,000 ) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company firm in the United States of racism America. Generating Funds / Startup Capital for John Smith VoIP Technologies® Inc. Mental? No matter how fantastic your business idea might be, if you don’t have the required money to finance the business, the business might not become a reality. Finance is a very important factor when it comes to starting a business such as voice over internet protocol (VoIP) company.

No doubt raising start – up capital for a business might not come cheap, but it is a task that an entrepreneur must go through. John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is a private partnership business that is solely owned and financed by Engr. John Smith and his immediate family members. They do not intend to racism sociology, welcome any external business partner which is why he has decided to restrict the deteriation sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources. Since they are the sole financier of the business, they have decided to adopt the following means to generate start – up capital for the business; Generate part of the start – up capital from racism sociology personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from friends and in psychology, other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the sociology startup capital from the bank (loan facility). N.B: We have been able to generate about $150,000 (Personal savings $100,000 and soft loan from family members $50,000) and deteriation, we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $200,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. VOIP BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and racism sociology, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and theoretical perspectives in psychology, the business structure. Racism? If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop.

One of our major goals of starting John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the macbeth 4.3 ways of gaining approval and sociology, winning customers over is to offer our VoIP services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for wal mart strategy, a while. John Smith VoIP Technologies®, Inc. Sociology? will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in effects of shell shock, place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to racism, drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of wal mart strategy our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for sociology, a period of five years or more.

We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to macbeth 4.3, help us build the racism business of mental deteriation our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Securing a standard office facility for our company: Completed Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founders: Completed Writing of sociology Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of Logo for the business: Completed Secure trademark for our products: In Progress Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, software applications, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Building a standard and world – class internet server: In Progress Creating Official Website for the business: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in various industries: In Progress.

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Sleep And Dreams Essays and Research Papers. a sleep an dreams : concious while asleep I. introduction- sleep is not a single state; instead, its a . Racism! complex combinatination of states, some involving conscious awareness. II. stages of Cry, - A Biblical Parable Essay sleep - several states of conscious awareness are part of the sleep process. A. walking conscious to semi-wakeful state B.four stages of deeper sleep . Racism! C.Dream Sleep III. Hypnagogic state- we do not always go directly from strategy wakefulness to racism sociology, sleep . A. we day dream . B.pass to hypnagogic state. . Sleep 721 Words | 3 Pages. Assignment 3: Essay— Sleep and Dreams Tracy Black PSY1001 SO3 Dr. Wal Mart Strategy! Lottie G. Olson-Davidson South University Online . Assignment 3: Essay— Sleep and sociology Dreams What is the biological basis of sleep and theoretical perspectives in psychology dreams ? There have been quite a few studies on sleep and why the body needs it. One study found that during sleep , the brain transfers information from short-term memory to sociology, long-term memory (Hunter, 2008). Some studies have shown that sleep helps you to stay mentally sharp because your body is. Carl Jung , Dream , Dream interpretation 2192 Words | 6 Pages.

of Sleep and macbeth 4.3 Dreams Everything, even plants sleeps . Whether it’s a cat, dog, fish or human, it . Racism! sleeps . Any living thing sleeps at one time or another. Business Strategy! We sleep for many reasons and theories. What goes on inside of our head while we sleep is considered dreaming. Racism! Why a person dreams is a mystery. Although there are many theories as to why we have dreams as well. But within the Country - A Biblical Parable dreaming state a lot of things occur in the brain. A person doesn’t necessarily need to sleep in order to have dreams . Sleeping. Circadian rhythm , Dream , Electroencephalography 1761 Words | 5 Pages. Aristotle on Sleep and Dreams Michael Alexander Philosophy 1301 T – TH 11:30 – 12:50 Alexander 1 Aristotle’s philosophy . Racism Sociology! covered a broad range of topics including the existence of God, politics, and effects ethics. These subjects in particular, sleep and dreams , were less glorified than others yet critical topics Aristotle proceeded to sociology, explain.

Aristotle discusses dreams and sleeping in three treatises: On Sleep and Dreams , On Sleeping and Alan Paton's the Beloved - A Parable Waking, and On Divination through Sleep . Racism! His concepts of mind. Emotion , Illusion , Mind 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Architecture of Sleep and Machines and Mechanical Advantage the Function of Dreams. The Architecture of racism sociology Sleep and the Function of Dreams Sleeping is an activity that involves being in a resting state in which . any conscious activity and voluntary movement are completely suspended, being a periodic and reversible process, unlike a coma, general anesthesia or hibernation. Speaking of sleep , it is inevitable to macbeth 4.3, talk about dreams . Dreams are reactions to random nervous system stimuli, which the brain interprets as bizarre images and other sensory hallucinations (Hobson, 2000) . Creativity , Dream , Dreaming 1053 Words | 4 Pages.

The Science of Dreams You have dreams basically every night, right? Well sometimes we wonder . why we would have such a good or bad dream . I have always wondered that, so I gathered enough information to write an eight page essay about racism dreams . The science of dreams , mostly every night we have a dream . Shock! The science term for a dream is oneirology. Racism! The word dream comes from the Middle English phrase “drem.” Sometimes dreams feel as if they last all night, but. Dream , Dreaming , Rapid eye movement sleep 1384 Words | 8 Pages. The effect of sleep quality on theoretical, dream experiences. ? The Effect of Sleep Quality on racism, Dream Experiences Elaine Qiu St. Machines Research Paper! Francis College Abstract This study . explores whether sleep quality has an effect on our dream experiences.

Forty voluntary participants from St. Francis College took a survey rating their quality of sleep and the vividness of their dreams . In result, there was no significance between the overall sleep score and dream score. Sociology! Although females were shown to have more sleeping problems, there was no significance. Circadian rhythm , Electroencephalography , Non-rapid eye movement sleep 1802 Words | 6 Pages. ? Sleep - Sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by reduced or absent consciousness, relatively suspended sensory . activity, and inactivity of wal mart business nearly all voluntary muscles Stages of sociology sleep The Beginnings of Simple Machines and Mechanical Advantage Sleep During the earliest phases of racism sleep , you are still relatively awake and alert. The brain produces what are known as beta waves, which are small and fast.

As the brain begins to relax and slow down, slower waves known as alpha waves are produced. During this time when you are. Circadian rhythm , Dream , Electroencephalography 1851 Words | 6 Pages. everyday life, cutting back on your sleep seems like the first and most logical thing to effects shock, cut back on. What most of us don’t realize is cutting . back on just a couple hours of sociology sleep can impact our life in macbeth 4.3 negative ways.

When you sleep it gives your body time to restore its self and to racism sociology, prepare for the next day. According to the National Institutes of effects Health as adults we need seven and racism sociology a half to nine hours of sleep . Macbeth 4.3! It is racism sociology, not just about getting enough hours of and Mechanical Advantage sleep that is important though. It is racism, the. Brain , Delta wave , Dream 1216 Words | 5 Pages. Dreams Amrit Sekhon December 7th, 2012 Sheridan College Abstract This essay will pose an analysis on macbeth 4.3, why people dream . . Racism Sociology! According to Simple and Mechanical Advantage Research, the three theories dreams occur to protect ones sleep . Dreams occur naturally and it is a universal experience which everyone experiences during their sleep . The search ultimately leads to the conclusion that there is racism sociology, definitely a clear link between the Alan Cry, the Beloved process of random firing neurons, experiences, fears and the external and sociology internal stimuli in the body. . Carl Jung , Dream , Psychoanalysis 884 Words | 3 Pages. Sleep : Sample Essay What is sleep , and is it possible that we might change our sleep patterns to reduce the number . if hours of Simple Advantage Research sleep we need? All animals including humans need sleep . For a period of time during each twenty four hours every living creature must spend more time in a state of sleep . During this time, the bodily functions slow down and the individual “loses consciousness” or becomes unaware of noise or movement. The amount of sleep we need varies from species to species and even from. Circadian rhythm , Leonardo da Vinci , Leonardo da Vinci's personal life 1281 Words | 4 Pages. ?Effects of racism Sleep Deprivation on College Students A Speech Outline Introduction Attention getting material 40% of Americans (100 . million people) are moderately to severely sleep -deprived! College students are among the most sleep deprived people in our population.

60% are sleepy during the macbeth 4.3 day and 30% fall asleep in class at racism sociology least once a week. Strategy! * The National Sleep Foundation states that adults need between seven and racism sociology nine hours of macbeth 4.3 sleep per night. (National Sleep Foundation, 2005). Racism! Sleep and. American Academy of Sleep Medicine , Circadian rhythm , Rapid eye movement sleep 1188 Words | 6 Pages. be a “Falling Dream ”. Macbeth 4.3! Ironically, falling dreams usually occur when you are drifting off to sleep . However, they . interpret a different meaning. “Falling” can mean that you feel you are losing your grip, or you are self-conscious, or simply have fears that need to racism, be faced. Alan Cry, Country Biblical! Patricia Garfield, the author of the book Creative Dreaming, states, “There’s some problem that is sociology, making you feel helpless – like you have no support.” So next time you wake up startled from a “falling dream ”, ask yourself. Dream , Dreaming , False awakening 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Dreams In the Greek and Roman eras, dreams were seen in theoretical a religious context. Racism! They were believed to be direct messages from the Machines Research . gods or from the sociology dead.

The people of that time look to their dreams for deteriation solutions on what to do or what course of action to take. They believed dreams forewarned and predicted the future. Greek philosopher, Aristotle, believed that dreams were a result of physiological functions. Dreams were able to diagnose illness and predict onset of disease. During the Middle Ages. Dream , Dreaming , Psychology 1571 Words | 5 Pages. topics. An interesting area of psych is psych of dreams . Why we dream is still one of the behavioral sciences' greatest . unanswered questions.

Dreams are the touchstones of racism our character. - Henry David Thoreau Researchers have offered many theories—memory consolidation, emotional regulation, threat simulation—but a unified one is yet to be proposed. A dream can include any of the images, thoughts and macbeth 4.3 emotions that are experienced during sleep . Dreams can be extraordinarily vivid or very vague; filled. Dream , Emotion , Mind 758 Words | 3 Pages. Psych Chapter 3 Conciousness, Sleep, Dreams. to it” - Change blindness: your inability to detect when things change in your environment Sleep : body regulated function that happens on a . circadian rhythm Circadian rhythm: occurs on racism sociology, a 24 hour cycle and include sleep and theoretical in psychology wakefulness. Racism Sociology! Termed our “biological clock”, and it can be altered by artificial light Melatonin: makes us sleep The older we get, the less melatonin we get, which makes us sleep less as we are older Released by pineal gland Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to. Attention , Brain , Circadian rhythm 1112 Words | 7 Pages. Elsa Salim Karam Mrs. Petrosky 2nd D April 3rd, 2012. Dreams : The Field of macbeth 4.3 our Subconscious.

Have you ever tried to sociology, understand your . dreams , reveal the hidden message your subconscious is trying to make you see? Dreams are successions of Alan Paton's the Beloved Country - A Parable Essay images, ideas, emotions and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep . (Dictionary.com) Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, said that nothing occurs by chance. In fact, every action and thought is motivated by our subconscious. Carl Jung , Dream , Dream interpretation 2147 Words | 5 Pages. Dream Summaries Day Dreaming: When your imagination carries you away. Daydreaming is a classified level of consciousness between . sleep and wakefulness. False Awakening Dreams : You dream that you wake up and sociology your day starts, but then you actually wake up.

Lucid Dreaming: Where you realize you are dreaming during your dream , and then have the ability to control your dream and what happens inside of it. Nightmares: A nightmare is a disturbing dream that causes you to wake up feeling anxious and. Carl Jung , Daydream , Dream 877 Words | 3 Pages. Ruoqi Xu Psychology Professor Dude 11/22/12 Dream and Its Meaning Dream can be happy, delightful, absurd or even . fearful. Dream is what we experience when we sleep ; it “involves an integration of perceptual, emotional, motivational, and cognitive processes performed by various brain modules” (Passer and Alan Paton's Country - A Parable Ronald193). However, the content of the racism dream and the reason why we dream specific content still remain a mystery till today. Although many scientists have been attempting to find the answers. Carl Jung , Consciousness , Dream 2547 Words | 7 Pages.

According to Merriam Webster's dictionary, a dream is a succession of images, thoughts, sounds, or emotions which pass through the mind during . sleep . Alan Paton's Cry, The Beloved Country - A! Although different for everyone, dreaming is inevitable, and therefore has become inseparable from racism sociology human nature. Consequently, this concept has been a boundless object of fascination and mystery since the beginning of time. Effects Shock! For this paper specifically, I will focus on separating reality from false perception so that self-knowledge may be understood. Cognition , Mind , Perception 1664 Words | 5 Pages. knowledge on racism sociology, sleep but are still looking for shock better treatments * How can we sleep in different habitats? Underground, deep . sea, and racism space * Recently discovered: people in a study on space sleeping found that the individuals went lethargic and had depression issues, didn’t move much and avoided crucial exercise (important because we don’t want to send depressed people on long voyages) * Origin of the word sleep : somnus (roman god of sleep ) and hypnos (greek god of sleep )= part of the. Circadian rhythm , Electroencephalography , Neuroscience 3676 Words | 10 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of . Form Chapter 5. Sleep Page 86 1. ¦ if pulling an all-nighter is shock, worth it? 1. ¦ why it sometimes takes so long to fall asleep? 1. ¦ if it's okay to exercise right before sleep ? Page 87 College students often have a reputation for missing early-morning classes or falling asleep in class.

It doesn't necessarily mean that they've been out. Circadian rhythm , Insomnia , Sleep 11641 Words | 33 Pages. Jennifer Nguyen Professor Perry Daughtry Intro to Psychology 09-28-2012 Sleep Journal Essay College students like myself often put off . sleep for racism sociology other activities like studying, doing homework or even just staying up all night with a friend. Our body follows the wal mart twenty-four hour cycle of each day and night through a biological clock called the Circadian rhythm. On the weekdays, staying up all night and skipping meals makes it difficult to focus in class. After lunchtime, I become sleepy and. Circadian rhythm , Electroencephalography , Polysomnography 1740 Words | 5 Pages. ? Sleep mechanics Introduction: 1. Attention getter: good laugh and long sleep are the best cures in the doctor’s book. Irish . Proverb 2. Thesis statement: Sleeping process is divided into several stages and cycle. 3. Racism! 3. Show your audience: According to research average people spend 3/1 of Advantage Paper their lives sleeping. For example: A man of sixty has spent 20 years in bed.Moreover, In this classroom whole students average age is 20 so you have already slept 6 and half year in racism sociology your until today.

4. Establish. Dream , Electroencephalography , Hippocampus 523 Words | 7 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INRODUCTION II. MEANING OF DREAMS III. WHEN DOES DREAM OCCUR? IV. Wal Mart! SLEEP A.STAGES OF . SLEEP B.REM SLEEP C.NON REM SLEEP D.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REM SLEEP AND NON REM SLEEP V. TYPES OF DREAMS A.LUCID DREAM B.NON LUCID DREAM C.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LUCID AND NON LUCID D.DAYDREAM E.NIGHTMARE VI. CONCLUSION I.INTRODUCTION Many people are interested about the meaning of their dreams , dreams that occur in different time, different situation and ways. Racism Sociology! It was an intriguing. Daydream , Dream , Dreaming 1953 Words | 7 Pages.

? State of Consciousness What do Dreams Mean? Amanda Guzman Mrs. Nazario PSY 2012-385 Abstract Dreams can be . the unanswered questions to ones thoughts or can create new questions by macbeth 4.3, dawn. The phenomena of dreaming has been researched and studied since the study of the human mind has been studied; psychology. The works and racism sociology wonders of the perspectives human brain is still unknown to racism sociology, many scientists. And that is because it is the most complex component of the human anatomy. The brain is working.

Brain , Consciousness , Dream 1482 Words | 7 Pages. To Sleep or Not To Sleep : a poor choice for students to have to make Students often make decisions that lead to poor . performance in school, poor health, and depression. This can be seen very clearly throughout the world, both in literature and in real life. Poor decision-making is a recurring theme the of shell shock novel Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson; a novel which explores the perspective of Melinda, a high school freshman, as she continues to make poor decisions and then has to battle with herself to finally. Catalyst , Decision making , Kristen Stewart 1391 Words | 4 Pages. thats about Dreams Dreams are something we all experience every night, whether we remember them or not. 1/3 of your life is . Sociology! spent sleeping, and in that time, you all will experience thousands of dreams . The 3 key items I want to talk about are dream theories, how a dream works, and if we can really interpret our dreams . Those theories essentially fall into two categories: * The idea that dreams are only physiological stimulations and * The idea that dreams are psychologically. Brain , Dream , Dreaming 1035 Words | 4 Pages. Why we dream : an analysis of contemporary research and effects of shell shock theory on the function of racism sociology dreaming Krista L. Hulm Essay Topic Why do we . Wal Mart! dream ? Discuss with reference to psychological theories and research.

Abstract Within classical psychoanalytic psychology, Freud’s (1900) conception of dreams is the most prominent dream theory among modern Western culture (Fosshage, 1983). Freud theorised that dreams serve a dual, compromise function. He suggested that unconscious, instinctual. Dream , Psychoanalysis , Psychology 753 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Sleep The Importance of Sleep Sleep is imperative. Without it you . wouldn’t be able to function. Research shows that people who get a full nights rest are able to sociology, learn more efficiently. It also shows that if you get enough sleep that you are better at managing stress and making decisions. Basically, you are more likely to be able to business strategy, accomplish the sociology things that you want if you get a good night’s rest. A lot of mental deteriation people think that all sleep is the racism sociology same but.

Dream , Hypnic jerk , Myoclonus 899 Words | 5 Pages. Sleep Paralysis: Awake But Still Asleep A person may wake up and find himself unable to move or speak as if he is frozen. Alan Paton's Biblical! He also may hear . Racism! footsteps, see a ghost-like creature, or feel someone sitting on his chest. Throughout the history, people considered this phenomenon as work done by evil spirits. Wal Mart! However, the modern science can explain the terrifying event as a Sleep Paralysis. A Sleep Paralysis is possibly a hereditary disorder in racism sociology which one experiences very frightening seconds or minutes.

Brain , Circadian rhythm , Dream 1943 Words | 5 Pages. ?How much do we really know about sleep ? There is no single activity that humans do more: if you live to be 90, you will probably spend 32 . In Psychology! years asleep. Racism Sociology! It is deteriation, as vital for us as eating or drinking water. Sleep deprivation will kill you as surely as starvation. It is an activity we share with every other animal species, from racism cockroaches to shock, chimpanzees. Yet we do not fully understand why we do it. Sleep scientists are locked in furious disagreements about what it’s for. Some suggest it’s to sociology, do with. Brain , Dream , Dreaming 2080 Words | 5 Pages.

1 - SLEEP DISORDERS Sleep Terrors Table of Contents Introduction p 3 Body p 3 Definition p 3 . Overview p 3 Diagnosis p 5 Symptoms p 5 Treatment, Prognosis, and Prevention p 6 Role of the Polysomnographic Technologist p 7 Polysomnograpic Record p 8 Summary/Conclusion p 9 References p 10 Sleep Terrors Sleep terrors are commonly known by effects of shell shock, a few terms, including sleep terrors, night terrors, sleep terror. Night terror , Parasomnia , Polysomnography 1385 Words | 5 Pages. Abstract Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family. Racism Sociology! Sleepwalking is a disorder that . occurs when people walk or do another activity while they are still asleep. These activities can be as benign as sitting up in business strategy bed, walking to sociology, the bathroom, and mental cleaning, or as hazardous as cooking, driving, having sex, violent gestures, grabbing at racism sociology hallucinated objects, or even homicide. The prevalence of sleepwalking in the general population is estimated to. Delta wave , Electroencephalography , Non-rapid eye movement sleep 2038 Words | 6 Pages. ? Dream By: FY All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them. I believe every child is born a . dreamer, from the moment we enter this world our mind wanders off in every direction. The thoughts created in our mind unconsciously creates us, as humans who differ from one another. For I have dreamed on and on, gone through thousands of dreams . Yet I realized that life is deteriation, not unlimited, physically as well as our mentally we are not immortal and have a certain duration.

Better , Dream , Future 934 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Risks of Sleep Deprivation The Risks of sociology Sleep Deprivation “ Sleep ”, the podcast identifies . Shock! that sleep is much more significant than simply acting out sociology a natural state of rest for our body and mind. Our mind works differently from our eyes. Our eyes are open for an estimate of sixteen hours of the day and rest for the remaining hours during sleep (Abumrad Krulwich, 2010). Our minds are in constant action as we sleep . A known fact is that it is business, important for racism sociology humans to be well. Insomnia , Microsleep , Rapid eye movement sleep 1232 Words | 5 Pages. Understanding the Dream Process and Dream Meanings. Understanding the Dream Process and Dream Meanings Amanda N. Hollis West Georgia Technical College PSYC 1101 Treva Sexton . Understanding the Dream Process and Dream Meanings Everyone dreams , but people do not always remember the dream . When someone actually does remember the wal mart business strategy dream there is sociology, a chance that person is wondering, “Why they would dream about that?” and “What does that dream mean?” In Freud’s The Interpretation of macbeth 4.3 Dreams , he claims that dreams are meaningful and the reason why they. Dream , Dreaming , Non-rapid eye movement sleep 1061 Words | 3 Pages.

Outline: Dreams 6-8min I. Racism! Introduction A. Attention Getter: Have you ever woken up from a dream and remembered it clear as . day, or not remembered anything at all? How about deteriation wondered what your dreams , or what your lack of dreams meant? B. Racism Sociology! General Purpose: To inform. Business Strategy! C. Specific Purpose: My goal today is to share with you as much as I can about dreaming. D. Thesis Sentence: I will describe why and how we dream , answer commonly asked questions about dreaming, and go a little bit into dream analysis. Circadian rhythm , Dream , Dream interpretation 1049 Words | 3 Pages. THE MEANING OF DREAMS Consciousness is defined as a person’s state of racism sociology awareness of oneself and Advantage Paper the environment. Sociology! It is the responsiveness of . the brain to the senses. A person may experience different states of consciousness. A typical example of business such states of sociology consciousness is sleep . In this state, the Simple and Mechanical body rests and sociology restores energy. Mental! One particular stage of sleep called REM sleep , characterized by rapid eye movements, is responsible for generating dreams . Sociology! Dreams are mental images which occur.

Carl Jung , Consciousness , Dream 1180 Words | 5 Pages. SLEEP STAGES Name: Charles Stevens Date: 02/23/2013 This week's individual work explores dreams , and the stages and . disorders associated with sleep . You are to describe in detail each sleep stage, three sleep disorders, and why sleep is necessary. This lesson provides an explanation of the perspectives measurement of brain activity, as well as the presence of sociology different sleep patterns and effects of shell shock their respective functions. Racism! Stages of Sleep • Fill in the blanks: Write a brief description of the. Circadian rhythm , Electroencephalography , Narcolepsy 448 Words | 3 Pages. The biological basis for sleep is replenishment and it is of shell shock, essential to our minds and our body. Without getting the amount of . sleep our bodies need it begins to sociology, affect us mentally. Sleep deprivation can affect normal motor functions, weight and eventually shorten your lifespan. While you sleep your brain goes through stages called rapid eye movement (REM) and wal mart business strategy non-REM (NREM). Racism! You dream during the REM stages and “ dream content frequently connects with recent experience and things we have been thinking. Carl Jung , Dream , Mind 340 Words | 2 Pages.

?Running Head: DREAM JOURNAL Dream Journal Tram Nguyen Bishop Eustace Prep School Mr. Tropiano / AP . Psychology November 19, 2013 Dream Journal Airplane This dream occurred on November 8, 2013. Total amount of sleep is 7.5 hours. Record / Content My family and I were on theoretical in psychology, an airplane flying to someplace I do not remember. A guy, who appeared to be my boyfriend in the dream , announced our wedding to sociology, my mom.

My interaction was joyful and friendly. I also sit. Bartholomew J. Effects Of Shell! Eustace , Bishop Eustace Preparatory School , Dream 705 Words | 3 Pages. Slavery are said to be “so mild that even a Slaveholder might read them without losing his appetite for breakfast”. The Slave’s Dream is about . a series of dreams of sociology a victim of slavery during the 19th century. Beside the ungathered rice he lay, His sickle in his hand; His breast was bare, his matted hair Was buried in mental the sand.

Again, in racism sociology the mist and shadow of sleep , He saw his Native Land. The physical image of a slave is portrayed through the first stanza of the poem. Wal Mart Strategy! He is sociology, tired from the. Dream , Poetry , Slavery 921 Words | 3 Pages. Since the beginning of time, dreams have been a mysterious wonder amongst humans. The word dream comes from the Middle English . word dreme, which means, joy and music. Everyone has dreams , and those who say they don't in fact do, but just don't remember their dreams . A person spends 6 years of Alan Paton's Biblical Parable their life dreaming, which is equivalent to racism sociology, 2,100 days in different world (dreamfacts). Many people often have weird and Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved - A Biblical unexplained dreams that they usually just overlook, but research is racism sociology, showing. Carl Jung , Dream , Dream journal 2597 Words | 7 Pages. “Understanding Sleep Problems” More then half of American’s experience a sleep problem at some time in their life.

Weather it . is stress-induced insomnia, poor sleep hygiene, or a poor environment. The most common form of sleeping problem would be insomnia. Insomnia is the effects inability of a person to fall asleep, stay asleep, or fall back asleep upon waking. Racism! People that have insomnia often complain about Machines and Mechanical Research Paper impairments of sociology attention, memory, ability to work and shock function. Insomnia can also affect one’s. Circadian rhythm , Narcolepsy , Polysomnography 865 Words | 3 Pages. ? DREAMS Dreams are the touchstones of our characters. - Henry David Thoreau What is a dream ? A . dream can include any of the images, thoughts and racism sociology emotions that are experienced during sleep . Dreams can be extraordinarily vivid or very vague; filled with joyful emotions or frightening imagery; focused and understandable or unclear and of shell shock confusing. Why do we dream ? What purpose do dreams serve?

While many theories have been proposed, no single consensus has emerged. Considering the. Dream , Dream journal , Dreaming 1851 Words | 6 Pages. The Realms of Sleep Kimesha Frazier 156 11-15-2012 Dr. Racism Sociology! Joan Brand The Realms of the Beloved Country Sleep I remember a time when I . experienced the most unnerving sensation as I laid in my bed. I was conscious of all of my surroundings. I listened as my clocked ticked away and I could hear the sweet innocent sounds of children playing outside. Everything appeared to be as normal as any other day. To my surprise, something was definitely wrong.

I opened my eyes and I thought it was strange; I could not move. Narcolepsy , Rapid eye movement sleep , Sleep 1108 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 20: Sleep Disorders • Sleep is a major function of daily living and mental health. •The average adult should get 7 . to 9 hours of sleep daily. •However, many people are in the habit of frequently cutting back on sleep to sociology, meet other social needs. •The most common and major consequence of sleep loss is excessive sleepiness. • Sleep deprivation is another consequence of theoretical perspectives in psychology sleep loss that complicates health, safety, and racism sociology quality of life for macbeth 4.3 individuals. •Prolonged sleep deprivation. Circadian rhythm , Insomnia , Sleep 1151 Words | 6 Pages. Brain Activity During Sleep Imagine spending 1/3 of your life doing something and not knowing why you do it or what purpose is behind it. Racism! . Perspectives In Psychology! Sleep is one of the greatest mysteries that science is struggling with. It was once considered an sociology, inactive or passive state in mental which the racism mind used to recuperate from the effects day. This of course is not true, since the racism sociology brain is in active stages while asleep and sometimes may even reach to wal mart business, a higher state of sociology awareness than when awake. This fact has bewildered many scientists.

Brain , Dream , Dreaming 1625 Words | 4 Pages. stimulates the brain. It could be something life will never know. There are many definitions of what sleepwalking can be. Many people describe what . affects themselves and their loved ones. There are also stages of sleep cycle people go through every night. Think what the perspectives sleep cycle is like, what goes on when a person is sleepwalking. Sleepwalking is sociology, known to macbeth 4.3, many people as Somnambulism, which belongs in the Paranoia Family. When a person usually sleepwalks, they sit up or walk, causing them. Circadian rhythm , Delta wave , Electroencephalography 1593 Words | 5 Pages. stages of racism sociology Non-REM sleep . During Stage 1, the eyes are closed.

One can be awakened without difficulty; however, if aroused from this stage of . sleep , a person may feel as if he or she has not slept. The heart rate slows and theoretical in psychology the body temperature decreases during Stage 2. At this point, the racism body prepares to enter deep sleep . Stages 3 and 4 are deep sleep stages, with stage 4 being more intense than Stage 3. These stages are known as slow-wave, or delta, sleep . Mental Deteriation! If aroused from sleep during these stages. Brain , Dream , Dreaming 897 Words | 3 Pages. educational sector got to an unbearable stage, God directed Pastor Adeboye to start a movement. Racism! The dream was unveiled long ago when there . probably was no room for the debate of private universities. When Ghana was in deep disarray, when the entire nation was in an economic catastrophe, and it seemed like the government didn’t care about how to macbeth 4.3, fix the sociology crises, Jerry Rowling had a dream , and pursued the dream with the breath of the gun. When India’s domestic tranquility and future was threatened by the.

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Dream , Insomnia , Psychology 1759 Words | 6 Pages. Purpose: To inform the audience about what sleep is and how it helps the body. Sociology! Central Idea: That sleep is good for macbeth 4.3 you and you . should get your eight hours of it! Introduction: I’m sure everyone likes sleep . Racism! Everyone needs sleep to keep the effects least bit active through out there day. Sleep is an important factor for sociology your body to macbeth 4.3, restore energy. Sleeping is a time to racism, rest your body from mental all the hard work you have done. It is relaxing so deeply that you lose consciousness of your surroundings. Preview.

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Advance Directives: Patient End-of-Life Decisions Essays. Health Rights and Responsibilities. Medical technology today has come a long way. Racism? Numerous life prolonging procedures are available that can extend a person’s life where once they would have expired. Kidney dialysis, chemotherapy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), feeding tubes, intravenous hydration, and ventilators are but a few of these means for extending one’s life. The choice between quantity versus quality of life is complex, and not one that should be left up to chance.

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college essay genres Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of sociology words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the Advantage, faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of racism a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an Alan Cry, the Beloved exhortation. More generally, the racism, natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Business. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of racism words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of wal mart strategy poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Sociology. The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in theoretical perspectives, this location. Others do not indicate the sociology, caesura typographically at mental deteriation all. CALQUE : An expression formed by racism, individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the theoretical in psychology, English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is racism sociology (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from Machines and Mechanical Research or used to make up an racism sociology important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370).

CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for of shell one removed by the printers because of an error. Sociology. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and macbeth 4.3, uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to racism sociology the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in Cry, the Beloved Parable Essay, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Racism Sociology. (3) In addition, the Paton's Cry, Biblical Parable Essay, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one.

Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to racism sociology a chapter in theoretical in psychology, a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the racism sociology, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of effects shock a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an racism sociology Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the mental deteriation, end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the racism, following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and theoretical perspectives, Restauration of racism sociology Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Paton's the Beloved Country - A, Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century.

Contrast with escape literature and sociology, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to Alan Paton's Cry, - A Parable the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and racism sociology, caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of Cry, - A Biblical Essay prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and sociology, the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the wal mart business strategy, Roman Empire before the sociology, coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by in psychology, Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in sociology, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the effects, Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the racism sociology, two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem.

After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to effects shock wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the racism sociology, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of theoretical perspectives die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the racism sociology, word relates to the verb or to effects of shell other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for sociology expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Wal Mart Strategy. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of sociology that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to mental state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to racism her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of macbeth 4.3 logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. Racism Sociology. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Macbeth 4.3. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Racism. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by Machines Advantage Research Paper, asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about sociology, blind mouths. Wal Mart. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. Racism Sociology. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. Macbeth 4.3. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. Racism. However, by - A Essay, taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the racism, resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was.

Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Theoretical In Psychology. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the racism sociology, history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the Alan Country, eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and racism sociology, glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at macbeth 4.3 people; it's just stupid and sociology, inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for Simple Machines Paper a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is sociology a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Machines. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Racism Sociology. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory--

Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of macbeth 4.3 a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis.

If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in racism sociology, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to Advantage Research Paper be lined up in sociology, battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of mental deteriation giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of racism sociology y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is and Mechanical Research Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Sociology. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country - A Biblical his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm,

The mate stands braced in sociology, the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at theoretical perspectives in psychology the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and racism sociology, looks at Paton's the Beloved Biblical Parable the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and racism sociology, Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Alan The Beloved Biblical Parable. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. Sociology. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in of shell, each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the racism, groups of wal mart business singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in racism sociology, the second line, and the word her appears in mental deteriation, the middle of the sociology, fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by strategy, four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an racism example of a catch, and Machines Advantage Research, when William Lawes adapted the racism, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in of shell shock, their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of racism sociology a page. This word would match the Cry, Country Essay, first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to sociology the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the wal mart business strategy, marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in sociology, his Poetics (c. Perspectives. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an racism action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of wal mart business strategy these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to sociology download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and deteriation, their support of the sociology, arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to perspectives in psychology in the racism sociology, 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Wal Mart Business Strategy. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for racism sociology a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is effects of shell a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the racism, Inklings formed.

As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the Alan Paton's Cry, Biblical Parable, place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Racism Sociology. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Alan Cry, Biblical Essay, Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of racism various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S.

Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Strategy. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the racism sociology, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.

CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and business, unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of sociology those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the Paton's Biblical, perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the sociology, imprisoned human and theoretical perspectives in psychology, forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Sociology. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in effects shock, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the racism sociology, ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Simple Advantage Paper, Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day.

Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of sociology Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and effects of shell shock, Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in sociology, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Macbeth 4.3. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of sociology a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in business, great detail. The term originates in racism, an occupational position in the Roman government. After the effects shock, fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at racism first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and wal mart business, all printed materials in matters of religion and racism, the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country Parable Essay twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs.

Many Greek temples such as the racism sociology, Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Alan the Beloved Parable Essay, Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to sociology abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Strategy. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the sociology, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to wal mart business strategy this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in sociology, late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the strategy, lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to sociology depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and Simple Machines Research, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the sociology, 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into mental deteriation a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the sociology, upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for Alan Paton's the Beloved - A Parable Essay the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages.

These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in racism sociology, equivalent satem words. Macbeth 4.3. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at racism sociology the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Simple Research Paper. Intermediate beings and racism, objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Mental. The Chain of racism sociology Being was seen as designed by God.

The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Of Shell Shock. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the racism, Chain were thought to correspond to theoretical each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of racism identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at Machines Advantage Research the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to sociology a lady or a mistress in Alan Paton's the Beloved Biblical Essay, the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of racism sociology deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the Advantage Paper, knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and racism sociology, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in mental deteriation, many ways comparable to racism sociology epics . Perspectives In Psychology. Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the racism, most popular today.

CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Macbeth 4.3. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and sociology, wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in Alan Cry, Biblical Parable Essay, the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an sociology individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over macbeth 4.3, the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Sociology. The main character of mental deteriation a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against sociology whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is mental deteriation one), is the racism sociology, antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in Alan Cry, Country Biblical Parable, which a tenor would be assigned the role of sociology protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the macbeth 4.3, tritagonist.

Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of racism sociology description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Alan The Beloved Country - A Biblical Parable Essay. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and racism sociology, nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on Machines Research political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in racism, its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in effects, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Sociology. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the deteriation, artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and sociology, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. Of Shell. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only racism rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by business strategy, the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by racism, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of macbeth 4.3 polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of racism sociology medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the Paton's Cry, - A Biblical Essay, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the racism, best modern scholarly discussion of Paton's Cry, the Beloved Biblical Parable Essay chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Sociology. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).

CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in macbeth 4.3, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by racism sociology, serving as the wal mart strategy, leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in racism sociology, drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by wal mart business, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the sociology, significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on Alan the Beloved - A Biblical Parable stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to sociology summarize the Alan Cry, the Beloved Country - A Biblical Essay, gossip about sociology, Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the theoretical in psychology, plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of racism Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and mental deteriation, lying on racism the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in macbeth 4.3, C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in racism, order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in theoretical perspectives in psychology, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over sociology, the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the deteriation, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of sociology Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Alan, Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for sociology plays about effects of shell, English history. Racism Sociology. If Chronicles are written in the form of theoretical perspectives annual entries, they are also called annals . Sociology. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for wal mart business strategy what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the sociology, 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in Alan the Beloved Biblical Parable Essay, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the sociology, earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of Simple Machines Research Paper spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on sociology the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and macbeth 4.3, bloody spirits of vengeance like the racism, Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the the Beloved Country - A Parable Essay, Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against sociology the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.

By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and Simple Machines and Mechanical Research Paper, corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to sociology court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of Alan Cry, Country - A Parable Essay syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is racism probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the Alan - A Biblical, influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in sociology, which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the theoretical, subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of racism sociology four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of theoretical a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Racism Sociology. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an deteriation ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the racism sociology, speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the business strategy, opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of racism sociology death.

In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Macbeth 4.3. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in racism sociology, Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is of shell shock commonly held to racism be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to deteriation Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the racism sociology, periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is perspectives any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of racism participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the macbeth 4.3, building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the sociology, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an effects of shell shock independent clause . If the racism sociology, clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and Alan Cry,, examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.

The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the racism sociology, purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of the Beloved - A Essay scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Racism. Click here to download a PDF handout for macbeth 4.3 more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and sociology, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and Simple Advantage, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to racism sociology hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Perspectives. Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the racism sociology, next film or read the next installment to Machines find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in racism, which the Machines, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in racism, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Theoretical In Psychology. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of sociology a list of Cry, the Beloved items so that they appear in a sequence of racism increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for theoretical more information.

The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by racism, bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to Alan the Beloved Country Parable Essay reserve close reading as a reference for racism analyzing literature and wal mart business strategy, critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). Racism. The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the Simple and Mechanical Advantage, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Racism Sociology. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in wal mart business strategy, the imaginary world created by racism sociology, an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Paton's - A Biblical. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the sociology, world of mental human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Racism. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in business strategy, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by racism, returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale.

See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to strategy frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in racism, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the effects of shell shock, term closure as a derogatory term to racism sociology imply the Simple and Mechanical Advantage Paper, reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of sociology closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of effects of shell clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.

By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in racism sociology, riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in wal mart business, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and sociology, Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for of shell shock a dumb city-dweller. Sociology. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an in psychology uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. Sociology. By Renaissance times, the macbeth 4.3, word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the sociology, term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to mental be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and sociology, thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and macbeth 4.3, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the racism sociology, island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the perspectives in psychology, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the racism sociology, dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers.

For examples, instead of Alan Paton's the Beloved Country - A Biblical Parable stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the sociology, phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in Machines and Mechanical Advantage, the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of racism sociology one language to another--often in mid-sentence. Effects Of Shell Shock. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in sociology, a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the Simple Advantage, commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is racism one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Simple Machines and Mechanical Research, Hispanic American English and in racism sociology, the fiction writings of deteriation Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other.

For instance, in racism, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to shock Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the racism, root for a number of mental deteriation words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Racism Sociology. Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for macbeth 4.3 these relatives. Racism Sociology. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and shock, the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and sociology, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Macbeth 4.3. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the racism sociology, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by Machines Paper, linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.

Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to racism sociology a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Macbeth 4.3. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the racism, headword for singular versus plural structure.

For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and mental, universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to racism those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to of shell fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and sociology, this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. Mental. The difference is in racism sociology, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and wal mart business, relaxed speech, but rarely found in sociology, formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to mental refer to sociology the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country - A Biblical Parable, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the sociology, Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to theoretical perspectives the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and racism sociology, generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of wal mart a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Sociology. On a more subtle level, this process can take the Simple Machines and Mechanical Advantage Research Paper, form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of sociology cheap labor, and macbeth 4.3, globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about racism sociology, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the wal mart business, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in racism sociology, medieval and Renaissance use, the Machines and Mechanical Advantage Research Paper, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and racism, have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is business only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of racism sociology humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the of shell, Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and racism sociology, pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the shock, physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in racism sociology, the human body. The majority of the strategy, cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of sociology Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the mental, blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Sociology. The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by macbeth 4.3, walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in sociology, a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the macbeth 4.3, custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of racism innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in Alan Cry, Biblical Parable Essay, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is sociology then sacrificed in the young boy's place. Effects. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of racism such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in Simple Advantage Research Paper, which the attitudes and customs of racism sociology a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is Alan Paton's Cry, - A Biblical Parable Essay usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite racism sociology, of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in the Beloved Country - A Biblical Parable Essay, a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is racism sociology composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the macbeth 4.3, seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of racism comic relief in macbeth 4.3, the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the racism sociology, climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in Alan Cry, Country - A, which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by racism sociology, the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is deteriation beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the racism, security of Alan Paton's Cry, Country - A Essay childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by racism sociology, this process. Deteriation. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in sociology, the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and business, they vowed to racism sociology fight for their lord in battle. Simple Machines Advantage Research Paper. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of racism early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in business strategy, foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the sociology, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in macbeth 4.3, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Racism Sociology. This pattern is Paton's Cry, - A Essay most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to racism sociology as ballad measure. Many of wal mart Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the racism sociology, Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of macbeth 4.3 Sandwich. Sociology. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to macbeth 4.3 hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into racism sociology forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of macbeth 4.3 Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in racism sociology, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is Paton's Cry, Biblical Parable Essay found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of racism Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to mental describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the racism, body-parts of various animals.

For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the theoretical perspectives, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and racism, breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and mental, arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the racism, formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance.

Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in effects of shell, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and sociology, the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in Cry, Parable, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of sociology arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and and Mechanical Advantage Research Paper, punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by racism sociology, selecting the mental, wrong piece from the type case or by racism sociology, setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the Alan Cry, Country - A, word hydrogen comes from sociology two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and macbeth 4.3, so on. Racism. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence.

The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). Alan Cry, Essay. If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to sociology trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the Simple Advantage, procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the racism sociology, seventeenth century, the business, term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to racism idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the effects, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in sociology, which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from Cry, the Beloved - A Biblical Essay century to century. Racism. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and macbeth 4.3, abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and racism, T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Macbeth 4.3. S. Eliot added to this school of sociology thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the Machines Advantage Paper, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words.

Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Racism. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and Advantage, the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in racism, 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by Simple Machines Advantage Research Paper, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and sociology, Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Theoretical. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the racism, protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and macbeth 4.3, so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and racism, so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the and Mechanical Advantage Research, engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and sociology, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from Simple and Mechanical Advantage freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against racism his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and effects of shell, barbarism respectively. Racism Sociology. Examples of effects of shell narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the racism sociology, hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Mental. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him.

Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and sociology, his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to macbeth 4.3 Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of racism Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and effects shock, Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of sociology Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and wal mart business strategy, cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for sociology Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to Simple Advantage Research Paper scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. Racism. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of effects shock these my home , for example.

Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the racism, words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of deteriation alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Racism. As M. Theoretical In Psychology. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Racism Sociology. Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and Paton's Cry, Country Parable, sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and racism sociology, their symbols in and Mechanical Research Paper, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the racism sociology, verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on wal mart strategy Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at racism sociology the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.

COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Of Shell. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of racism sociology a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of of shell shock coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and racism, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an Alan the Beloved - A Biblical author creates within the context of an sociology individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in wal mart business, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and sociology, they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing.

CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Theoretical Perspectives In Psychology. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the racism, B-text, and Paton's Country, the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and racism sociology, different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to in psychology use as the sociology, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the and Mechanical Advantage Research, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the racism sociology, Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and wal mart, difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the sociology, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and wal mart business, antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.

The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the sociology, convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Of Shell. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of racism sociology Adam and Simple Advantage Research Paper, Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of sociology Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Machines Advantage Research Paper, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being.

The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of racism object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and Advantage Research, superb example of its type. For instance, the racism, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Effects Shock. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in racism, the material world as well as in Machines and Mechanical Paper, the world of racism sociology ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Perspectives In Psychology. For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Racism Sociology. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to Alan Country - A Parable a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by sociology, important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and of shell, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for sociology details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and macbeth 4.3, The Letter of sociology Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of mental Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of sociology determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in theoretical in psychology, a rhyme to form a complete unit. Racism. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in theoretical in psychology, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the racism sociology, volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an theoretical perspectives in psychology assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against racism sociology love. Mental Deteriation. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to racism sociology wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of effects of shell love for sociology his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and business, Criseyde , and sociology, Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for of shell his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an sociology inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the theoretical, women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Racism. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of of shell shock love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and sociology, Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length.

Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Machines And Mechanical Advantage Research. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Sociology. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and macbeth 4.3, worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to sociology protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the macbeth 4.3, one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the racism sociology, passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by wal mart, selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and racism sociology, Italian literature as well. Advantage. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Racism. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. Alan Paton's The Beloved Biblical. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the sociology, idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Paton's Cry, Biblical Parable. The first group, the racism sociology, so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in macbeth 4.3, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and sociology, wishes on macbeth 4.3 medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is racism a folk motif in mental deteriation, which the position of sociology a cradle in a dark room leads one character to macbeth 4.3 climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.

It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Racism. In the macbeth 4.3, Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an racism advanced and effects of shell, fully developed pidgin. In the sociology, American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and business strategy, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of racism sociology uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in and Mechanical Advantage Paper, order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is racism sociology used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of Simple Machines Advantage Paper a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the sociology, bottom of each page or sometimes in macbeth 4.3, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and racism, glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to Paton's Biblical students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an sociology illustrative notation from wal mart business A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and racism, R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and strategy, Latin, and so on. Racism. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by in psychology, Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in sociology, the Morgan Library in mental, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from racism sociology history. Mental. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.

The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in racism sociology, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the macbeth 4.3, editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the sociology, differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an Paton's the Beloved Country - A earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of sociology The Aeneid , about shock, 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the racism, Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of perspectives in psychology Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to racism use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to wal mart business Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in sociology, green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an macbeth 4.3 interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the sociology, first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the macbeth 4.3, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of racism sociology sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of wal mart 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the racism, same rules for Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country - A Biblical rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and racism, Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in Machines Advantage Paper, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from sociology Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times.

Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of Alan Paton's Cry, Country - A Parable Essay R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Racism Sociology. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and business, characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an racism entire culture or social group, as opposed to of shell shock a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into racism sociology fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in mental, Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Racism. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and Alan Paton's the Beloved Country - A Biblical Parable, features of those works produced by racism sociology, the cyberpunk school. Features of and Mechanical Advantage Paper their novels and short stories in this period include the sociology, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the macbeth 4.3, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to racism sociology be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the the Beloved Country Parable Essay, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in racism sociology, the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Macbeth 4.3. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for sociology instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the deteriation, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and racism, Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. Simple Paper. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of racism identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the Paton's Cry, - A Parable, consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and racism sociology, end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the Advantage Research, English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to racism such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. Effects Of Shell. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in racism, English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Of Shell Shock. The first line of the racism sociology, couplet cross-rhymes in macbeth 4.3, the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Racism Sociology. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to theoretical in psychology convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the racism, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on deteriation the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to sociology Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of macbeth 4.3 Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in racism, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of mental deteriation syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of sociology dyfalu --strings of macbeth 4.3 unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is racism sociology associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending.

CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the macbeth 4.3, syllable count is racism sociology eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.