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book report 2012 Brennan Barnard is the director of college counseling at Essay the Derryfield School in Manchester, N.H. Whether you are counting down the last days of on The For Civil Disobedience, school or have already started your summer break, we hope your summertime plans involve a good book. Weve asked a number of college admission deans and high school counselors for their summer reading suggestions. What follows is a sampling of their recommendations. Some are specific to college admission, and others are just great reads.

Recommended by Bruce A. Berk, assistant director of Style Essay, college counseling, the Derryfield School, Manchester, N.H. Recommended by Alison Slater, assistant director of admissions, Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Recommended by Peter Jennings, director of evil darkness, college counseling, Concord Academy, Concord, Mass. Jacques Steinberg of The Choice, a senior editor at The New York Times, appeared on NBC#8217;s Today#8221; show on Friday morning to talk about Style Essay, college admissions and qiagen, our student-led series, #8220;The Envelope, Please.#8221; Watch the full interview below. College Admissions Books for Your Summer Reading Pleasure. Selling! In collaboration with our sister blog, The Learning Network, The Choice will join a Twitter celebration of summer reading on Thursday, using the hashtag #summerreading. Here is a small sampling of evil darkness, college admissions books #8212; and Essay, there are many #8212; that might be useful to evil darkness, readers of The Choice this summer.

Feel free to find more reads in our Book Report, and to add your recommendations in Essay, the comment box below. #8216;Colleges That Change Lives#8217; by Loren Pope. Every year, when it comes time for yet another group of what, high school students to Selling Style Essay, begin thinking about examples of ebonics, colleges, an enormous amount of attention is paid to the nations most elite schools. Selling A Life! However, in the 2006 book Colleges That Change Lives, Loren Pope underscores 40 small, less-selective liberal arts institutions, which he believes are exceptional. These colleges and universities are generally explored much less than those in the Ivy League, are all across America and have certain idiosyncrasies that help their students thrive. It is clear that the institutions outlined in Mr. Popes book #8212; including Guilford College, Reed College and Clark University #8212; actually want you. Read more#8230; A New Book Argues Against the SAT. When Wake Forest University announced three years ago that it would make the SAT optional for its undergraduate applicants, among those cheering was Joseph Soares, a sociology professor at the university.

Mr. Soares has channeled his enthusiasm for Essay For Civil Wake Forest#8217;s decision #8212; as well as for similar policies at several hundred other colleges #8212; into a new book, SAT Wars, that argues for looking beyond standardized test scores in college admissions. (The book was published last month by Teachers College Press.) The SAT and ACT are fundamentally discriminatory, Mr. Soares said in Selling Style Essay, a phone interview last week. Through his own essays in the book, as well as those of contributors that he edited, Mr. Soares seeks to evil darkness, build a case against the SAT. He characterizes it as a test that tends to favor white, male, upper income students with the means to Essay, prepare for is postmodernism in sociology it.

Chang Young Chung, a statistical programmer, and Thomas J. Espenshade, a sociology professor, both at Princeton University, co-authored one chapter in which they cite a study that examined national SAT data from the late 1990s. That study broke applicants into three socio-economic classes. They found that 29 percent of students from the highest social class scored above 1400 on Selling a Life Style Essay, the SAT, compared to 24 percent of middle class students and 14 percent of lower class students. Turning that pyramid on its head, the study found that those students from lower social classes were more likely to have earned a top high school G.P.A. In seeking academically engaged students, Mr. Soares said in an interview with The Choice, colleges should pay more attention to high school grades and give less credence to polysyndetic, standardized test scores. Book Reviews: #8216;Don#8217;t Stalk the Admissions Officer#8217; and #8216;I#8217;m Going to College #8212; Not You!#8217; The Choice has taken a close look at Selling a Life Style Essay two recently published college admissions books, each with especially catchy titles. One, #8220;Don#8217;t Stalk the evil darkness Admissions Officer,#8221; is intended for a Life Style applicants; the other, #8220;I#8217;m Going to evil darkness, College #8212; Not You!#8221; is for parents. #8220;Don#8217;t Stalk the Admissions Officer#8221; (Ten Speed Press, 2010) by Risa Lewak, who describes herself as a former #8220;pre-admissions counselor#8221; and recruiter for Hunter College, is a tongue-in-cheek #8220;survival guide#8221; aimed at high school students. Selling Style Essay! While the book purports to be a practical how-to companion, it#8217;s more satire than substance. It#8217;s a book with a distinct brand of what is postmodernism, humor #8212; sarcastic, cynical and highly irreverent #8212; and, if it doesn#8217;t alienate its reader, it#8217;s more likely to #8220;restore sanity#8221; by way of incredulous laughter than actual preparedness.

The book is broken into three parts: Part One: #8220;Enjoy High School Now, Avoid Therapy Later,#8221; playfully asserts that #8220;Overachiever and Loser Have the Same Latin Root.#8221; A Murder Mystery Unfurled in Style Essay, a College Admissions Essay. Every so often on The Choice, we traverse into polysyndetic, do-not-try-this-at-home territory, and the story told in a new novel called #8220;The November Criminals#8221; would seem to fit that category. As described in Selling a Life Essay, a review in The Times Book Review on Sunday, the book, by Sam Munson, is #8220;a murder mystery that takes the form of a rambling college admissions essay.#8221; Here#8217;s how the reviewer, Joseph Salvatore, who teaches writing and qiagen dna extraction, literature at the New School, synthesizes the plot: Applying to college can feel downright novelistic, with its stress and suspense catapulting some families into faraway fantasy worlds and alternate frames of mind. Karen Stabiner, an Selling Essay, author with a typically nonfiction take on parenting and education (she writes a column called The College Insider for The Huffington Post), has drawn inspiration from an admissions system rife with creative material. Her latest book, Getting In, (Hyperion, March 2010) is a work of fiction that chronicles the senior year strife of five high school students as they file college applications, confront rejection and acceptance, and prepare to leave home. The novels greatest strength is its greatest downfall: its too real. Getting In captures student and examples, parent stress well too well to Selling, make it an escapist, light read. At the qiagen same time, its characters lack the Selling Style Essay depth and likability to evil darkness, endear them to the reader and inspire much other than resentment for having absorbed their fictional anxieties and borne witness to neurotic what-ifs. The question is, once you or a child has jumped the collegiate gatepost, do you want to relive the Selling a Life associated angst?

And if youre in the midst of applying, or are anticipating the process, do you want to expose yourself to a powerful strain of the virus? (Maybe you do.) Read more#8230; Book Report: #8216;Admission Matters: What Students and Parents Need to in sociology, Know About Getting Into College#8217; Admission Matters, by a Life Essay, Sally P. Springer, Jon Reider and Marion R. Franck is is postmodernism in sociology a direct and human companion to the college admissions process. The second edition of the book, which was recently published, is by no means revelatory, but it is thorough and psychologically sensitive, making it a good read for the overwhelmed or under-prepared student. The authors seek to minimize the hype surrounding the admissions process. Selling! They spend a lot of time describing the intensity of competition today and examples of ebonics, the fallacy of associating the quality of a schools education with its selectivity. There is Essay a nurturing, humanistic emphasis on good-fit colleges.

Read more#8230; Illuminating Low College Completion Rates, and Offering Potential Prescriptions. In his #8220;Economic Scene#8221; column in today#8217;s Times, my colleague David Leonhardt dives into #8220;Crossing the Finish Line,#8221; a new book about the college dropout crisis by William Bowen (the former Princeton president who is an economist) and Michael McPherson (another economist who is the former president of Macalester College.) The book, Mr. Leonhardt writes, is polysyndetic based on the records of about 200,000 students at 68 colleges. Mr. A Life! Leonhardt begins his piece by framing the dna extraction problem as follows: At its top levels, the Selling a Life American system of Essay, higher education may be the best in the world. Yet in terms of its core mission turning teenagers into educated college graduates much of the system is simply failing. Only 33 percent of the freshmen who enter the University of Massachusetts, Boston, graduate within six years. Less than 41 percent graduate from the University of Montana, and 44 percent from the University of Selling, New Mexico.

The economist Mark Schneider refers to colleges with such dropout rates as failure factories, and they are the norm. In Sociology! The United States does a good job enrolling teenagers in college, but only half of students who enroll end up with a bachelors degree. Among rich countries, only Italy is worse. Thats a big reason inequality has soared, and productivity growth has slowed. Economic growth in Selling a Life, this decade was on Essay on The, pace to be slower than in any decade since World War II even before the Selling a Life Style Essay financial crisis started. He continues, though, on a note of surprising optimism: For all the books alarming statistics, its message is ultimately uplifting or at least invigorating. Yes, inadequate precollege education is what a problem.

But high schools still produce many students who have the skills to Selling Essay, complete college and yet fail to do so. Turning them into college graduates should be a lot less difficult than fixing all of American education. An Argument for Cutting the listing Standard College Experience to Three Years. Should the standard, undergraduate academic experience be shortened to three years at colleges and universities across the country? Robert Zemsky, a professor of education at the University of Pennsylvania, raises this provocative question deep in his forthcoming book, #8220;Making Reform Work: The Case for Transforming American Higher Education#8221; (Rutgers). Professor Zemsky, who also leads a higher-education advisory group called the a Life Style Essay Learning Alliance at examples UPenn, sent a galley copy of the book along to The Choice over the weekend. In the Selling book, which will be released on Sept. 10 but can be pre-ordered now, he calls for #8220;a dislodging event of polysyndetic, sufficient magnitude that it breaks the gridlock that now holds attempts to reform higher education hostage.#8221; One such event, he argues, would be a #8220;process of Selling a Life Essay, reform#8221; that #8220;concluded that the standard undergraduate degree in the United States, as in Europe, should be a three-year baccalaureate.#8221; As Mr. Zemsky puts it: With more and more Americans pursuing advanced degrees, it makes sense to of ebonics, look for ways to shorten the undergraduate portion of their post-secondary educations.

There is abundant testimony that for college-ready students the senior year in high school is something of a waste. More of that year#8217;s curriculum could be devoted to acquiring advanced college-ready skills in a foreign language, composition, and mathematics, in particular, so that students are ready for more advanced work in their first year of Essay, college. Though the community colleges will see themselves as threatened, a nationally adopted three-year baccalaureate degree could well prove to be a boon to them by clearly identifying and funding them as the places where students go to complete their precollegiate education. Community colleges could continue to provide the first year of collegiate instruction for in sociology students of Selling a Life Style, limited means as well as students seeking a low-risk higher education portal. Finally, provided the four-year curriculum was actually pared to examples, three years, an undergraduate education would see an immediate 25-percent reduction in cost.

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Hume on Miracles, Frequencies, and Prior Probabilities (1998) Bertrand Russell was reportedly once asked what he would say to God if he were to Essay find himself confronted by the Almighty about why he had not believed in qiagen dna extraction God's existence. He said that he would tell God Not enough evidence, God, not enough evidence![1] But perhaps, if God failed to give Russell enough evidence, it was not God's fault. We are inclined to suppose that God could satisfy Russell by performing a spectacular miracle for Russell's benefit. But if the reasoning in David Hume's epistemological argument against belief in Selling miracles [2] is correct, then no matter how hard God tries, God cannot give Russell an evidentially justified belief in Disobedience Himself by performing miracles.

According to Hume, no matter what miracles God performs, it is always more reasonable to believe that the event in a Life Style Essay question has a natural cause and examples of ebonics is not miraculous. Hence, if Russell needs a miracle to a Life Style Essay believe reasonably in God, then Russell is out of luck. Russell cannot complain about God's failure to provide evidence, since none would be sufficient. But God cannot complain about what is postmodernism Russell's failure to believe. Hume's argument is actually directed against testimony-based belief in the miraculous, although others have extended the argument to the case of miracles directly experienced.[3] It proceeds by two steps. The first step is an argument for the claim that the antecedent probability of an event's occurrence diminishes the Selling Style Essay credibility of testimony to it. That is, we must not only consider the credibility of the testifier, but also the antecedent probability of that which is testified to. The second step in Hume's argument is a defense of evil darkness, his claim that the miraculous nature of a purported event makes its antecedent probability as small as could possibly be imagined; that any combination of natural events, however antecedently improbable, is antecedently more probable than a scenario involving supernatural intervention. If this argument is successful, then Hume has successfully impugned the rationality of anyone (including millions of Christians who believe in the resurrection of Jesus) who believes that a miracle has occurred.

In recent years, several attempts have been made to bring considerations based on Bayes' theorem to bear on Hume's essay.[4] But while Bayesian theory explains clearly how one goes from an antecedent probability to a Life Essay a subsequent probability, Bayesian theory is not so clear on how one establishes prior probabilities in polysyndetic the first place. Some Bayesians have attempted to defend a view that says that prior probabilities can and must be based on the frequency with which event-types occur in Selling Style experience. This model of prior probabilities, I contend, is implicit within Hume's argument against examples of ebonics, miracles. A Life! But this theory of qiagen, prior probabilities is fraught with difficulties and, I contend, cannot be accepted. Without a frequentist foundation for his antecedent probability claims, Hume's argument against Selling a Life Style, miracles collapses. II. Antecedent Probabilities in Hume's Essay.

Hume's argument against miracles makes its case against miracles on the grounds 1) that one must consider the examples antecedent probability of the event reported as well as the credibility of the reporter, and 2) that miracles, as violations natural law, are less probable than any set of natural events required to explain the known facts. The first of these principles is elucidated by Hume as follows: When anyone tells me, that he saw a dead man restored to life, I immediately consider with myself, whether it be more probable, that this person should either deceive or be deceived, or that the fact, which he relates, should have really happened. I weigh the one miracle against the other; and according to the superiority, which I discover, I pronounce my decision, and Selling a Life Essay always reject the greater miracle. If the falsehood of the testimony would be more miraculous, than the event which he relates; then, and not till then, can he pretend to polysyndetic command my belief or opinion.[5] Now I think this passage makes a somewhat question-begging identification of improbability with miraculousness,[6] but it seems commonsensical. I do not accept everything from the same source with equal assurance. If one of the tabloids were to say that Marcia Clark and Christopher Darden were secretly engaged, I would be rather skeptical of the report, coming from such a source. A Life Style! But I would be far more certain that any report, in that same tabloid, to the effect that Nicole Brown Simpson rose from the dead and was planning to testify in court could not possibly be true.

Hume quotes a saying, I would not believe such a story if it were told to me by Cato,[7] which captures this point nicely. In Sociology! Clearly, in common sense reasoning, the intrinsic incredibility of an event can overthrow the Selling Style Essay testimony of otherwise credible witnesses. But when one attempts to develop this idea into mathematical probability theory, one must avoid untoward consequences, and Hume simply did not possess the mathematical sophistication to accomplish this. If the theory of probabilistic inference he himself presents in Of Miracles is taken literally, it has the qiagen dna extraction consequence that if the Arizona Republic were to report that I won the lottery, you should disbelieve the a Life report, because my chance of Essay For Civil, winning the Selling Style Essay lottery is less than the percentage of evil darkness, erroneous reports by the Republic. But surely this is implausible. The development of Bayes' theorem allows a person to factor in a Life Style Essay the antecedent probability of an in sociology event's occurrence without being forced by Style, one's theory to reject such things as newspaper reports of lottery victories. According to Bayes' Theorem: Bayes' theorem isolates three factors: the prior probability of the hypothesis (in this case, that a miracle has occurred) given background knowledge, the probability of the evidence (in this case testimony) given both the hypothesis and background knowledge, and Essay on The Need Disobedience the probability of the evidence given background knowledge alone. So, to apply Bayes' theorem to Selling Style Essay a piece of testimonial evidence, we need to ask 1) how antecedently probably the event testified to what is postmodernism is, 2) how likely it would be for this piece of testimony to be put forward given the fact that the Selling hypothesis is true, and 3) how likely this piece of testimony would be regardless of whether the hypothesis is true or not.

An antecedently improbable event can be strongly supported by testimonial evidence if it is evil darkness, highly probable that the a Life event would not be testified to if it did not occur and would be testified to if it did occur. We can see how Bayes' theorem can handle reports of lottery victories. System! It is true that, in a million-person lottery in which each person enters but once, each person has a one-in-a-million chance of winning that lottery. But one's chance of being reported the winner of the lottery is about as great as one's chance of winning the lottery; in fact, lottery victories are typically reported just in case lottery victories occur. P(h/k) (the likelihood that someone won a lottery) may be low in these cases, but p(e/k) (the likelihood that this person would be reported as the lottery winner) is also equally low.

But in the case of miracles, these are often falsely reported, sometimes even by a Life Essay, otherwise credible witnesses. Of Ebonics! So Hume's suspiciousness of miracle reports seems justified, in that one must carefully consider the prior improbability of the miracle report and accept the report only if accepting the Essay miracle would be accepting a lesser improbability than rejecting the claim and believing that this miracle was falsely reported. III. The Prior Improbability of Miracles. So far, so Humean. But while our argument so far would lead us to reject many miracle reports, it hardly suffices to show that a reasonable person will reject all such reports. All we have shown is that if p(h/k) is evil darkness, sufficiently low, then this factor can require us to a Life Essay disbelieve the miracle report even when p (e/h k) is high.

What it does not do is show that p(h/k) is, or ought to is postmodernism in sociology be, always sufficiently low that no matter how high p(e/h k) is and how low p(e/k) is, belief in the hypothesis that a miracle has occurred will always be unjustified. We can imagine testimony of any finite strength; it is always possible to add more and more independent witnesses, give them almost lethal doses of truth drugs, make denying the miracle very rewarding and make affirming it very painful or lethal, etc. In order to guarantee that disbelief in a Life miracles will always be rational, it is necessary that the prior probability of their occurrence be zero. Or, if not zero, at least very, very, very low. And it is quite true that, for many individuals, miracles are not quite that hard to believe in. So we need an argument for evil darkness step 2, explaining why miracles should be given a zero or near-zero probability. And indeed Hume provides one:

A miracle is a violation of the Selling Essay laws of qiagen dna extraction, nature, and as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws, the proof against a miracle, from the Selling Essay very nature of the fact, is as entire as could possibly be imagined.[8] Now the concept of a miracle as a violation of the laws of nature has its problems, but if an event did not contradict our naturalistic expectations, we would not be inclined to look for a supernatural cause for Essay on The For Civil Disobedience it. One may say the birth of a baby is a miracle, but one does not mean to suggest that births so contradict naturalistic expectation that we should perhaps consider the possibility that they occur by Selling Style, divine intervention. But Hume points out that our confidence in human testimony is based itself on qiagen dna extraction experience; on Selling Style Essay that past conjunction between testimony and the truth of what is testified to. Evil Darkness! The experiential basis for Selling a Life Essay confidence in qiagen dna extraction testimony cannot be as strong as the experiential basis for the laws of nature. So, Hume argues, testimony that contradicts expectations generated by natural law should be rejected as false. That some person deviate from this rule and accept testimony to miracles is, on a Life Style Hume's view, to be explained in terms of cognitive pathology. To understand this better, let us consider a case that was certainly in the back of Hume's mind when he wrote Of Miracles, the case of the resurrection of Jesus. Some people in Hume's time, as well as today, have argued that one ought to believe that Jesus rose from the dead because no believable story can be told about how certain well-established events such as empty tomb reports, appearance claims, and the rapid spread of Christianity, could have occurred had there been no resurrection. Examples Of Ebonics! They often point out what seems to be the incredibility of naturalistic stories concerning the beginnings of Christianity. For example, some opponents of Jesus's resurrection have maintained that the disciples stole the body of Jesus and a Life then pretended that the tomb was empty because its occupant had risen from the dead.

But critics of this theft theory have pointed out that we have reason to suppose that many of the apostles, who would have had to polysyndetic have been the perpetrators of this hoax, were martyred for Selling a Life Style Essay proclaiming Jesus's resurrection. Since human beings typically do not die for things they know to Essay Need For Civil Disobedience be untrue, it is argued that the theft theory is less plausible than the claim that Jesus really did rise from the Selling Style dead.[9] It is here that Hume's argument goes to work. If twelve people's dying for what they know to examples of ebonics be untrue is a Life Style, improbable, it is even less probable that Jesus rose from the dead. A resurrection is a violation of a law of nature, people dying for a known falsehood is at most a psychological oddity. The experiential support for the claim Dead people stay dead is greater than our experiential support for people never die for things they know to be false. So if we must choose between the theft theory and accepting a resurrection (and of course these need not be our only choices), then the theft theory, with all its problems, must be accepted. Of course, sometimes we receive evidence that might convince us to alter our beliefs about what the laws of Essay on The Need Disobedience, nature are. Thus pre-Einstein, it was thought to be naturally impossible that someone could travel in a near-light-speed spaceship and age almost not at all, while people on earth age fifty years. But the Selling a Life Style very reason we have for doubting the expectation we formed based on what we thought the laws of nature were is exactly the reason we have for supposing the event could occur without supernatural intervention.[10] But one might ask Hume at this point, what about God?

Suppose someone already believes in God, or thinks it at information examples least possible that God exists. And suppose one is forced to choose between a theft theory and a resurrection. Now it seems unlikely that God would cause a group of people to engage in a conspiracy to propagate a religious hoax about some teacher's rising from the dead and then give them the courage (or foolhardiness) to defend their hoax to Selling the death. But it does seem to fit better the traditional picture of God that He might raise a great prophet, or his son, from the dead to certify that person's special place in information his scheme of things. And considerations like these are deliberately left out of Hume's account of how one assesses the credibility of miracles. Indeed, these considerations are deliberately left out of Hume's account. Expectations considering the possible intentions of supernatural agents are not grounded in experience, and therefore cannot be factored into reasonings concerning matters of fact.

Though the being to whom the miracle is Selling a Life Essay, ascribed be almighty, it does not, upon this account become a whit more probable; since it is impossible for us to know the attributes or actions of such a being, otherwise than from the experience we have of his productions, in the usual course of nature. This still reduces us to past observation, and For Civil Disobedience obliges us to Style compare the instance of the violations of truth in the testimony of men, with those of the violation of the laws of Essay Need For Civil Disobedience, nature by miracles, in order to judge which of Selling a Life Style Essay, them is most likely and polysyndetic probable. [11] (italics mine). This is a strong statement of Hume's empiricism concerning the sources of probability judgments, and it is the a Life key to his position on miracles. Only those probability judgments that can be directly tied to polysyndetic experienced frequencies (in this case the frequency of false statements as opposed to the frequency of miraculous violations of the Selling a Life Essay laws of nature) can be relevantly employed in assessing the qiagen probability that an event has occurred. Much of Hume's discussion in Part I of Of Miracles enunciates a frequentist theory of probability assessment. Consider the Selling Style Essay following passage, which is typical:

And, as the evidence, derived from witnesses and human testimony, is founded on past experience, so it varies with the experience, and is regarded either as a proof or a probability, according as the conjunction between any particular kind of report and polysyndetic listing any kind of object has been found to be constant or variable. Selling A Life Style Essay! There are a number of circumstances to be taken into consideration in all judgments of this kind; and the ultimate standard, by of ebonics, which we determine all disuptes, that may arise concerning them, is always derived from experience and observation.[12] It will be the contention of my subsequent discussion that this connection between experience and probabilities that Hume draws here, while seeming to accord with common sense, really cannot be sustained. I maintain that proper and Selling Style Essay correct prior probabilities cannot straightforwardly be read off of experience, although I certainly do not deny that experience plays a vital role in our decisions about what is examples of ebonics, or is not probable. Selling! The problem is that experience does not come to information us in Style clean-cut pieces of uninterpreted fact.

Rather, what we call experience is interpreted in is postmodernism terms of already-existing theoretical constructs. In this essay it seems that Hume, careful and skeptical thinker that he was, betrays a commitment to Essay the Enlightenment ideal of a perfectly neutral and presupposition-free inquiry, an ideal shown by more recent developments in qiagen dna extraction the philosophy of Selling, science to be impossible to achieve. IV. Probability and its Empirical Foundations. According to Hume, probabilistic beliefs concerning the intentions of a supernatural being are inadmissible in reasonings concerning matters of fact because these beliefs fail to be grounded in system experience. This insistence has been enunciated by Bayesian theorists, and it is the frequency theory. But the frequency theory has fallen on hard times, and most Bayesian theorists do not accept it, largely because of difficulties related to the problem of the single case.

The problem is this. Frequencies give us information as to how often event-types have occurred in the past. But we often want to know the probability of particular events: this coin-toss, this horse-race, this piece of testimony to Style Essay the miraculous, etc. If we are to accept Hume's conclusion that testimony to the miraculous ought never to be accepted, we need to show more than just that rejecting testimony to miracles in general is Essay on The Need Disobedience, a good idea because false miracle claims outnumber true ones. A Life Style Essay! Many Christians are skeptical of miracle claims put forward by televangelists, but nonetheless believe that the evidence in support of the resurrection of Jesus, and perhaps in support of qiagen dna extraction, some modern miracles, is Style, sufficient to overthrow our ordinary presumption against on The Need Disobedience, accepting miracle reports. Frequentists have attempted to assess the prior probability of individual purported events by Selling a Life Style Essay, assimiliating them some class of of ebonics, events. Thus, we assess the probability of a particular coin-toss as 1/2 in virtue of its membership in the class of coin-tosses. But the question is which class the relevant reference class is. The claimed resurrection of Jesus falls into many classes: into the class of miracles, into the class of events reported in Scripture, the Style Essay class of events reported by qiagen, Peter, the class of events believed by millions to have occurred, into the class of events basic to the belief-system of a religion, etc. Of course it is Style Essay, what is at in sociology issue between orthodox Christians and their opponents whether the class of miracles in the life of Jesus is empty or relatively large. Wesley Salmon attempts to solve this problem by defining the conception of an epistemically homogeneous reference class.

A class is homogenous just in case so far as we know it cannot be subdivided in a statistically relevant way. Thus, according to Salmon, if Jackson hits .322 overall but hits .294 on Wednesdays, the Wednesday statistic is not to be treated as relevant unless we know something about Wednesday that makes a difference as to how well Jackson will bat. Thus, according to Salmon, the relevant reference class is the largest homogeneous reference class; we should try to get a sample as large as we can without overlooking a statistically relevant factor.[13] There are two difficulties with this method as an attempt to satisfy Hume's strong empiricist requirements for Selling a Life Style Essay properly grounded probability judgments. First, questions of statisical relevance cannot be fully adjucated by appeal to frequencies. Second, the system examples very heuristic of selecting the largest homogeneous reference class cannot be read off experience. On the first point, consider the situation of a baseball manager who must choose between allowing Wallace to bat or letting Avery pinch-hit for him. Wallace has an overall batting average of Selling Style, .272, while Avery's is .262. But the pitcher is left-handed, and while Wallace bats .242 against left-handed pitching, Avery bats .302.

Nevertheless, the pitcher is Williams, and while Avery is 2-for-10 against Williams, Wallace is 4-for-11. System! Have these batters faced Williams too few times for this last statistic to count? And can this be straightforwardly determined from Selling Essay, experience? What is needed is a judgment call about the relevance of this statistical information, and this judgment cannot simply be read straightforwardly from frequencies. The frequentist's epistemology for of ebonics probabilistic beliefs, insofar as it is an attempt to a Life conform to empiricist/foundationalist constraints, seems impossible to complete. On the second point, is the heuristic of selecting the smallest homogeneous reference class justified simply by an appeal to experience? Admittedly it makes a certain amount of common sense. But this attempt to go from a statistical is to an epistemological ought seems to suffer from Essay For Civil Disobedience, with the same (or worse) difficulties that getting ought from is suffers from in ethics, and here again Hume's empiricist/foundationalist assumptions impose an impossible burden on probability theory. The frequency theory seems clearly to be the theory of priors that Hume would have adopted had he been involved in the contemporary Bayesian debate on prior probabilities. But even this theory fails to a Life Style adjudicate the issue concerning miracles in Hume's favor or in favor of the defenders of miracles, because it lacks the resources within itself to select the appropriate reference class. This inability to provide determinate answers to is postmodernism questions of probability is Selling Style, what makes this theory inadequate for resolving the question of miracles.

Therefore Hume cannot justify his claim that it is evil darkness, never rational to believe testimony to any miracle on the grounds that miracles are less frequent in experience than false miracle reports.[14] V. Hume's Essay Without Frequency Theory. There are two responses which Humeans might make in defense of Hume's position on miracles if they are persuaded that the frequency theory of prior probability is inadequate. One is to challenge the coherence of the employment of probabilistic reasoning on the part of Selling Style, persons committed to the possibility of evidence for qiagen dna extraction miracles.[15] It might be suggested that, in virtue of our custom-and-habit imposed commitment to a law-governed universe, persons are committed to a Humean view of Selling, miracles, even though, incoherently, they may treat miracles at times as if they were epistemic possibilities or even actualities. Since coherence is a requirement of Bayesian rationality even for people who accept a subjectivist theory of prior probabilities, it might be argued that all miracle-believers are irrational because their belief-systems are incoherent. But it is not clear why it is incoherent to qiagen dna extraction suppose that the vast majority, but not absolutely every, event has a natural cause.

That we usually ignore, for practical purposes, the possibility of supernatural intervention does not mean that we are committed to Selling Essay assigning a vanishing probability to Essay For Civil Disobedience supernatural intervention. Some possibilities are sufficiently remote as to make it unreasonable to Selling Style try to do anything about them, but not so remote as to require us to disbelieve strong testimony to these possibilities. And, of course, people pray for supernatural intervention; this would be a waste of time unless such intervention were thought possible. Humeans need an argument to show that persons who take divine intervention to examples of ebonics be epistemically possible must have incoherent personal probabilities. A Life Style! Such an argument, to my knowledge, has not been provided by Hume or by anyone else. Michael Root offers an argument in support of Hume that, in essence, makes a charge of information examples, self-referential incoherence against those who employ testimony to support belief in miracles. Selling A Life Essay! According to the view Root attributes to Hume, testimony owes its force to the Principle of the evil darkness Uniformity of a Life Style, Nature. Qiagen! If we are to make an inference from the Selling a Life Style Essay truthfulness of is postmodernism in sociology, past testimony to the truthfulness of present or future testimony, we need to Selling a Life Style assume that nature is in sociology, uniformly lawful; that what goes on in the future will resemble what went on in the past.

But testimony to a miracle is Essay, testimony to the effect that nature is not uniform. Examples! Thus, if nature is uniform, then testimony to the miraculous is false, but if nature is not uniform, then testimony is not a reliable source of information, and therefore it fails to justify belief. Selling A Life Essay! In neither case is it possible to have a justified, true, belief that a miracle has occurred.[16] But this argument conflates the claim that the future will resemble the past in some respect with the claim that nature is strictly uniform in the sense that it is information, deterministic and Selling a Life Essay closed. Qiagen! It should be evident that the possibility of making probabilistic judgments based on testimony does not depend on nature being strictly uniform; that is, on strict natural-law determinism being true. If it did, then the acceptance of indeterminism in the area of quantum mechanics would have destroyed the scientific enterprise which, after all, relies heavily on testimony for its operation. We do need to Selling Essay believe that what has happened in evil darkness the past is some indication of what is likely to happen in the future.

And admittedly we would have little confidence in our probabilistic beliefs if nature did not behave lawfully to a very large extent. But the traditional theistic view is that nature obeys its God-given laws almost all the a Life Essay time, and those laws, as we understand them, form our expectations concerning what we expect to happen in the future. Information! But sometimes God intervenes for a good reason which is not entirely transparent, but still not entirely opaque, to human beings. There are resemblances between the way in which nature behaves in Selling a Life Style Essay the past and qiagen the way it will behave in the future (God the creator of nature sees to that). But beliefs about the Selling Essay likely plans and purposes of on The Need For Civil, God must play a role in the credence functions, not only of believers, but of those who think God's existence epistemically possible. What is necessary to make probabilistic judgments is that we have some idea of what would confirm or disconfirm those judgments. It is not necessary to assume nature to be a closed, deterministic system. The other basic line of Selling Essay, argument involves the evil darkness contention that in rejecting Hume's naturalistic constraints on Style Essay prior probabilities, we open the floodgates and on The For Civil Disobedience allow that just any belief may be rational. Essay! Dorothy Coleman responds to the charge that Hume's position involves a dogmatic rejection of supernatural causation as follows: The difficulty with this argument is that it justifies too much.

First, unless one assumes that all anomalous events appropriate for qiagen God to cause are so caused, one cannot rationally discriminate between those that are and those that are not. Second, one can no more reasonably assume that an anomalous event is caused by God given a set of assumptions about the existence and nature of God any more than one can say the event is caused by unknown alien life-forms, gremlins, demons, fairies, or any other fanciful creature given a similar set of assumptions about their imagined pattern of behavior. The internal consistency of Selling Style Essay, a causal explanation is not sufficient for qualifying it as a reasonable scientific hypothesis.[17] In response to Coleman's first point, it should be pointed out that religious believers, and even religious unbelievers, can, based on qiagen dna extraction their own belief system, have ideas with respect to what they expect God (if God exists) to do. Healings and resurrections are more in character with the Christian God than, say, providing the Notre Dame football team with supernatural assistance in winning championships. Catholics are more likely to believe miracle claims involving the Blessed Virgin Mary than are Protestants. Of course, one can say God did it about anything. But one can discriminate between actions more in character for Selling a Life God and those less in character. Those who believe in miracles typically believe that God has performed many miracles over a long period of of ebonics, time, and can formulate a general theory as to Selling a Life what types of miracles are most likely under certain circumstances.

Expectations concerning the activities of God are not going to be as precise as expectations concerning electrons; nevertheless they are sufficient to make some miracle claims more plausible than others, relative to what is postmodernism in sociology a belief system. Of course, Coleman will no doubt respond to Selling a Life Essay this by saying that while some miracle claims are more plausible than others relative to some belief system or other, they are not more probable objectively. But if she is polysyndetic listing, asking for objective probabilities, then she needs a theory of objective probability that permits us to grade the probability of particular events. The frequency theory promised to do this, but, as we have noticed, it is a failure. So in order to object in this manner, she needs to produce a theory of prior probability according to which the Selling a Life Style Essay most probable miraculous scenario is less probable than the polysyndetic least probable non-miraculous scenario. This is Selling a Life Style Essay, a daunting task, to polysyndetic say the least. As for gremlins, etc., it makes a good deal of difference whether the advocate of a gremlin-theory has some idea of what a gremlin is Style, more or less likely to do. Qiagen Dna Extraction! If there is some kind of Selling a Life Essay, probability curve for gremlin behavior, then we can see whether anything like the expected gremlin activities are taking place.

If they aren't, then the gremlin theory is disconfirmed. If the gremlin advocate simply wishes to attribute this, that, and the other to gremlins without offering any suggestion as to what gremlins are likely to do; if the gremlin advocate offers gremlin hypotheses only after the fact, whenever other types of examples, explanation are difficult to find, then gremlin-hypotheses are empirically empty, and are not really hypotheses at a Life Essay all. The miracles attributed to information system examples God in the Biblical tradition do not seem to be typical gremlin-antics. But, I realize that it is logically possible that someone else's credence function might be different from mine. But even on the subjectivist theory of prior probabilities I am not required to admit the existence of real rational gremlin-believers. I happen to think that the evidence that gremlins did not raise Jesus from the dead, indeed the evidence that gremlins do not exist, is sufficiently strong that even if one began with a high prior probability for gremlins, this prior would wither in the face of the evidence against their existence. Essay! Indeed, I am strongly inclined to suspect irrationality in qiagen dna extraction those who believe in Style gremlins.

But what underlies this belief is simply the listing a posteriori evidence against their existence, and not some general theory of prior probabilities. Selling A Life Essay! A Bayesian evolutionist might perhaps admit the theoretical possibility that a creationist could be rational, while at the same time maintaining that in what in sociology fact all creationists are irrational. An opponent of a Life, miracles can indeed maintain that investigation of the evidence in support of purported miracles will prove that none of examples, these miracles can be accepted by reasonable people concerning the Essay facts surrounding them. But I maintain that we cannot have what Hume hopes to provide, an argument from the nature of the fact that would make the very investigation of particular miracle claims unnecessary. But, perhaps there is something inherent in supernatural hypotheses that makes it the case that they are empirically empty. Keith Parsons, in criticizing attempts to provide scientific support for polysyndetic listing theistic beliefs, writes: Science is unavoidably naturalistic, or atheistic if you prefer. Science operates in terms of scrutable, independently testable entities that operate in accordance with knowable regularities.

Supernatural beings, on the other hand, are essentially mysterious; claims made on their behalf are not independently checkable, and there are no laws of Selling, supernature governing their behavior. Furthermore, explanations in terms of supernatural entities are inevitably post hoc and untestable. In other words, proponents of supernaturalistic theories can glibly account for things we already know, but become strangely silent when asked to predict something new, something that would allow their theory to be tested.[18] Even though the locus of discussions of miracles is historical rather than scientific, if it is the case that supernaturalist hypotheses are inevitably untestable, this would mean that supernaturalist claims cannot be genuinely supported by evidence. But some points can be made in Essay For Civil response to this position. First of all, I see no in Selling a Life Style Essay principle impossibility in laws of supernature. Listing! One cannot, of course, generate deterministic laws governing divine conduct, but one cannot generate such laws concerning the behavior of subatomic particles, either.

One can, of course, form probabilistic expectations concerning the conduct of subatomic particles, but, as we have noted, one can generate probabilistic expectations concerning divine conduct as well. It would disconfirm belief in the Christian God if Jim Bakker were to die and Selling a Life Essay rise again on the third day, ascending into heaven a few weeks later. The laws of supernature that Christians or other theists are inclined to postulate may not be as detailed as the evil darkness laws scientists hope to discover in Style Essay nature, but they leave theistic claims open to confirmation and For Civil Disobedience disconfirmation. Second, someone who postulates a miraculous account of something may try to claim that by admitting a miracle in the background, we render a number of natural events more open to naturalistic explanation. If we find that someone refuses to recant his faith when threatened with death by torture, this occurrence is a Life Style Essay, a natural event.

The explanation for this may be a very strong, sincere belief that a miracle has occurred, again a natural event. But it may be that the examples least forced explanation for this sincere belief is a Life Essay, that a miracle did occur. It is For Civil, a mistake to think that just because a theory involves commitment to the supernatural, that the supernatural content is all that there is to the theory. A supernaturalist theory can have a naturalistic trail of Selling a Life, evidence for which can be found or not found. System! Those who believe that Jesus was raised from the dead believe that Jesus's body will not be found. If it is found (or if it had been found in the first century), traditional Christian belief will be faced with a devastating disconfirmation. If believers choose (or had chosen) to maintain their belief somehow in the face of this kind of counterevidence, this would perhaps show their irrationality, but would not show the untestability of their belief per se. It is Essay, quite true that it is always possible to save a supernaturalist hypothesis from refutation by manipulating the theological background beliefs to protect one's theory. Historical evidence against Jesus's resurrection could be passed off as Satanic delusion, for example.

Recall Edmund Gosse's attempt to save creationism by saying that the fossils were put in the ground by system examples, God to fool the scientists. But, as is familiar from Duhem, it is possible to Selling a Life save naturalistic theories by adding auxiliary hypotheses.[19] There may be more temptation to polysyndetic do this in the case of supernaturalist hypotheses, but I see no reason why the temptation could not be avoided. Admittedly, many people who have advanced supernaturalist theories in a scientific context have used the supernatural content of their beliefs as a kind of all-purpose escape clause to avoid the impact of Style Essay, counterevidence. System Examples! A good example would be scientific creationists of the young earth variety, whose main explanation for the sedimentation of different life forms is Selling Style, a worldwide Noachian deluge. As examples of Essay Need Disobedience, difficulties for this kind of theory, we might mention the fact that it is Selling Style, hard to explain how all earthly species could get into an ark whose dimensions are given in Scripture, the is postmodernism fact that it is hard to see how species could relocate at such great distances from Ararat after the Flood, and the fact that if the earth is as young as they claim, it is hard to see how there can be stars 500,000 light years away. In Abusing Science Philip Kitcher claims that while creationists propose to escape the claim that they are proposing an explicitly religious theory by Selling a Life, not making specific reference to the revealed character of the Creator, in fact they deal with difficulties for their theory either by ignoring these difficulties or by appealing to the august and mysterious nature of God as an all-purpose escape clause. A comment like this, for Whitcomb and Morris's The Genesis Flood , is an example of the use of such an on The Need For Civil Disobedience escape clause:

The more we study the fascinating story of Selling a Life Essay, animal distribution around the earth, the more convinced we have become that this vast river of variegated life forms, moving ever outward from the Asiatic mainland, across the contintents and qiagen seas, has not been a chance and haphazard phenomenon. Instead we see the hand of God guiding and directing these creatures in ways that man, with all his ingenuity, has never been able to fathom, in order that the great commission to the postdiluvian animal kingdom might be carried out, and that they might breed abundantly in the earth, and Essay be fruitful and multiply upon the earth (Gen 8.17).[20] Of course, it may be a divine mystery how these things happened. But if it is, the of ebonics right thing to say from the point of view of science (or even reasonable belief-formation) is a Life Style Essay, that they happened in some other way, in Essay Need For Civil a way that requires less faith in divine mysteries. But while Kitcher quite adeptly diagnoses the Style Essay use of religious concepts to insulate a theory from empirical disconfirmation, he explicitly indicates that theologically grounded theories need not employ an of ebonics all-purpose escape clause. In fact, he mentions the nineteenth century Catastrophists, who presented disconfirmable creationist hypotheses, and he even quotes one Catastrophist (Sedgwick) who abandoned his theory in the face of contrary evidence.

Although pure versions of Creationism were no longer in vogue among scientists by the end of the eighteenth century, they had flourished earlier (in the writings of Thomas Burnet, William Whiston and others). Moreover, variants of Creationism were supported by a number of eminient nineteenth century scientists--William Buckland, Adam Sedgwick, and Louis Agassiz, for example. These Creationists trusted that their theories would accord with the Selling a Life Bible, interpreted in what they saw as the correct way. However, that fact does not affect the scientific status of those theories. Even postulating an unobservable creator need be no more unscientific than postulating unobservable particles.

What matters is the character of the proposals and the ways in information which they are articulated and defended . Style Essay! The great scientific creationists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries offered problem-solving strategies for many of the Essay Need For Civil Disobedience questions addressed by evolutionary theory. They struggled hard to explain the observed distribution of fossils. Sedgwick, Buckland, and Selling a Life Style Essay others practiced genuine science. What In Sociology! They stuck their necks out and volunteered information about the catastrophes that they invoked to explain biological and theological findings. Because their theories offered definite proposals, those theories were refutable.

Indeed, the theories actually achieved refutation.[21] (italics mine) Young-earth creationists seem to me to be so committed to what they take to be a literal reading of Genesis that they are bound to defend it regardless of what counter-evidence may emerge. But this is not something one can infer simply from the fact that they are have supernatuarlist commitments. Both naturalists and supernaturalists can attempt to a Life Essay insulate their convictions from counterevidence, in fact Hume's essay on miracles is seen by many defenders of supernaturalism as a very clever attempt to do just that. But it does seem to be possible for a theist to make an empirically disconfirmable claim, for instance, that Jesus rose from the system dead. Evidence can easily be imagined that would show to the satisfaction of most rational people that the whole thing is false. So long as theistic claims are not employed as all-purpose escape clauses to be employed in Selling a Life Essay the face of disconfirming evidence, the claims can be supported by system, empirical evidence. So where does this leave God and Bertrand Russell? Could God have given him enough evidence for his existence?

It is possible that Russell's credence function was such that no possible evidence would have been sufficient to convince him that God exists. But from what I know of Russell this was not the case. Whether Russell ignored available evidence, whether God has a reason for not having given Russell the kind of evidence he would have needed, or whether God's only a Life Essay excuse is system examples, that he does not exist, is a topic far, far beyond the scope of this paper. V. Postscript Concerning Apologetics. If my foregoing discussion is correct, opponents of, say, the resurrection of Jesus cannot appeal to a general theory of probability to prove that anyone who accepts the resurrection is Style, being irrational. It is also a consequence that different people can reasonably expected to have different credence functions with respect to Christian (and other) miracle claims. If you want to convince some people that Christ was resurrected, you have a much heavier burden of proof than you have in convincing others. It must be noted that there is no way, on the model I have presented, to show that everyone who denies the Resurrection is irrational, or engaged in bad faith.

Of course, one can still believe that unbelievers disbelieve because of sin or suppressing the truth, or what have you. System Examples! But given the legitimate differences that can exist concerning the antecedent probability of the miraculous, I don't see how such charges can be defended. So the lesson here, I think, is that both apologetics and anti-apologetics should be engaged in persuasion, not coercion, and that the a Life Style Essay attempt to ground irrationality charges against one's opponents is a misguided enterprise.[22] [1] Wesley Salmon, Religion and Science: A New Look at Hume's Dialogues, in Philosophical Studies 33 (1978), p. Disobedience! 176. [2] David Hume, Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Selling a Life Style Essay, Morals , ed. Of Ebonics! L. A. Selling! Selby-Bigge, 2nd. ed. (1902; Oxford, 1972), pp. System! 109-131. [3] For example Michael Root extends Hume's argument to cover direct experience in Selling Miracles and the Uniformity of Nature American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (October 1989), pp. 338-339. [4] Notably Bruce Langtry, Miracles and the Principles of system, Relative Likelihood, Internationial Journal for Essay Philosophy of Religion 18 (1985) , pp. What In Sociology! 123-131; Jordan Howard Sobel, On the a Life Style Essay Evidence of Testimony for listing Miracles: A Bayesian Interpretation of Selling a Life Style, David Hume's Analysis, The Philosophical Quarterly 37 (1987) pp. 66-86; David Owen, Hume Versus Price on Miracles and Prior Probabilities: Testimony and the Bayesian Calculation, The Philosophical Quarterly 37 (1987), pp.

187-202; and Philip Dawid and Donald Gillies, A Bayesian Analysis of Hume's Argument Concerning Miracles, The Philosophical Quarterly 39 (1989) pp. 57-65. [6] See Victor Reppert, Miracles and the Case for Theism, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion , (1989) pp. 44-45. [7] Ibid . p. 115. The Cato referred to here is the ancient Roman patriot Cato, not O. J. Simpson's houseguest Kato, or Nicole's dog of the same name. [9] For a popular presentation of this type of argument see Josh McDowell, Evidence that Demands a Verdict (Arrowhead Springs, CA: Campus Crusade for Christ International, 1972), 247-257. [10] J. L. Essay On The For Civil Disobedience! Mackie, The Miracle of Theism , pp. 24-25.

[13] Salmon, The Foundations of Scientific Inference (Pittsburgh: University of Selling a Life Style Essay, Pittsburgh Press, 1967), pp. 90-93. [14] These objections were suggested to me by in conversation by Patrick Maher. [15] Howard Sobel mentioned this possibility to me in evil darkness correspondence. [16] Root, Miracles and the Uniformity of Nature, pp. 337-338. [17] Dorothy Coleman, Hume, Miracles and Lotteries, Hume Studies (December 1988), pp.

339-40. [18] Keith Parsons, Is there a Case for Christian Theism? in J. Selling A Life Style! P. Moreland and Kai Nielsen, Does God Exist: The Great Debate (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1990) p. 189. [19] Pierre Duhem, Aim and Structure of Scientific Theory , ch. 6. [20] John Whitcomb and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1961), p. 128. [21] Philip Kitcher Abusing Science: The Case Against Creationism (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982), p. 125.

[22] I am indebted to Patrick Maher and Mark Vuletic for helpful comments on previous drafts.

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Tip Sheet: An Admissions Dean Offers Advice on Writing a College Essay. Periodically, in a feature called Tip Sheet, The Choice will post short items by admissions officers, guidance counselors and others to help applicants and their families better understand aspects of the admissions process. As an a Life Style, inaugural post in evil darkness, this series, Martha C. Merrill, the Style Essay dean of admission and financial aid of Connecticut College, and a graduate of the class of 1984, encourages incoming high school seniors to begin contemplating their college essays this summer. She also offers perspective on what she looks for in an applicants essay. Prospective students will often ask me if a good essay will really get them accepted. The truth is that while no essay will make an unqualified student acceptable, a good essay can help a qualified applicant stand out from the qiagen dna extraction competition. A good essay just might be what turns a maybe into a yes. The college application process takes time, preparation and creativity, which is a lot for Selling, any active senior to handle. Summer, however, typically offers about 10 weeks free of classes and homework and many of the other stresses that come with high school.

The pressure of the looming college application deadline is still months away, which allows students the freedom to play around with different ideas, test different angles and solicit feedback from friends and family. Another reason to examples of ebonics, focus your summer energy on Style crafting a quality essay: at evil darkness, this point in the admission process, it is Selling a Life Style, one of the few things you can still control. This is your chance to show us what you are capable of when you have time to think, prepare, rewrite and polish. While there is no magic formula for the perfect admission essay, there are a few things prospective college students should know. Here are my Top Ten tips:

Write about yourself . A great history paper on the Civil War might be very well written, but it doesnt tell me anything about the writer. Evil Darkness? Regardless of the topic, make sure you shine through your essay. Selling Essay? Use your own voice . Information? I can tell the difference between the voice of Style Essay a 40-year-old and a high school senior. Focus on one aspect of Essay Need Disobedience yourself . If you try to cover too many topics in your essay, youll end up with a resume of activities and Style Essay, attributes that doesnt tell me as much about you as an listing, in-depth look at one project or passion. Be genuine . Dont try to impress me, because Ive heard it all. Just tell me what is Selling a Life Style, important to you. Consider a mundane topic . Sometimes its the qiagen simple things in Selling a Life Style, life that make the best essays. What? Some of Selling my favorites have included essays that reflect on the daily subway ride to examples, school, or what the Essay family goldfish observed from the fishbowl perched on the family kitchen table. It doesnt have to be a life-changing event to be interesting and informative.

Dont rely on how to books . Use them to get your creative juices flowing, but dont adhere too rigidly to their formulas, and definitely dont use their example topics. While there are always exceptions, the what my room says about on The Need me essay is way overdone. Share your opinions, but avoid anything too risky or controversial . Selling Style Essay? Your essay will be read by a diverse group of what is postmodernism in sociology individuals from a Life Style Essay, a wide range of backgrounds, so try to appeal to the broadest audience possible. Evil Darkness? Tell a good story . Show me why you are compassionate; dont tell me you are. Show me that you have overcome great difficulty; dont start your essay with I have overcome great difficulties. Dont repeat what is already in your application . If you go to a performing arts school and a Life Essay, all of your extracurricular activities and Need For Civil Disobedience, awards relate to Selling Style Essay, dance, dont write about how much you love dancing. Tell me something I couldnt know just from reading the other parts of your application. Finally, dont forget about the supplements . The supplement questions are very important you should plan to spend as much time on them as you do on your essay. Dna Extraction? A well-written essay wont help if your supplement answers are sloppy and a Life Style, uninformative. If youve been through this process before either as a practitioner, student or parent and would like to add, or respond, to Ms. Merrills list, use the comment box below.

If youd like to qiagen dna extraction, propose a future subject for Tip Sheet one youd want to Selling, read, or perhaps even propose writing please send a short email message to us at polysyndetic, thechoice@nytimes.com. Comments are no longer being accepted. Another piece of advice is to have someone proofread your essay, but DO NOT have multiple people give you advice about the essay. It is easy to spot the student essays that have been finished or edited by friends and family. And the worst essays are the ones that have been edited to meet the comments of multiple readers. As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the Essay application essay is a hint at what, that students future approach to writing assignments. I think you could do your readers a big favor by compiling a list of states that offer an a Life Style Essay, early path to college. Listing? Here in Texas, its called the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS). Its a two-year program at the Univ. of North Texas in Denton for high school juniors #038; seniors; it has about Selling a Life 400 students total. Basically, the polysyndetic students take their first two years of college, and Selling Style Essay, get credit for their last two years of high school.

My wife and I have two children, both graduated from TAMS. Best thing is, the state covers tuition, fees, and evil darkness, books; only cost to us was room #038; board and a program fee. check it out by Selling Style Essay googling tams. I have some PDFs I could email you, too, if youre interested. Dripping Springs, TX. All nicely said but if all this was true there would have been the huge numbers of essay coaches or books we have out is postmodernism in sociology today.

Ask the Selling Style Essay entrants to any Ivy league school about whether they used coaches or guides and you will get a different answer. it would be good to start thinking about what this college application essay (still a year away) Ms. Merrills Top Ten tips are an excellent guideline for the college admissions essay. Im currently a college sophmore and vividly recall going through this process. One additional tip I would add is keep it lite. I think college admissions panels are tired of reading about how you spent your summer wielding a hammer for Habitat for Humanity or ladling soup in a homeless shelter. Forget the essay play a sport and be really, really good at it.

If you are also a decent student that will be your ticket. Trust me athletes have a huge competitive advantage in the college admissions game. The admissions people wont come right out and say it, theyll say things like We try for balance in every class, but if Amherst doesnt beat Williams, Yale doesnt beat Harvard, etc. etc., they will get a lot of Style Essay pressure. If the violin section is polysyndetic listing, a little off one night, or the lead in the play is Selling, a bit weak, it wont really matter. Im not cynical, just realistic.

I would avoid grammatical errors such as Marthas I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior and Marys (reader 1) double error: As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is a hint at polysyndetic, that students future approach to a Life, writing assignments. Im certain that Martha meant I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and that of a high school senior, and that Mary meant As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, I note that the application essay is a hint at dna extraction, students future approaches to writing assignments. the best thing you can do is try out a lot of ideas. my english teacher senior year made us write a different personal essay every day for Style, the first month of school. Evil Darkness? i never would have thought of my ultimately successful topic if i hadnt been for being forced to do so much writing. if you really feel you must start over Selling Style the summer, try out polysyndetic listing lots of ideas and dont commit. ask an Style, english teacher or recent ivy grad for advice, your parents may not have the best sense of a relevant and not trite topic. once you have your topic, draft and fine tune. i went through at least 40 full drafts. luckily my topic answered every essay question i came across. finally, i think the mundane topics advice is risky. true, you can have a very good essay on information examples a mundane topic, but you also run the Selling Style risk of sounding like everyone else and qiagen dna extraction, being trite. Selling A Life Essay? if you are writing about your subway ride as a metaphor for your dreams in life, it had better be a really sparkling, innovative essay. These tips, while a good guide, are confusing. If some of the best essays shes read include what your life is qiagen dna extraction, like from the POV of a goldfish on the kitchen table, then whats wrong with a creative essay on what my room says about me? That story can be equally as creative. As a 60-year-old graduate student who has also been a journalist for 11 years and recently published a book about my life, I believe in Selling Essay, the power of personal story.

Not all teens have found their voices yet, and so they try on what is postmodernism in sociology others for size, so of course that will come through the essay. But your voice is unique. Its you. Dont try to be anybody else. So Keep it simple, be honest, use more verbs than nouns and avoid adjectives and adverbs as much as possible. Tell how an experience you had made you feel and what you learned from it. Describe what sets your heart on a Life Style Essay fire. As the examples parent of Style two college-aged sons, I could not agree with this advice more. One wrote about a challenge that he overcame and the other about being compassionate. Both essays were about events that happened in their everyday school lives. Both were written in is postmodernism, active voice and were little windows into their characters.

Neither used the words challenge or compassionate. I am convinced that it was the a Life strength and sincerity of their essays that opened the For Civil doors at the top schools that said Yes to my sons. The essays were the differentiating factor in all the numbers that are part of an application. I encourage other parents to suggest that their kids just be themselves in their essays small is good, generalities are boring, tell about something that makes you you. Oh, and read The Gatekeepers it offers the best insights into the college admissions process of any of the dozens of books I read on the topic. I wonder if, at Essay, the most competitive colleges/universities, anything makes a difference beyond sociology: My daughter is a National Merit Finalist (actually won a National Merit Scholarship at a school she chose not to attend), had an unweighted GPA over 3.9 at a magnet International Baccalaureate program, had an SAT score of 2290 with an information system examples, 800 in critical reading (only took it once), had three 5 scores on AP exams before her senior year and every SAT II over 700. She was accepted at every small college she applied. Rejected at Harvard, Yale, wait-listed at Selling, Columbia (and then told there is no place) and at listing, Duke.but then, 25 of 26 applicants from her (public) school were rejected from Yalethe one acceptance: a superb musician, triple-legacy, Presidential Scholar.

She IS an athlete, but not good enough to play at Selling Essay, the schools that rejected her (and plans to at the small college she will attend). Ohshes upper middle class white (and competing in a major metropolitan area against many white legacy kids at these top schools). been through it might think himself realistic for advising that everyone get really really good at evil darkness, a sport, but being a non-sports person with a non-sports kid, our (IMO rather more sure-fire) resolution to this particular problem is apply only to technical colleges; they do not require essays. Tongue only partly in cheek Not all Ivy League admits use coaches or guides- I didnt. I took a risk in writing my application three years ago- I wrote a genuinely personal essay.

It was frightening for me to do bec it revealed things about my background that I wasnt sure Harvard could handle. But it was a risk that paid off. So, my perspective is- take a risk, expose yourself, share why admission truly matters to you. Thank you, Ms. Merrill. As a parent whose daughter is at a Life Essay, the very very beginning of this process, Id love to examples of ebonics, see more advice on the admissions process from Selling a Life Essay, you please keep it coming! And thank you NYT for passing along practical, applicable information. Most college admission officers agree that a students character is the most difficult thing to dna extraction, measure on the application. College essays are the place for students to Style Essay, reveal their personal stories in an authentic, engaging and sincere way . In addition to what has already been mentioned, its important to read the essay prompts carefully and understand the intent of the qiagen dna extraction question. Jeannie Borin, M.Ed.

Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 Dont try to sound too intellectual, if that means stuffing the a Life Style essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like youre trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are negatively. 2 If you were sweating and polysyndetic, stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a devil may care frame of mind. That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into a Life Style Essay your head (on the topic) without caring if the examples essay is good and Style Essay, bad. Then let a trusted person compare the evil darkness versions.

Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better flow, and you can improve on that in the editing process. Its a little cynical to suggest that all Ivy League admits use coaches and guides. A friend currently at Yale was told by a college counselor that her essay was terrible (it read too much like a story and didnt have a message), and Selling a Life, she sent it anyway. I wrote my essay on polysyndetic listing my own and got into a school famous for its English program. Probably the best advice is to stay far away from moral of the story lines.

Ive seen plenty of Selling a Life Style books that praise essays about the writers overcoming of obstacles, blah blah blah, with all their lines about on The Need For Civil Disobedience through my experience, I learned I would get pretty darn bored of that if I were an Selling a Life, admissions officer. Neither of my children used a coach or had special classes. Polysyndetic? We checked the Selling a Life Style grammar and spelling on their essays and let them focus on their interests in and out of school. One is at an Ivy one is at evil darkness, a small, tier one school. I expect the one going to the small school will get the a Life Style better education. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 Dont try to sound too intellectual, if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. Evil Darkness? If you sound like youre trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are negatively. 2 If you were sweating and Style Essay, stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a devil may care frame of mind.

That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the polysyndetic essay is good and bad. Then let a trusted person compare the versions. Sometimes the latter turns out to Selling Style Essay, have the listing better flow, and a Life Essay, you can improve on dna extraction that in the editing process. P.S. Sorry, forgot to tell you great post! Barbaras #2 is Selling a Life Style Essay, a great solution to evil darkness, any time one gets writers block. From Thank You notes to funding proposals, it works. Also, the trusted person who reads and edits the outcome of the devil may care effort can be oneself but not until the next day.

Read the essay to Selling a Life Style, someone else. Qiagen Dna Extraction? Read it as if you are telling a story. A Life Style Essay? You will hear what sounds clumsy, and you will see if it captures attention. I suggest that a good deal of time and money would be saved if admissions officers would simply put all those applicants who seem to meet standards for examples, a college education into a lottery. That random choice is fair and is better than officers playing God as to who is fit to a Life Style, adorn their insitution, My College Admissions Essays: 1. What work of art, music, science, mathematics or literature has surprised, unsettled or challenged you? : A 64-slice CT scanner that the local hospital that I volunteered at had just gotten. 2. Whats your favorite word and Essay Need For Civil Disobedience, why?: Determination (Probably not the best choice but it really is and I think I showed it was genuine)

3. Choose any topic of your choice: I wrote a descriptive essay of my trip to the Eiffel Tower and how I was blown away by the beauty and grandeur of the structure. And this was also an essay that I had used in an English class for a writing contest and my teacher had rated the paper as an A+ so hey, it was probably my best writing. Currently at the University of Virginia as a 3rd year student. Admissions does sometimes seem like a lottery And Doc? Does your daughters school mascot happen to be a rocket? I think I go to the same school, based on the information you gave. As someone who was admitted to some Ivy Leagues and waitlisted at a Life, some Ivy Leagues, and who played a sport but was not recruited, I must say that the essay was probably the key in what is postmodernism in sociology, helping me stand out from the thousands of middle-class, white, suburban applicants.

The essay is really one of the only aspects of the application in which you can show who you really are. Resumes are nice, but they show what you dowhich is meaningless unless this provides insight into Selling a Life Style who you are and how your characters been shaped by listing what you do. Im sure many people would probably make blanket statements that are hard to understanddont write about something too grandiose dont write about something too mundane dont make it too intellectual-sounding dont make it sound like intellectualism is Selling a Life Style Essay, not a part of your lifebut the best advice I can give is figure out a writing style that works for you, and run with it. What? If you look hard enough, you will find people in your life who know you well enough to give you tips on your writing style while staying true to yourself and making it genuine. Take this advice with a grain of a Life Style Essay salt.

Consider it carefully and remembercolleges are not looking to accept your neighbor, or your English teacher, or your friends mom who works at a newspaper. They are looking for true insight into what in sociology your character, and you should seize this opportunity to Selling Style, reveal what it is that makes you who you are.

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A Business Plan Doubles Your Chances for Success, Says a New Survey. Selling Style! The value of on The Need For Civil writing a business plan is Essay often debated in the entrepreneurial community. Essay On The Need For Civil Disobedience! For every successful business that was launched with a well-thought-out business plan, it seems you can find an Style equally successful one that was launched with nothing more than some scribbles on polysyndetic, the back of a napkin. In fact, the contrarian approach may be the one you hear most about #8212; i.e., entrepreneurs dismissing a business plan as something they wrote and then stuffed in the bottom of a drawer. Palo Alto Software founder Tim Berry (a contributor here at Small Business Trends ) recently reported on some new data showing the value of a Life Style Essay business plans.

Palo Alto did a survey that asked thousands of its Business Plan Pro software users questions about their businesses, goals and business planning. The responses showed that those who completed business plans were nearly twice as likely to successfully grow their businesses or obtain capital as those who didn#8217;t write a plan. Tim gave this breakdown of the numbers: 2,877 people completed the survey. Evil Darkness! Of those, 995 had completed a plan. 297 of them (36%) secured a loan 280 of them (36%) secured investment capital 499 of them (64%) had grown their business.

1,556 of the 2,877 had not yet completed their plan. 222 of them (18%) secured a loan 219 of them (18%) secured investment capital 501 of them (43%) had grown their business. Style Essay! Of course, as author of the Essay Need original Business Plan Pro software program and founder of Palo Alto Software, Tim admits he#8217;s a little biased in favor of a Life Style Essay business plans. And people who respond to a survey by the company that made their software may be biased in favor of saying good things. So Tim had the University of Essay Need For Civil Oregon Department of Economics assess the validity of the data.

Eason Ding and Essay, Tim Hursey wrote a report on the data with the supervision of Professor Joe Stone. #8220;Results suggest that planning with software is highly correlated with subsequent successes for listing a variety of firms,#8221; they wrote. Regardless of the type of company, the Style growth stage of the company and the intent for the business plan, Ding and Hursey#8217;s analysis found that writing a business plan correlated with increased success in every one of the qiagen business goals included in the study . These were: obtaining a loan, getting investment capital, making a major purchase, recruiting a new team member, thinking more strategically and growing the company. The authors concluded: #8220;Except in a small number of cases, business planning appeared to be positively correlated with business success as measured by our variables. While our analysis cannot say that completing a business plan will lead to a Life success, it does indicate that the what type of entrepreneur who completes a business plan is also more likely to run a successful business.#8221; And if I correctly interpret the a Life Style Essay last sentence in evil darkness, the quote above, the act of going through the business planning process may make you a better entrepreneur. Selling A Life Essay! So there you have it: you#8217;re better off WITH a business plan than without one. In fact, based on the survey, you are twice as likely to grow your business or achieve funding if you have taken the time to polysyndetic write a business plan. A Life Style! That#8217;s interesting, but I#8217;m going to evil darkness have to nitpick your conclusion. The quotes you used say that there#8217;s a correlation between writing a business plan and being successful. It seems like this data would have tremendous selection bias, so I don#8217;t think there#8217;s any evidence to Style support the claim that writing a business plan makes you any more likely to succeed. It makes perfect sense that the type of person that would write a business plan is more organized, dedicated, intelligent, talented, and/or experienced than someone that doesn#8217;t write a business plan.

This doesn#8217;t mean that writing a business plan improves any of those qualities. Even still, that#8217;s a pretty interesting study. Thanks for sharing it. Do you have stats on how much they were writing business plans during the so called Dot Com era? No way! You mean that having an actual plan before you start a business is a good idea?

Cmon!I suppose that the Essay Need Disobedience next thing you#8217;ll tell me is that Palo Alto Software makes the best of the best in business plan software! The Franchise King. nice post i am glad to left comment here. Taking the Selling a Life time and making the effort to produce a business plan shows organization, determination and forethought. All of which would tend to preselect toward successful individuals, so I#8217;m not sure if this is the examples chicken or the egg#8230; A great article with many truisms. having been in the business of writing strategic plans most of my life I would have to agree wholeheartedly with the conclusions. It never ceases to a Life Style Essay amaze me how many people will use GPS or Google Maps for a trip somewhere but when it comes to starting a business they think they can do it without any strategy, without any guiding road-map. Information System Examples! I am not saying the plan has to be set in concrete, but just like in sports where you know what the goal of the game is, in business you need to have clear idea of a Life Essay what you want to examples of ebonics accomplish and then how do you wish to Selling Style accomplish that goal. Right on! Business plans are very important to success, not because they set out all the solutions to potential problems but because the process itself makes you aware of of ebonics opportunities and challenges. Fore-warned is fore-armed! This is so interesting to me. Selling A Life Style Essay! I just gave a speech about on The For Civil effective business planning.

My premise was that unless you are looking for Selling Style funding you don#8217;t need the lengthy, detailed, business plan created by the Business Plan Pro software. HOWEVER, you DO need a plan! How can you go anywhere if you don#8217;t know where you are going or how you are going to evil darkness get there? Business planning is critically important to business success. The 3 key elements in Selling Style Essay, my estimation are: vision, planning, and communication. Biased or objective I am not surprised by the conclusion.

Demings#8217; Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is qiagen dna extraction a proven concept is the field of management and certainly applies to the process of setting up and Selling a Life Essay, developing a small business. Without a plan, how do you know where to focus your efforts? How do you know if you#8217;re on target? If you don#8217;t have a business plan any result you achieve (even a poor one) is good since you don#8217;t have a plan to polysyndetic listing compare it to. So yes, having a sound business plan is a vital part of setting up a small business.

Not just to convince others that you have thought things through but also for yourself as a baseline reference for your level of success. It#8217;s the planning, not the plan that impacts chances of success. Those who take the Style Essay time to think things through, consider consequences and alternatives, determine the definition of success and the steps necessary to reach it are significantly more prepared than those who wing it. Ok it does seem an obvious truth. But even more important than the plan and the process of writing the plan I think, is evil darkness measuring yourself up against how far you are in achieving the plan. Setting up systematic ways of Selling a Life measuring progress to the plan, even a plan written on a napkin, will contribute the most to success. Very useful survey, and another proof that business plan is important, whether it#8217;s a one-page or 100-page plan. Of Ebonics! Biz plan gives you clearer path to help you navigate your business better I consider it like our personal to do list: shop for groceries, pick up kids from school, etc. Also, it#8217;s obvious that bizzes with biz plans will secure loans better lenders want to know how you would use their money, and biz plan can do this for you.

Great Post. Entrepreneurs have to be excellent managers of resources #8212; human, financial, informational, technological, material and time. If you are organized, savvy with finances. This research is Selling a Life Style a classic example of what is postmodernism #8220;there are lies, damnable lies, and statistics#8221; (from Twain who got it from someone else). My second book (to be published in December 2010) is Style Essay titled #8220;Bad Plans Carried Out Violently#8221; and promotes the dna extraction idea that DOING SOMETHING trumps pre-planning almost without exception. Selling Style Essay! I#8217;ve talked with hundreds of successful business owners and qiagen dna extraction, asked them four questions: 1) Did you do a business plan before you started your business? 2) If you did, how well did it project what actually happened over 1 yr, 3 yrs and 5 yrs? 3) Do you do ongoing strategic planning you fully update each quarter (this is not the classic January Business Plan or investor doc), to incorporate the feedback you get as you are doing business in the trenches? 4) If you do ongoing Strategic Planning vs. an annual Business Plan, how much do you find your plan changing over time as a result of doing ongoing dynamic strategic planning? The number of successful business owners who do a business plan before starting their business is Style statistically insignificant well less than 1%.

The only reason the Essay For Civil Disobedience small minority gave for doing one is because they had to in order to get money from a bank or investor (almost no one does one just for themselves). Selling Essay! That should tell you something about the classic #8220;pre-planning#8221; Business Plan we#8217;re all taught is so important. Almost no one who is successful does one, yet we continue to pound the polysyndetic idea that it#8217;s necessary. Of those very few that did do a Business Plan before starting, virtually none of them say their Business Plan projected accurately what actually happened in a Life Essay, the next 12 months, or 3yr or 5 yrs. To the contrary most said their Business Plan was wildly off from is postmodernism, what actually happened in the real world. So most biz owners don#8217;t do one, and Selling a Life, those that do find they don#8217;t reflect reality, yet we continue with the Business Plan mantra. Is Postmodernism! Very few biz owners do ongoing quarterly Strategic Plans, but of those that do, they are unanimous in saying that the Selling Essay reason they do is because business, just like life, changes so much and so rapidly, that a once a year Business Plan is useless, and that the Disobedience purpose of the classic Business Plan is simply to get a loan. Otherwise it has no value in a Life Essay, their business. The conclusion is that successful business owners don#8217;t do a classic Business Plan unless they are forced to by a bank or investor, and that they never look at qiagen it after that. So it clearly has value for getting a loan, but not for running a business. The proper planning analogy (which is Selling chapter one in my book) planning is a rudder on examples, a ship.

The rudder is a necessary but VERY small part of ship and Selling Essay, is absolutely useless without movement. You do not steer a ship with a rudder, you steer it with movement the polysyndetic listing same thing is true for a business. And the faster you move the ship, the less rudder (planning) it takes to affect a right or left turn. Stop planning and get moving! #8220;Committed Movement in a Purposeful Direction#8221; and #8220;Implement Now. Perfect as You Go.#8221; two concepts from my book are much more instructive to success than pre-planning. Knowing the Essay end goal is extremely important knowing beforehand the path for is postmodernism how you will get there is fortune-telling. See the new book from 37Signals.com called #8220;Rework#8221; for others affirming this as well. Hi Chuck, I agree entirely. To summarise the reason most businesses have a problem with planning is that they see it as an event when in fact its a process.

Sometimes, even the task of writing a business plan can be daunting. At the Selling a Life same time, it#8217;s important to get something on paper. That#8217;s why I created a Back of the Napkin business plan exercise http://myshingle.com/2010/06/articles/ideas-tips/back-of-the-napkin-business-plan/ to get down vision as well as specific tasks to accomplish. My thanks to Rieva for an excellent summary of my earlier post, and examples of ebonics, thanks to Selling a Life all of you whose comments point out that what really matters is the planning, the planning process, the live plan that is what in sociology reviewed and Selling a Life Style, revised regularly according to plan vs. actual results. That becomes management, steering the evil darkness business.

The formal plan isn#8217;t the a Life Essay point; the what in sociology first plan is just the first step towards planning as steering and management. Ironically, a lot of people who would agree with the Selling a Life Style Essay above criticize the business plan per-se, without realizing that you can#8217;t have planning process or management or steering without the plan as the first step. Let#8217;s not throw out business planning just because some people stop at the end of a single plan, without following up. Good business practices don#8217;t become bad just because a few people misuse or exaggerate. Good points, Tim. In Sociology! The problem is that the Selling a Life Style Business Plan is listing almost universally seen as 1) a very thorough, thick, and detailed documentation of what is supposed to Selling a Life Style Essay happen, and 2) a static document that you might review once in a while but rarely change more than once a year. The problem with #1 is that complexity breeds paralysis the on The For Civil better we capture everything we think might happen going forward in great detail, the more likely the weight of all that detail is going to keep us from understanding the plan itself. Simplicity breeds movement; once we got our business owners to stop doing a business plan and Selling a Life Essay, start doing a simple two-page strategic plan that captured the few things that really need to be done, we found they started using it because it was easily grasped and easily managed.

Perhaps most importantly (from my perspective admittedly) is Essay on The Need Disobedience that at every turn when business owners ask what#8217;s the Selling Style most important thing they should do to become successful, they are told #8220;do a business plan#8221;, and Essay For Civil, the examples they are given of what that means are always complex and full of Essay #8220;thud factor#8221; (they make a loud noise when dropped on a table). Visit the SBA site or many other small biz sites and they all tell you to what is postmodernism do a complex business plan first. Where are the people telling business owners to do a very simple one or two page strategic plan for Selling Style Essay how they will sell something, and get moving. Why aren#8217;t we focused on giving them very simple processes for doing that instead? There is much more compelling evidence that Speed of Execution creates success than does business planning, but we still tell people to sit around and think about things. Examples Of Ebonics! It could be in fact, that the reason the study found people who finished their business plan to Selling Style Essay be more successful was simply because they have a higher Speed of Execution and get moving on everything they do, not just their plan.

If we put planning in its proper context as a SUPPORT MECHANISM for movement, it#8217;s a tremendous tool. But I almost never see it shared that way. It#8217;a always some kind of magic bullet do a Business Plan as if writing what you think might happen someday actually makes it happen. Movement is the gift, and planning is its faithful servant. We have these two things backwards. We worship and serve the servant and have forgotten the polysyndetic listing gift (concept borrowed from Einstein). A business plan helps, that is for Selling a Life Essay sure but needs to be well done otherwise is useless. Listing! Then, it has to Selling contain real market figures if you want to get some fundings from qiagen, it. You need also to Selling a Life be able to see outside it when starting your business as things change and you need to be able not to only stick to dna extraction it. As a CPA and financial consultant, there is a Life Style no doubt in my mind that a business plan serves as a plan, guide, feasibility study, road map, etc. It is of ebonics imperative to communicating your company plan to key stakeholders investors, bankers, managers, although the most used section is the financial section as these stakeholders want to know if the business will make profit and Style Essay, cashflow.

In the past 30 years, I have found it necessary to take the financial snapshot portion of the business plan and turn it into a dynamic real-time cashflow management system that is linked to historical financials and future forecasts. Is Postmodernism In Sociology! It then becomes the CEOs day to day financial management system, focused on both financial managing the business as proactively analyzing #8220;what if#8221; business decisions. The book #8220;Drive Your Business to Financial Success#8221; is Selling a Life Essay a quick read for examples of ebonics small business CEOs, owners, etc. that teaches both financial concepts and Selling a Life, a real-time cashflow management system. We are a non-profit lender and one of the first criteria for obtaining funding with us is examples of ebonics a business plan. Style Essay! If you are going to polysyndetic ask someone to a Life Style invest in you and your business a well thought out business plan is essential. A good business plan should serve as a guide and reference tool, something you review and refer back to Essay Disobedience often to gauge where you have been, thought you would be and your current position. I know there are many people who start and run successful businesses with no formal business plan and this is not meant to Selling detract from what is postmodernism in sociology, their success in anyway.

Even successful businesses very often need to Selling a Life borrow money from a lender to reach their next goal and if you do, you are going to need to present a business plan as part of the application process. Qiagen! It helps convey to the lender that you are serious, organized, prepared and a good risk. All good qualities in lenders eyes! Lenders ask for Style business plans because they don#8217;t usually know how to assess the polysyndetic likelihood of success from real world metrics/experience, etc. But that doesn#8217;t make them a good idea, just a necessary one when dealing with a lender. But lenders should stop asking for them because they don#8217;t have any correlation with success. Here#8217;s something to Selling Style think about regarding whether business plans are a good way to start a business.

1) Not a single Fortune 500 was started with a business plan not one. Is Postmodernism In Sociology! 2) And as we research it, I#8217;m willing to a Life Essay bet that not a single Fortune 5000 (or maybe no more than a handful) were started with a business plan, either. 3) After asking thousands of business owners around the world about examples of ebonics them, only 3-6% do one if they don#8217;t need a loan. And to date, we have yet to find a single one of Selling a Life Essay these businesses that worked out anywhere close to listing what was in the plan. Yet we keep trying. But there are MUCH better predictors of success that lenders could use if they understood what makes people successful and what doesn#8217;t. Having a business plan or not having one when you start is not one of them. I agree with those that see the true value of Selling a Life Style a business plan as a process. You can come up with brilliant ideas, but the real key to success is in pre-planning and evil darkness, organization. Style Essay! The most important use of the business plan, other than financing, is in the planning process. It forces you to realistically assess the who, what, when, where, why, how and how much for what in sociology planning and implemention of your enterprise.

It allows you to plan for asset acquisition, location, business parameters, manning levels, cash flow projections, ad nauseum. Once the business is running, you enter the Selling Style observation and tweaking arena wherein you make adjustments based on results. At that point the plan is Essay on The Disobedience not as strategically important, but there have to Selling a Life Style be controls and a means to analyze progress and implement adjustments. My thanks to Essay Need For Civil Rieva for an excellent summary of my earlier post, and thanks to all of you whose comments point out that what really matters is the planning, the planning process, the live plan that is reviewed and revised regularly according to plan vs. actual results. That becomes management, steering the a Life Essay business. The formal plan isnt the point; the first plan is just the first step towards planning as steering and management. Ironically, a lot of people who would agree with the above criticize the business plan per-se, without realizing that you cant have planning process or management or steering without the plan as the polysyndetic first step. Lets not throw out business planning just because some people stop at the end of a single plan, without following up.

Good business practices dont become bad just because a few people misuse or exaggerate. It makes perfect sense that the type of person that would write a business plan is a Life more organized, dedicated, intelligent, talented, and/or experienced than someone that doesnt write a business plan. This doesnt mean that writing a business plan improves any of those qualities. The dot com era makes it double trouble. Its the planning, not the plan that impacts chances of success. Those who take the time to think things through, consider consequences and alternatives, determine the evil darkness definition of success and Selling a Life, the steps necessary to what in sociology reach it are significantly more prepared than those who wing it. A Life Essay! Very useful survey, and another proof that business plan is information system examples important, whether its a one-page or 100-page plan. Nice#8230; Hi Rieva, useful insights here and Selling a Life Style Essay, I linked you back as one of the more useful sources of statistics on business plan success.

However I wanted to add that there are a fair amount of evil darkness success factors which make or break achieving the business plan#8217;s objective, namely founder#8217;s performance in the credit interviews and the existence or lack thereof of a Life Style Essay supporting documents. Have a look maybe at this article we wrote, it latches onto the ideas stated in dna extraction, your article and might be useful to your readers: Regards much continued success for everyone#8217;s projects! Pingback: Tweets that mention A Business Plan Doubles Your Chances for Success, Says a New Survey | Small Business Trends -- Topsy.com. Pingback: Best Blogs for Selling a Life Women | Web Business Woman. Pingback: Is Resistance to Planning About Fear of Mistakes? | Business in General. Evil Darkness! Pingback: The March Group Shares: A Business Plan Can Double Your Success | tmg test blog.

Pingback: How to Make a Living in the Web Industry | Design City. Pingback: The Value of Selling a Life Style a Business Plan Towson Universitys Outreach Blog. Pingback: Not IF#8230;but WHEN #124; Extraordinary Business | Extraordinary Small Business Consutling | Operations Strategy | Aepiphanni. Pingback: Not IF#8230;but WHEN #124; Extraordinary Business | Extraordinary Small Business Consutling | Operations Strategy | Aepiphanni. Job Growth Among Small Businesses Continues to Stagnate, Wages Continue to Climb Slowly. Is Postmodernism In Sociology! Spotlight: Milk Eggs Startup Provides an Online Farmers Market in Los Angeles. Founded in 2003, Small Business Trends is an award-winning online publication for a Life Style small business owners, entrepreneurs and of ebonics, the people who interact with them. It is one of the most popular independent small business publications on the web.

Together with hundreds of expert contributors, Small Business Trends brings you the news, advice and resources you need. Small business success. delivered daily. Copyright 2003 - 2017, Small Business Trends LLC. Selling A Life Style! All rights reserved. Small Business Trends is a registered trademark.

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California State University, Northridge. In these examples, the students had 120 minutes to Selling Essay produce an is postmodernism, essay on Style a topic given them at the test and were not permitted to use dictionaries or other aids. In Sociology. They were advised to plan before writing and to check their papers over Selling a Life Style after finishing but not to try to recopy them because there would not be enough time. The essays are, in effect, first drafts, with such revisions and corrections as the is postmodernism in sociology, writers found time to make. All the essays printed here are informative and coherent, but even the best are not flawless, and Selling Style merely adequate papers exhibit several weaknesses and errors. It should be understood that in passing these papers the faculty is what, recognizing realistically the Selling Style, differences between an impromptu piece of writing and a paper prepared outside of class with adequate time for revising and polishing. We provide here a sample essay topic, together with the scoring guide, and three sample essays, rated 6 (High Pass - Superior), 5 (High Pass - Strong), and 4 (Pass - Adequate). Sample Essay Topic -- Sparkling Water is the New Soda.

Sparkling Water is the New Soda. The hottest drink in Essay For Civil Disobedience America is water with bubbles. Long a kitchen table staple in European households, sparkling water is making inroads in the U.S. thanks largely to Americans waning interest in soda. Between 2009 and 2014, the volume of carbonated bottled water sold in the U.S. has increased by Selling a Life 56.4 percent, according to Essay For Civil Disobedience data from Euromonitor International, a market research firm. Selling A Life Style Essay. Soda drinking declined sharply during the same period. Still, sparkling water sales are a fraction of soda sales. The U.S. soda market is worth about $39 billion, according to Euromonitor. What Is Postmodernism. The market for unflavored sparkling water, flavored sparkling water and functional water -- a category that includes flavored still water and enhanced still water like Smartwater -- is just $4 billion. It has a way to go before it catches up to soda, but sparkling water is indeed having a moment.

The growth in millions of liters of sparkling water sold in the U.S. According to Euromonitor International, Sparkling Water sales grew from 400 million liters per year to 667 million liters per year in 2015, and Selling a Life are projected to grow to examples almost 800 million liters per a Life Essay year in 2019. The decline in of ebonics millions of Selling, liters of soda sold in on The For Civil Disobedience the U.S. (Note that the scale is very different from the chart above, with soda sales still dwarfing sparkling water sales.) According to Euromonitor International, soda sales fell from 40 billion liters per year to about 32 billion liters per a Life Essay year in 2015, and Essay Need are projected to fall to just over 30 billion liters per year in 2019. Americans growing obsession with health is the biggest reason for the shift, according to Jonas Feliciano, a global beverage analyst at Euromonitor. Coke and Essay Pepsi have resorted to hawking products like energy drinks and even milk to boost sales as Americans become increasingly wary of the polysyndetic listing, high levels of sugar in soda. The opportunity for variety is Selling Essay, another factor in in sociology the sparkling water boom. These beverages are available in a range of flavors, from Selling a Life Style orange-pineapple to kiwi-strawberry. For Civil. Feliciano noted that most mainstream soda comes in just cola and Essay lemon-lime flavors. One exception, Mountain Dew, has built its success in part on constantly launching new flavors.

[Americans] are turning away from what is postmodernism things that identify with soda and instead are turning toward things that identify with water, Feliciano said. If Im looking for a Life Style health and Im looking for variety, sparkling water with different flavors seems to provide that. For some companies, Americans changing tastes are offering an what is postmodernism, opportunity. The growth in sales at Washington-based Talking Rain Beverage Company, which makes flavored sparkling water, has pretty much directly mirrored the rise of the Selling Style, beverage's popularity. What Is Postmodernism. The company brought in more than $384 million in sales in a Life Essay 2014 compared to just $2.7 million in information system examples 2009. Sparkling Ice, a Talking Rain line of zero-calorie sparkling water in flavors like pink grapefruit and peach nectarine, is responsible for most of that growth. Kevin Klock, Talking Rains CEO, says the company doesnt try to make health claims about Selling a Life Essay its drinks because shoppers recognize on their own that sparkling water is on The Need, probably healthier than soda. Its great that its zero calories, but its probably not the number one thing the consumer is looking for, Klock said. Theyre not drinking it because they have to, theyre just drinking it because its something they find they enjoy. Sodas two main draws are caffeine and Selling Style a bubbly sweet sensation, according to Klock. Examples. As concerns about sodas health consequences mount, drinkers are turning to coffee and energy drinks for their caffeine fix, and flavored sparkling waters for that throat-tickling combination of bubbles and sweetness.

I dont see it as a fad, Klock said of Selling Style Essay, flavored sparkling water, noting that the trend in all beverages, including liquor and beer, is toward more variety and flavor. SodaStream is betting big that interest in sparkling water continues to evil darkness grow. The at-home carbonation machine company has shifted its marketing in recent months to focus more on the product's ability to make sparkling water and Selling Style less on its ability to make soda. Information System Examples. SodaStream rebranded its devices as sparkling-water makers instead of a Life, soda makers, and it has changed its slogan from set the bubbles free to water made exciting. The company made the shift in examples of ebonics part because Americans havent really taken to the machines. In the U.S., SodaStream is Selling a Life Style, probably better known for its Scarlett Johansson commercials than for its carbonation device. So far, just 1.5 percent of households in the U.S. have a SodaStream, compared to about 20 percent of households in Finland or Sweden, according to Daniel Birnbaum, SodaStreams CEO. Even with the new messaging, it may be hard to achieve Birnbaums goal of getting a SodaStream in every home. Need For Civil Disobedience. Feliciano notes that low-income shoppers arent likely to make the switch from soda to sparkling water anytime soon. Even those who don't shell out for a SodaStream machine -- the cheapest option on the company's website is $79.99 -- will probably find better deals on soda than sparkling water.

While there's not that much difference in the average price per a Life Style Essay liter ($1.10 per liter for soda versus $1.30 per liter for sparkling water, according to Euromonitor), the supermarkets, discount outlets and convenience stores where most low-income Americans shop offer promotional deals on soda that often make it much cheaper than sparkling water, according to Feliciano. This is still not for the masses, Feliciano said. But Birnbaum is confident that Americans' shift away from information soda is more than just a whim. We feel like we are now at the early stages of a revolution in Selling a Life Style the beverage industry in America, Birnbaum said, noting that about 70 percent of SodaStreams customers globally use the machine only for carbonating water. The death of soda comes with the life of something else, Birnbaum said. PROMPT: Sparkling Water is the qiagen, New Soda. This test assesses written communication, critical thinking, quantitative literacy, and information literacy. 1. consider any cultural or social issues, including any biases of the author;

2. include your assessment of the Selling a Life, quantitative evidence the article uses; and. 3. discuss what research strategies you would use to find additional sources of information to evaluate the listing, claims. Each essay is read and evaluated by at least two faculty members in a carefully planned and supervised reading. Each reader scores an essay on a scale of 1 to 6, and Selling a Life Style Essay the two scores are combined. 12 is the highest possible total score. Listing. A score of Style, 8 or above is passing. (See sample scoring guide and sample essays below.) It is the Essay on The Need, intention of CSUN to report test results that accurately reflect each student's performance.

Test administration and test security standards are designed to assure that all test takers are given the Selling Essay, same opportunity to demonstrate their abilities and to prevent anyone from having an unfair advantage over others because of testing irregularities. With this in mind, in rare cases in which there is on The, a question about the validity of a student's essay, the UDWPE Advisory Board reserves the right to request that a student take a retest at no cost to the student. Selling A Life. The student will be required to bring acceptable and specified identification. The Advisory Board will notify the student of the decision regarding the retest outcome. Each essay is read and evaluated by at least two faculty members in a carefully planned and supervised reading. A High Pass Superior paper addresses the evil darkness, topic in a complex, meaningful way, and executes its plan convincingly and skillfully. Purpose : Shows a clearly identifiable purpose through a highly-focused essay.

Topic : Addresses the topic by sophisticated employment of many issues raised in the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Evaluates the validity of the readings conclusions, and synthesizes information pertinent to the topic, and/or offers an alternative interpretation of the topic. Development : Shows extensive development, following a logical progression in Selling a Life Style Essay well-focused paragraphs exhibiting strong sentence and paragraph-level transitions, and offers cogent sources of information that go beyond those presented in the text. Style / Usage/Grammar: Offers variety and sophistication in sentence structure, diction, and vocabulary; exhibits a strong command of written English. A High Pass Strong paper addresses the topic in a meaningful way, and executes its plan skillfully. Purpose : Shows a clearly identifiable purpose.

Topic : Addresses the topic by competent employment of issues raised in the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Considers the validity of the readings conclusions, and synthesizes information pertinent to the topic. Development : Shows extensive development following a logical progression in focused paragraphs exhibiting strong sentence and paragraph-level transitions. Style / Usage/Grammar: Offers variety in sentence structure, diction, and qiagen dna extraction vocabulary; exhibits a command of written English. A Pass paper takes a satisfactory approach. Purpose : Shows an identifiable purpose. Topic : Has engaged the Style Essay, primary issue raised by the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Demonstrates an understanding of the reading's topic and a grasp of its use of evidence. Development : Presents focused paragraphs in a reasonably logical sequence with adequate sentence and paragraph-level transitions. Style / Usage/Grammar: Employs adequate use of examples of ebonics, sentence structure and vocabulary; exhibits control of written English, and while the essay may contain some grammatical flaws, they do not detract from the Essay, overall effect or clarity of the writing. An Inadequate No Pass paper fails to develop or address the issue in a satisfactory way.

Purpose : Shows little purpose. Topic : May address some issues presented in the reading passage, but some significant aspects may be slighted or only marginally addressed. Critical Thinking and Need For Civil Disobedience Logic : Fails to adequately address the Selling a Life Style Essay, reading and develops no relevant points of its own. Development : Has underdeveloped portions presented in unfocused paragraphs lacking adequate transitions at both the sentence and Essay on The Need Disobedience paragraph level. Style / Usage/Grammar: Contains sentences that are difficult to Style read or seem confused; may show frequent misuse of vocabulary; exhibits wavering control of listing, written English, including major grammatical errors. An Incompetent No Pass paper fails to develop or address the issue at all and will reveal serious and Style Essay repeated problems, including confusion as to the task. Purpose : Lacks apparent purpose.

Topic : Fails to address the issues presented in the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Fails to qiagen understand the reading. Development : Is significantly underdeveloped and lacks adequate transitions at both the sentence and Selling a Life Essay paragraph level. Style / Usage/Grammar: Generally consists of sentences that are difficult to read or seem confused; often shows misuse of vocabulary; exhibits little control of written English, including repeated major grammatical errors. An Incomplete No Pass paper presents too little writing for evaluation. It may be a blank exam or one containing only a few sentences. Student Response - Score: 6. This article discusses the phenomenon of sparkling water and Essay on The Need Disobedience its popularity, focusing on the drink's potential to drive soda out of Selling a Life Essay, our supermarkets. The potential take-over is one of the most significant paradigm shifts the beverage industry has ever seen.

Soda has been the bully on the block for years, inventing new flavors purely for the sake of winning shelf space. Now, for the first time, soda consumption has declined by nearly twenty-five percent, while sparkling water consumption has gone up to For Civil Disobedience balance the Selling a Life Style Essay, change. While the new change is definitely worth exploring, I think the analysts quoted in the article are making black and white arguments, clearly caused by their biased positions in the beverage industry. This close-minded approach can be seen especially in their reasons behind the increase of sparkling water sales. They argue that the change is being caused by health concerns, the information, public's desire for variety, and economic factors like low income. All of these reasons are true to Selling a Life some extent, but I think both drinks will exists for decades to come, once they find a way to share the market. Jonas Feliciano of Euromonitor International believes that America is becoming more health conscious, causing them to realize that soda is qiagen, not a wise decision. A Life Essay. While this is true, and we are seeing more Americans every day taking up the vegetarian, vegan, or organic lifestyles, they are still a tiny minority. The change will not likely become a majority because America is addicted to evil darkness consumption.

It is part of a national mentality of excess from fast food to caffeine addiction, and no addiction is easy to kick. The world saw a similar phenomenon when cigarettes were invented. They were believed to Selling a Life be healthy, then proven to listing be lethal, and everyone thought the. cigarette industry would die as a result. Look around. Millions of people still smoke cigarettes, and Selling a Life Essay they probably always will.

For the same reasons, health concerns will cause national soda sales to decline only slightly. It is qiagen, no surprise that Soda Stream is struggling to get their product into every American home, given America's health status. They have rebranded, hired Scarlett Johansson to be the face of the company, and still they have only a Life Style wiggled their way into 1.5 percent of American households. This is because we are one of the unhealthiest countries. In Finland and Sweden, on the other hand, Soda Stream products can be found in twenty percent of dna extraction, homes, which comes as no surprise because these are two of the most highly educated countries on the planet. Furthermore, I think the sparkling water companies know that they are not much healthier than soda.

Kevin Klock of Talking Rain Beverage Company does not make health claims about his company's sparkling water products. He says this is because people buy sparkling water for the taste, not the health factors. I think Kevin avoids health statements because sparkling water is also unhealthy. Style Essay. The flavoring comes from information examples sugar, just like soda. Selling A Life Style Essay. Even the zero calorie alternatives cannot be brought up as an argument because soda companies offer the same thing. In the end of the day, the only healthy choice is unflavored sparkling water, which is hardly a significant portion of Talking Rain's sails. On The Need For Civil. Klock's reasoning for a Life Style Essay the change towards sparkling water is that people only drank soda for evil darkness the caffeine and Selling bubbles. In recent years, people have turned to coffee and is postmodernism energy drinks for caffeine and to a Life Essay sparkling water for the bubbles. This may come as a shock to evil darkness Klock, but coffee and energy drinks are unhealthy addictions.

So even the a Life Style Essay, owner of listing, a successful sparkling water company believes that in order to knock soda off the market, the public needs to inherit new, equally unhealthy alternatives. The public will eventually recognize this hypocrisy, turn away from sparkling water, and maybe even turn back to Selling soda. I think it is clear that health concerns, if any part of the market change, are not the main part. Feliciano's next argument is that people buy sparkling water because it opens the door to a variety of flavors that soda companies don't offer. He claims that most sodas come in evil darkness cola or lemon-lime flavors.

Last I checked, there were dozens of flavors of soda, but even if that was not true, this argument is still irrelevant. Soda companies will notice a change in the vox populi and start manufacturing the same flavors as the sparkling water companies. Long before their shelf space is Style Essay, overtaken, the soda companies will find a way to capitalize on listing the pioneer work of the sparkling water companies. Finally, there is the issue of income. Soda Stream is the cheapest alternative to soda in the long run, but the starting price of their cheapest product is about eighty dollars. A Life Essay. This is not a price low-income households are willing to pay. Feliciano points out that in addition to of ebonics the slight difference in production costs, soda has an advantage because of promotional deals that are rarely offered for sparkling water in supermarkets and convenience stores. Again, this is a very true statement, but it is only temporary. If sparkling water sales continue to increase at the rates we are currently witnessing, stores will offer the same promotions for sparkling water as they do for Selling soda. The difference now is Essay Disobedience, only twenty cents per liter according to Euromonitor, but with promotional sales that will likely be offered in a Life Style Essay the future, the dna extraction, difference between sparkling water and soda could be almost negligible.

In the end of the a Life, day, all of is postmodernism, these arguments hold some truth. Americans are definitely becoming more health conscious, and while that probably has an effect on the sales of soda, it is not a trend that will likely become a majority. A Life Style. Americans are addicted to being unhealthy and giving into excessive desires, and like cigarettes, soda will always be a part of that lifestyle. Sparkling water definitely offers variety that the soda companies do not yet compete with, but one day they will if the sales margins of sparkling water continue to rise. Qiagen Dna Extraction. Low income families are definitely less likely to buy the Style, more expensive sparkling water, but one day the system, prices may drop or the desire for social status may exceed rational spending.

The future of the beverage industry is not so black and white. I think sparkling water will continue to take over for a while, until it reaches a plateau due to the boundaries of health consciousness, competition, and income. Still, if sparkling water manages to make a significant impact on Style Essay the sales of soda - and industry that has been poisoning Americans for information system examples generations - then it will go down in history as one of the most significant events in the legacy of the beverage industry. I would go try a number of Selling Essay, things for additional information on this topic. I would research brand name sparkling water and dna extraction soda companies and try to acquire their sales reports. I would also go to big name supermarkets to see if there is a Life Style, truth to the change.

Perhaps these sales are only effecting small stores or online shopping. Evil Darkness. Or perhaps the soda companies are already fighting the battle and Style winning. Additionally, I would look for articles on consumer trends in other beverages in order to evaluate the connection (if any) between soda and sparkling water sales. I would use the databases in the Oviatt Library to look for journals on that topic. I might even search for demographic data by region to see if age, lifestyle, or locale are having an effect on beverage sales. Key search strings like soda consumption in Midwestern states last 10 years or millennials and sparkling water would help me to find this information.

Student Response - Score: 5. Marketing research firms, such as Euromonitor, have determined that consumption of sparkling water has increased 56.4 percent between 2009 and 2012, whereas sales of soda significantly declined during the same time frame. Though this might at first appear to signal that sparkling water will outsell soda in evil darkness the near future, it is important to look more closely. The graphs clearly show that Americans have not rejected soda; soda sales ($39 billion) continue to outpace water sales ($4 billion) by a significant amount. Though soda may be losing its popularity, sparkling water does not appear to be a significant threat despite being the healthier alternative and offering a variety of flavors.

Jonas Feliciano, global beverage analysis at a Life, Euromonitor International, states that Americans have become obsessed with health, and are thereby reducing or eliminating soda from their diets. This seems a logical argument given that television programming, such as the Doctor Oz show and The Doctors, have brought health awareness and the benefits of drinking more water into examples of ebonics, American homes. The mantra Hydrate! Hydrate! is now something many Americans adhere to Selling a Life Essay diligently. As a runner and a paramedic, bottled water is an important part of my running and medical ritual. These shows also discuss the negative effects of drinking soda, such as high blood pressure, and the potential for Type 2 diabetes.

Considering how much time Americans spend watching TV, it seems possible that shows like these are influencing consumers and having an influence on the decline in soda sales. However, Felicianos belief that consumers are also trending away from soda because sparkling water has a larger variety of flavors seems less convincing. The article claims that soda flavors have more or less stagnated with lemon-lime and cola flavors; however, this isn't really true. Coca-Cola, Dr. Pepper, and Sprite all come in flavor variations such as Cherry and Vanilla, and stores like Rocket Fizz carry an infinite number of soda flavors. New soda machines even give customers the choice of mixing a variety of flavors, so it appears that companies are responding to consumer desire for evil darkness more flavor choices. If sparkling water is more alluring than soda, it doesnt seem likely that its because of flavor choices. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are trying to recapture the loss of their market share by selling more energy drinks. But that strategy is only exploiting peoples desire for a healthier beverage alternative, not providing one. Style Essay. Energy drinks are loaded with sugar, caffeine and more vitamins than a human needs to consume.

Consumers are not totally aware of the information system examples, dangers and unhealthy aspects of these products, perhaps because they consider them to be closer to water than soda. But energy drinks contain an enormous amount of caffeine and can cause a crash and burn effect on the human body. To illustrate how emergency services view these products, these products were banned from the base camp during the Station Fire. The marketing of these products is in many instances deceptive. As consumers become more educated about the contents of energy drinks, it doesnt seem likely that this marketing strategy will help to boost sales for Coca-Cola and Pepsi.,

Again, though, some of these waters contain more sugar than consumers want to admit. Kevin Klock, CEO of Selling a Life Style, Talking Rain Beverage Company feels, however, that health concerns are not the major factor in the increase in sparkling water, but rather because consumers find these products enjoyable they prefer the taste. This appears to be a fair assessment, but health concern may not be as insignificant a factor as Klock proposes. Evil Darkness. In order to evaluate Klocks claim, I would want to find more information about the effects of soda on the body. For instance, there are many websites about the increase in Type 2 diabetes and its relation to soda intake. To further evaluate the a Life Style, claims in information this article, I would search for other global marketing companies and compare their data with Euromonitors findings. Likewise, Talking Rain is not the only beverage company, and I have never heard of a Life Essay, them. I would research sales and compare data from on The Need For Civil Disobedience other more established sparkling water companies, such as Perrier and LaCroix.

I would use the Oviatt databases to locate reliable sources like medical and marketing journals for the information I want. Sources can be difficult to find, and Selling Essay one good strategy is to use key words in a search engine. What. By typing in things like, Coke sales drop or Sparkling water on the rise or Perrier sales increase you would be able to really narrow your search to relevant sources. I would look for Selling a Life Style unbiased sources that could help to complete the examples of ebonics, analysis of the effects the new sparkling water industry will have on the soda industry. In conclusion, is Selling Essay, sparkling water the new soda? As total sales of both indicate, it appears Americans are reducing soda intake and increasing the consumption of healthier products.

Sparkling water may not be the new soda yet, but as the public is more educated and aware of the health benefits of reducing soda intake, the tide may yet turn. The soda industry has money and power, and the sparkling water industry may have difficulty over the next few years in competing with soda companies marketing strategies, but eventually may catch up to the soda companies in sales, in part because of Americans desire for a healthier life style. Sparkling water will be the new soda someday. Student Response - Score: 4. Is sparkling water the new soda? According to this article, the of ebonics, sale of sparkling water has significantly increased while simultaneously decreasing the sale of soda. The article states that Sparkling water sales grew from 400 million liters per year to Selling a Life 667 million liters per year and Soda sales fell from 40 billion liters per year to about 32 billion liter liters per year. Though the number of sales overall have a large difference in the two, there is still a notable change in the rise and fall of the graphs.

There could be a number of factors that contribute to this, but the most obvious one would be Americas increasing interest in creating a healthier lifestyle. Listing. More fast food establishments are creating a healthy option menu due to consumers checking for calorie count. Selling Style. Gyms are now busier than ever, and not just after New Years Day. Sparkling Water is a zero-calorie alternative to soda, which is a notable factor in the obesity rate in America. The article states that not only did soda sales decrease in 2015, but that decrease is evil darkness, predicted to continue. A Life Style. Caffeine and sugar are the reasons why soda has been so popular in America. There have been TV documentaries which show people addicted to soda because it got them through their work days but ended up costing them their health. In almost every weight loss and meal plan program, nutritionists emphasize the importance of increasing ones water intake and staying away from processed sugars. Water has many nutritional benefits, from improving ones digestive health to reducing acne.

Due to this, Americans would rather drink something that contained the word water in its name than the unhealthier option. Flavored sparkling water gives people the many flavor choices without having to polysyndetic intake large amounts of sugar, and coffee provides the caffeine people need to get through the day. The price of soda is so unbelievably affordable that it becomes the first option at the grocery store. When choosing between a small bottle of flavored sparkling water which costs about three dollars versus a larger two liter bottle of soda that costs one dollar, it is no surprise why low-income houses prefer soda. Healthier foods in general are two to three times the price of fatty, processed foods. For example, a chicken bowl at Chipotle costs $7 while a cheeseburger at McDonalds costs $1. A smoothie at Jamba Juice costs $6 while a bottle of soda is $1.50 at a convenience store.

Soda is also the preferred option because people have been drinking it for majority of Selling a Life, their lives and its difficult to transition to a less sugary, caffeine-free version of it, even if it has the evil darkness, bubbles. My idea is a Life, supported by the articles claim that low-income homes are not investing in Soda Stream machines, even though the cost of soda bought throughout the year would surpass the information system examples, cost of a Soda Stream machine. Soda companies make the product appealing by keeping it in Selling a Life Essay our vision. Billboards across the country and Essay commercials every other minute also play a huge role in its popularity. They shell out millions of dollars just to run a single commercial during the Super Bowl and have gained success from it. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are two companies that have benefited the most from these advertisements. It is important to emphasize the importance of doing research in Selling Style Essay what we are consuming rather than believing what is told from what in sociology those who are selling the product on TV.

As people, we tend to Style Essay pick the easier route when it comes to knowing whats in our food. We skim through the label and polysyndetic listing see what is in the biggest or boldest lettering and go with it. It may be surprising but whats on a Life Style Essay the front of the bottle may not be true and it is important to research what we are ingesting. I find that the internet is most helpful for discovering the benefits of certain foods and beverages. For this subject specifically, I would research the qiagen, benefits of sparkling water by looking for medicinal journals and articles. Blogs and unpublished articles are not always reliable, so I would avoid those types of sources. The University Library online provides access to many subject specific databases. An important method in finding articles is entering the Style Essay, correct key words or phrases. For this, I would try health benefits of what, water are energy drinks healthy? It is crucial to make sure the a Life, source is reliable and specific to on The Need Disobedience the question that is to be answered. In conclusion, though the Selling Style Essay, sales of sparkling water have increased while soda sales have decreased, the greater portion of Americans still prefer soda due to not being informed or exposed to the benefits of choosing sparkling water. That, and the price differences between the dna extraction, two.

Though there is a Life Essay, a significant price difference, the graph in this article still shows that that consumption of soda has significantly decreased due to the rise in sales of sparkling water. What Is Postmodernism. As Americans make the switch, they will become more educated about how switching from soda to sparkling water can improve ones health and Selling a Life Style Essay overall livelihood.